Government of Ontario
The Government of Ontario, formally Her Majesty's Government of Ontario, is the provincial government of the province of Ontario, Canada. Its powers and structure are set out in the Constitution Act, 1867; the government includes the cabinet of the day, selected from members of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, the non-political civil service staff within each provincial department or agency. The civil service that manages and delivers government policies and services is called the Ontario Public Service; the province of Ontario is governed by a unicameral legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, which operates in the Westminster system of government. The province's head of government, known as the Premier of Ontario, is appointed by the Lieutenant Governor; the Premier, invariably the leader of a political party represented in the Legislative Assembly, selects members of the Cabinet, who are appointed by the Lieutenant Governor. The Premier and Cabinet, who are responsible for the overall direction and functioning of the government, are entitled to remain in office so long as it maintains the confidence of the elected Legislative Assembly.
The Premier has been the leader of the party holding the largest number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, but this is not a constitutional requirement. The 26th and current Premier of Ontario is Doug Ford of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party after the PCs won a majority of seats in 2018. Owing to the location of the Ontario Legislative Building on the grounds of Queen's Park, the Ontario government is referred to by the metonym "Queen's Park"; the functions of the Sovereign, Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, known in Ontario as the Queen in Right of Ontario, are exercised by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. The Lieutenant Governor is appointed by the Governor General of Canada on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada; the executive powers in the province lie with the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, but these are exercised always on the advice of the Premier of Ontario and the rest of the Executive Council of Ontario. The legislative powers in the province lie with the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
The premier and other ministers in the Cabinet are members of, responsible to, the Legislative Assembly. For the 2013-2014 fiscal year, the Ontario government planned to spend C$127,600,000,000, including a deficit of C$11,700,000,000; as of March 31, 2014, the total Ontario debt stood at $295.80 billion. The Ontario Public Service was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Maclean's newsmagazine in 2009, again in 2010; the Ontario Public Service was named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers by the Toronto Star in 2009, was named one of "Canada's Best Diversity Employers" in 2009 by Bank of Montreal Association of Management and Professional Crown Employees of Ontario Cabinet of Ontario Family Responsibility Office Ontario general election, 2007 Ontario Public Service Employees Union Performance indicator Politics of Ontario Government of Ontario official website
Guild Park and Gardens
Guild Park and Gardens is a public park in the Scarborough district of Toronto, Canada. The park was the site of an artist colony and is notable for its collection of relics saved from the demolition of buildings in downtown Toronto arranged akin to ancient ruins. Located on the Scarborough Bluffs, Guild Park and Gardens has an outdoor Greek stage and a 19th-century log cabin among the oldest in Toronto; the principal building in the park is a former inn and estate mansion. The park is located on Guildwood Parkway, east of Eglinton Avenue Kingston Road, its 50 acres is accessed from the parking lots of the Guild Inn itself and from a parking lot for the Lake Ontario access trail, just to the east. The park is forested. South of the Inn is a large area of open space. To the east, a ravine leads down from Guildwood Parkway to Lake Ontario. Along the bluffs, an east–west trail connects to Livingston Road to the west, with several points for viewing the lake; the edges of the bluffs are roped off for safety, as the bluffs are tall and composed of soft, unstable material.
The park is managed by Toronto Parks, on land, the property of the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. It was known as Guildwood Park, it became a park after the Guild Inn and its property was bought by Metropolitan Toronto and the Government of Ontario in 1978 from Rosa Hewetson Clark and Spencer Clark. The Inn continued to operate until it closed in 2001, it was managed by various hotel management companies, including Delta Hotels, Canadian National Railway and others. It was first the "Ranelagh Park" estate of Col. Harold Bickford it became the China Mission Seminary, the "Cliff Acres" estate of Richard Look, before it was bought in 1932 by Rosa Hewetson, along with her husband Spencer Clark converted it to "The Guild of all Arts" artists' colony and inn. During World War II and for a period afterward, it was used by the Government of Canada. From the 1990s onwards, the property was the subject of several redevelopment proposals, which failed or were rejected; the City of Toronto developed a management plan in 2014 for gardens.
