The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries called the Gunpowder Treason Plot or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby. The plan was to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament on 5 November 1605, as the prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands during which James's nine-year-old daughter, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state. Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed, his fellow plotters were John and Christopher Wright and Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. Fawkes, who had 10 years of military experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in the failed suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives.
The plot was revealed to the authorities in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on 26 October 1605. During a search of the House of Lords at about midnight on 4 November 1605, Fawkes was discovered guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder—enough to reduce the House of Lords to rubble—and arrested. Most of the conspirators fled from London as they learned of the plot's discovery, trying to enlist support along the way. Several made a stand against the pursuing Sheriff of his men at Holbeche House. At their trial on 27 January