The plan intends to preserve the park, protect the forest and lakeshore, maintain the heritage buildings. The inn was restored, part of a new facility for weddings and gatherings. One new wing is a banquet hall. Another new wing includes meeting rooms. In the late 1950s and older buildings in downtown Toronto were being torn down and replaced. Many of these had been standing for many decades and had been well-constructed, with stonework of a high quality and were considered historic to many. A movement to support the preservation of older buildings began in response to the amount of demolition, but it would not be until the 1970s that governments would pass laws that protected buildings considered to have'heritage' status. Rosa and Spencer Clark responded to this wholesale demolition by taking away remnants of the buildings from the demolition sites, they enlisted engineers and hired stonemason Arthur Hibberd, erected the remnants in the Guild gardens. Remnants of over 60 buildings from Toronto and elsewhere in Ontario exist in the Guild gardens, the front gate of the Guild Inn, the front gate of the Guildwood Village neighbourhood.
To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Guild Inn, the Clarks built an open-air theatre from remnants of the Bank of Toronto building, at a cost of CA$300,000 to Spencer Clark. The Bank of Toronto building had stood at Bay and King Streets in downtown Toronto since 1912, until 1966, when the Toronto–Dominion Centre was built. Eight marble columns, plus Corinthian capitals and arches were repurposed along with a concrete stage and steps to form an open-air theatre under the supervision of Hibberd. There were plans to build an amphitheatre in front of the stage, but it has not been built. Seating is either on the grass; the theatre hosted its first performance in 1984 of folk music by the Good Time Rolling Folk Music Medicine Show. From 1998 to 2003, The Gardens and Greek Theatre at The Guild Inn was home to Cliffhanger Productions theatre company, which specialized in adaptations of world mythology for family audiences; the Greek Stage at Guild Park hosts Guild Festival Theatre's annual productions of classic stage plays.
Eaton Co. Ltd College Street store was saved and taken to the Guild in 1976. Various other pieces of stone and terra-cotta were taken to the Guild by Clark. However, they remain un-erected. Source: Lidgold To the west of the Guild Inn property exists an 1800s-era log cabin, known as the Osterhout Log Cabin; the actual date of its construction is unknown. In 1795, surveyor Augustus Jones and his surveying team camped in the area and could have built a log cabin on the property while he surveyed Scarborough. However, Jones' accounts stated. In 1805, the property was granted to William Osterhout, but there is no record of a log cabin during the time Osterhout lived on the property; the property was owned by Alexander McDonnell, Duncan Cameron, John Ewart. James Humphreys bought the property in 1845, his son and family are the first recorded residents in the cabin, in 1861; the property was bought by the Clarks in 1934. As part of the 1978 sale of the Guild property, the land around the cabin came under the administration of the Conservation Authority.
In 1980, Scarborough designated the cabin as the Osterhout Cabin, granted it protected heritage status. Some test pits were dug around the cabin in 1994 to determine its age. Artist Elizabeth Fraser Williamson used the cabin as a studio from 1970 to 1995
An art colony or artists' colony is a place where creative practitioners live and interact with one another. Artists are invited or selected through a formal process, for a residency from a few weeks to over a year. Beginning with the early 20th century models, such as MacDowell Colony and Yaddo, hundreds of modern-day artist colonies now offer the benefit of time and collaborative time away from the usual workaday world. Worldwide, the two primary organizations serving artist colonies and residential centres are Res Artis, based in Amsterdam, the Alliance of Artists Communities, based in Providence, Rhode Island; the Intra Asia Network, based in Taiwan, is a less formal body working to advance creative communities and exchanges throughout Asia. These consortia comprise most of the world's active artists' colonies; the art movement itself has only started to be investigated by scholars, with the chief historical studies consisting of Michael Jacobs's introductory The Good and Simple Life and Nina Lübbren's Artists’ Colonies in Europe 1870-1910.
Art colonies emerged as village movements in the 19th and early 20th century. It is estimated that between 1830 and 1914 some 3,000 professional artists participated in a mass movement away from urban centres into the countryside, residing for varying lengths of time in over eighty communities. There seem to have been three chief forms of these settlements, consisting of villages with transient and annually fluctuating populations of artists—mostly painters who visited for just a single summer season. In the latter villages, artists invariably built their own houses and studios. While artist colonies appeared across Europe, as well as in America and Australia, Lübbren has found that the majority of colonies were clustered in the Netherlands, Central Germany, France. Overall, artists of thirty-five different nationalities were represented throughout these colonies, with Americans and British forming the largest participating groups; this gave socialising a cosmopolitan flavour:'Russia, England, Germany, France and the United States were represented at our table, all as one large family, striving towards the same goal,' the painter Annie Goater penned in 1885 in an essay on her recent experiences at one French colony.
Villages can be classified according to the nationalities they attracted. Barbizon, Pont-Aven, Katwijk and Dachau drew artists from around the world and had a pronounced international flavour. Americans were always a major presence at Rijsoord, Egmond, Grèz-sur-Loing, St Ives. On the other hand, foreigners were rare at Sint-Martens-Latem, Nagybanya, Staithes and Willingshausen, while Skagen hosted Danes and a few other Scandinavians; some painters were renowned within artistic circles for settling down permanently in a single village, most notably Jean-François Millet at Barbizon, Robert Wylie at Pont-Aven, Otto Modersohn at Worpswede, Heinrich Otto at Willinghausen, Claude Monet at Giverny. They were not leaders, although these artists were respected and held a certain moral authority in their respective colonies. There were regular'colony hoppers' who moved about the art colonies of Europe in a nomadic fashion. Max Liebermann, for instance, painted at Barbizon, Etzenhausen and at least six short-lived Dutch colonies.
The greater number of early European art colonies were to be casualties of the First World War. Europe was no longer the same place politically and culturally, art colonies seemed a quaint anachronism in an abrasively modernist world. However, a small proportion did endure in one or another form, owe their continuing existence to cultural tourism; the colonies of Ahrenshoop, Fischerhude, Laren, Sint-Martens-Latem, Volendam and Worpswede not only still operate in a modest fashion, but run their own museums where, besides maintaining historic collections of work produced at the colony, they organise exhibition and lecture programs. If they have not fared as well, several former major colonies such as Concarneau and Newlyn are remembered via small yet significant collections of pictures held in regional museums. Other colonies succumbed during the late twentieth century to cultural entrepreneurs who have redeveloped villages in the effort to simulate, within certain kitsch parameters, the'authentic' appearance of the colony during its artistic heyday.
This is not always successful, with Giverny, Grèz-sur-Loing, Kronberg, Le Pouldu, Pont-Aven and Tervuren being among the most insensitively commercialised of the former art colonies. Some art colonies are organized and planned, while others arise because some artists like to congregate, finding fellowship and inspiration—and constructive competition—in the company of other artists; the American Academy in Rome, founded in 1894 as the American School of Architecture, which in the following year joine
Canadian Forces Base Borden RCAF Station Borden, is a Canadian Forces base located in Ontario. The historic birthplace of the Royal Canadian Air Force, CFB Borden is home to the largest training wing in the Canadian Armed Forces; the base is run by Canadian Forces Support Training Group and reports to the Canadian Defence Academy in Kingston. At the height of the First World War, the Borden Military Camp opened at a location on a glacial moraine west of Barrie in 1916 to train units for the Canadian Expeditionary Force, it was named for former Minister of Militia. In May 1916, the Barrie and Collingwood companies of the 157th Battalion, CEF, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel D. H. MacLaren, began construction of the camp. Camp Borden was selected in 1917 for a military aerodrome, becoming the first flying station of the Royal Flying Corps Canada. During the inter-war period, the aerodrome was used as the training location for the nascent Royal Canadian Air Force and was renamed RCAF Station Borden.
Camp Borden's training grounds were expanded in 1938 to house the Canadian Tank School. The Siskins were a RCAF aerobatic flying team, established in 1929 at Camp Borden. During the Second World War, both Camp Borden and RCAF Station Borden became the most important training facility in Canada, housing both army training and flight training, the latter under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan; the BCATP's No. 1 Service Flying Training School was located here until 1946. Relief landing fields were located at Edenvale. A third landing field, known locally as Leach's Field, was operated by Camp Borden from the 1920s to the 1950s; the L-shaped airstrip was rudimentary. It was used for touch-and-go flying. During the Cold War, Borden's importance as an RCAF facility in Ontario declined in favour of CFB Trenton, CFB Uplands and CFB North Bay. However, its use as an army facility stayed consistent until 1970 when a major reorganization of the combat arms' schools resulted in the transfer of the Infantry School and Armoured School to CFB Gagetown in New Brunswick.
On the other hand, numerous "purple" schools were established or expanded from existing service training establishments, including the Canadian Forces School of Administration and Logistics, the School of Aerospace Ordnance Engineering and the Canadian Forces Health Service Training Centre. The February 1, 1968 unification of the RCAF with the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army resulted in the creation of the Canadian Forces; the military facilities consisting of Camp Borden and RCAF Station Borden were grouped under a new name, Canadian Forces Base Borden. The aerodrome was closed in 1970 and the base saw use as a regular and reserve training facility for Canadian Forces Land Force Command, as well as hosting various land-based training courses for Canadian Forces Air Command. In a 1990s reorganization of the Canadian Forces following the end of the Cold War, CFB Borden's air force training facilities were grouped under the name 16 Wing Borden; the eight surviving Royal Flying Corps hangars at the base have been designated a National Historic Site of Canada.
The Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture and Recreation erected a plaque in 1976. Camp Borden was established during the First World War as a major training centre of Canadian Expeditionary Force battalions; the Camp was opened by Sir Sam Hughes, Minister of Militia and Defence, on July 11, 1916, after two months of intensive building. This military reserve, comprising over twenty square miles, was soon occupied by some 32,000 troops. Training facilities were expanded in 1917 with the institution of an air training programme under the Royal Flying Corps and the construction of the first Canadian military aerodrome, regarded as the finest military aviation camp in North America. Following the armistice Camp Borden continued as an important army and air force centre and became one of the largest armed forces bases in Canada. Although an air force training base, CFB Borden is now a training base for several elements of the Canadian Forces: 2 Canadian Air Division's primary lodger unit, 16 Wing referred to as 16 Wing Borden, consists of 16 Wing Headquarters and three schools: Canadian Forces School of Aerospace Technology and Engineering and Air Command Academy.
The Canadian Army's Regular Force and Primary Reserve army units use a number of training schools and large portions of the base's 22,300 acres training area for manoeuvres. In addition to these specific environmental element commands, CFB Borden houses a variety of other purple trades training facilities and headquarters within the Canadian Forces, including a fire-fighting school, Military Police school, a chaplaincy school, the Canadian Forces Recruiting Group, medical and language schools, supports local cadet and reserve units; the Toronto Police Service's Emergency Task Force trains there occasionally. CFB Borden hosts the Blackdown Cadet Training Centre, a facility established for training army cadets; this facility has hosted air cadets and sea cadets since 2003, when the Borden Air Cadet Summer Training Centre was closed. CFB Borden's residential area houses one regulation-sized golf course. Circled Pine Golf Course opened in 1952; the course is open to
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada Her Majesty's Government, is the federal administration of Canada. In Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or the Queen-in-Council. In both senses, the current construct was established at Confederation through the Constitution Act, 1867—as a federal constitutional monarchy, wherein the Canadian Crown acts as the core, or "the most basic building block", of its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy; the Crown is thus the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of the Canadian government. Further elements of governance are outlined in the rest of the Canadian Constitution, which includes written statutes, court rulings, unwritten conventions developed over centuries; the monarch is represented by the Governor General of Canada. The Queen's Privy Council for Canada is the body that advises the sovereign or viceroy on the exercise of executive power. However, in practice, that task is performed only by the Cabinet, a committee within the Privy Council composed of ministers of the Crown, who are drawn from and responsible to the elected House of Commons in parliament.
The Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the governor general after securing the confidence of the House of Commons. In Canadian English, the word government is used to refer both to the whole set of institutions that govern the country, to the current political leadership. In federal department press releases, the government has sometimes been referred to by the phrase Government. In late 2010, an informal instruction from the Office of the Prime Minister urged government departments to use in all department communications the term in place of Government of Canada; the same cabinet earlier directed its press department to use the phrase Canada's New Government. As per the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982, Canada is a constitutional monarchy, wherein the role of the reigning sovereign is both legal and practical, but not political; the Crown is regarded as a corporation sole, with the monarch, vested as she is with all powers of state, at the centre of a construct in which the power of the whole is shared by multiple institutions of government acting under the sovereign's authority.
The executive is thus formally called the Queen-in-Council, the legislature the Queen-in-Parliament, the courts as the Queen on the Bench. Royal Assent is required to enact laws and, as part of the Royal Prerogative, the royal sign-manual gives authority to letters patent and orders in council, though the authority for these acts stems from the Canadian populace and, within the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited; the Royal Prerogative includes summoning and dissolving parliament in order to call an election, extends to foreign affairs: the negotiation and ratification of treaties, international agreements, declarations of war. The person, monarch of Canada is the monarch of 15 other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, though, he or she reigns separately as King or Queen of Canada, an office, "truly Canadian" and "totally independent from that of the Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms".
On the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister, the sovereign appoints a federal viceregal representative—the Governor General of Canada —who, since 1947, is permitted to exercise all of the monarch's Royal Prerogative, though there are some duties which must be performed by, or bills that require assent by, the king or queen. The government is defined by the constitution as the Queen acting on the advice of her privy council. However, the Privy Council—consisting of former members of parliament, chief justices of the supreme court, other elder statesmen—rarely meets in full; as the stipulations of responsible government require that those who directly advise the monarch and governor general on how to exercise the Royal Prerogative be accountable to the elected House of Commons, the day-to-day operation of government is guided only by a sub-group of the Privy Council made up of individuals who hold seats in parliament. This body of senior ministers of the Crown is the Cabinet. One of the main duties of the Crown is to ensure that a democratic government is always in place, which means appointing a prime minister to thereafter head the Cabinet.
Thus, the governor general must appoint as prime minister the person who holds the confidence of the House of Commons. Should no party hold a majority in the commons, the leader of one party—either the one with the most seats or one supported by other parties—will be called by the governor general to form a minority government. Once sworn in by the viceroy, the prime minister holds office until he or she resigns or is removed by the governor general, after either a motion of no confidence or his or her party's defeat in a general election; the monarch and governor general follow the near-binding advice of
The Scarborough Bluffs known as The Bluffs, is an escarpment in the Scarborough district of Toronto, Canada. There are nine parks along the bluffs, with Bluffers Park being the only one with a beach. Forming much of the eastern portion of Toronto's waterfront, the Scarborough Bluffs stands above the shoreline of Lake Ontario. At its highest point, the escarpment rises 90 metres above the coastline and spans a length of 15 kilometres; the French gave the name "tall points on the shore, to the cliffs. In the 1788 Plan of Toronto by Alexander Aitken, the bluffs were known as the High Lands, they became known as the Scarborough Highlands in 1793 named after North Yorkshire. This name was chosen by Elizabeth Simcoe, the wife of the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe; the escarpment along Lake Ontario reminded Elizabeth Simcoe of the limestone cliffs in her hometown. In her diary, she wrote, "The shore is bold, has the appearance of chalk cliffs, but I believe they are only white sand.
They appeared so well that we talked of building a summer residence there and calling it Scarborough." The name was given to the entire township in 1796. In time, the cliffs became known as the Bluffs. A stylized version of The Bluffs was incorporated into the design of the flag of the former city of Scarborough; the Scarborough Bluffs extended further west along the coastline of Lake Ontario towards the Toronto Harbour, but extensive areas along the western fringe were leveled by the use of explosives for the implementation of industrial and some residential urban development. The existing formation has and continues to shrink decade after decade due to consistent and dramatic erosion; the Bluffs have become a community meeting place for people of all ages. It features various recreational hiking and walking trails, as well as picnic tables, fire pits, places to pitch a tent, parking lots, a restaurant, a large marina with a boating club; the Bluffs run 15 kilometres from the foot of Victoria Park Avenue in the west to the mouth of Highland Creek in the east, reaching as high as 90 metres — the equivalent of twenty-five storeys.
However, the escarpment continues westward inland, running between Kingston Road and Queen Street East, pausing over the Don Valley, continuing on the north side of Davenport Road. The escarpment forms part of the old shoreline of Glacial Lake Iroquois, formed after the last ice age, which left valuable geological records as the part of the escarpment by the lake eroded; the eroded alluvial deposits from the Bluffs settled westward to form the Toronto Islands. The Scarborough Bluffs have been eroding at a rapid rate since residences have been built along the lake bluff tops; the million-dollar views have been prime real estate since the 1940s. The desire for a beautiful lakeside view and an affluent lifestyle led to a real estate boom along the Bluffs—this resulted in a direct correlation of the accelerating rate of erosion; the eroding Bluffs have resulted in damaged private property and the need for public assets to be spend on repairs and corrective action. In summer 2008, chunks of the Bluffs had eroded to the point that one quarter of a cottage that the late actor and comedian Billy Van once owned, was left hanging on the cliff—the cottage was deemed a safety hazard by Toronto city officials as a result.
This is one of the many current and potential losses of properties, the case for remedial shoreline protection is clear. To combat erosion, boulders acting as armor and trees were placed at the base. However, to place these rocks and trees, a beach must be created to allow trucks to access the cliff base which would involve leveling parts of the Bluffs, such as the aforementioned Bluffer's Park; the Cathedral Bluffs, an impressive portion of the Bluffs, was the result of continued erosion.. To combat erosion and to make the area safe and more accessible, The Toronto Region Conservation Authority has created the Scarborough Waterfront Project which aims to revamp about 11 kilometers of Scarborough Bluff's shoreline; the Scarborough Bluffs have been a sought out destination for photographers and visitors to trek through. However due to erosion and flooding, this leads to dangerous conditions. Areas that appear to be stable can collapse. "In terms of the park areas or where people want to go right at the top of the Bluffs, it's safe as long as they stay on the appropriate side of the fence.
It's when they go on the wrong side of the fence that it causes issue". For those who ignore signage and enter restricted areas, fines of up to $5,000 will be handed out. A number of city parks are located along the bluffs from Victoria Park Avenue to Rouge River. Most are located on the top the bluffs, but some are located at the base along the shoreline with Lake Ontario. Development of parkland began with the Borough of Scarborough prior to 1960, while some remained in private hands. From 1960 to 1978 the parks were acquired by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority which developed into today's current parks. Outside of the parks, many sections of the bluffs are on private property. Bluffer's Park: only park along the Bluffs with direct access to the lake, it features man-made berms that provide views of both the bluffs and the lake.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry, it therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills and tools. Metalworking is a science, hobby and trade, its historical roots span cultures and millennia. Metalworking has evolved from the discovery of smelting various ores, producing malleable and ductile metal useful tools and adornments. Modern metalworking processes, though diverse and specialized, can be categorized as forming, cutting, or joining processes. Today's machine shop includes a number of machine tools capable of creating a precise, useful workpiece; the oldest archaeological evidence of copper mining and working was the discovery of a copper pendant in northern Iraq from 8,700 BCE. The earliest substantiated and dated evidence of metalworking in the Americas was the processing of copper in Wisconsin, near Lake Michigan.
Copper was hammered until brittle heated so it could be worked some more. This technology is dated to about 4000-5000 BCE; the oldest gold artifacts in the world come from the Bulgarian Varna Necropolis and date from 4450 BCE. Not all metal required fire to work it. Isaac Asimov speculated that gold was the "first metal", his reasoning is. In other words, gold, as rare as it is, is sometimes found in nature as the metal. There are a few other metals that sometimes occur natively, as a result of meteors. All other metals are found in ores, a mineral-bearing rock, that require heat or some other process to liberate the metal. Another feature of gold is that it is workable as it is found, meaning that no technology beyond a stone hammer and anvil to work the metal is needed; this is a result of gold's properties of ductility. The earliest tools were stone, bone and sinew, all of which sufficed to work gold. At some unknown point the connection between heat and the liberation of metals from rock became clear, rocks rich in copper and lead came into demand.
These ores were mined. Remnants of such ancient mines have been found all over Southwestern Asia. Metalworking was being carried out by the South Asian inhabitants of Mehrgarh between 7000–3300 BCE; the end of the beginning of metalworking occurs sometime around 6000 BCE when copper smelting became common in Southwestern Asia. Ancient civilisations knew of seven metals. Here they are arranged in order of their oxidation potential: Iron +0.44 V, Tin +0.14 V Lead +0.13 V Copper −0.34 V Mercury −0.79 V Silver −0.80 V Gold −1.50 V. The oxidation potential is important because it is one indicator of how bound to the ore the metal is to be; as can be seen, iron is higher than the other six metals while gold is lower than the six above it. Gold's low oxidation is one of the main reasons; these nuggets are pure gold and are workable as they are found. Copper ore, being abundant, tin ore became the next important players in the story of metalworking. Using heat to smelt copper from ore, a great deal of copper was produced.
It was used for simple tools. However, copper by itself was too soft for tools requiring stiffness. At some point tin was added into the molten copper and bronze was born. Bronze is an alloy of tin. Bronze was an important advance because it had the edge-durability and stiffness that pure copper lacked; until the advent of iron, bronze was the most advanced metal for weapons in common use. Outside Southwestern Asia, these same advances and materials were being discovered and used around the world. China and Great Britain jumped into the use of bronze with little time being devoted to copper. Japan began the use of bronze and iron simultaneously. In the Americas things were different. Although the peoples of the Americas knew of metals, it was not until the European colonisation that metalworking for tools and weapons became common. Jewelry and art were the principal uses of metals in the Americas prior to European influence. Around 2700 BCE, production of bronze was common in locales where the necessary materials could be assembled for smelting and working the metal.
Iron was beginning to be smelted and began its emergence as an important metal for tools and weapons. The period that followed became known as the Iron Age. By the historical periods of the Pharaohs in Egypt, the Vedic Kings in India, the Tribes of Israel, the Maya civilization in North America, among other ancient populations, precious metals began to have value attached to them. In some cases rules for ownership and trade were created and agreed upon by the respective peoples. By the above periods metalworkers were skilled at creating objects of adornment, religious artifacts, trade instruments of precious metals, as well as weaponry of ferrous metals and/or alloys; these skills were finely honed and well executed. The techniques were practiced by artisans, atharvavedic practitioners and other categories of metalworkers around the globe. For example, the granulation technique was employed by numerous ancient cultures before the historic record shows people traveled to far regions to share this process.
This and many other ancient techniques are still used by metalsmiths today. As time progressed metal objects became more common, more complex; the need to further acquire and work metals grew in importance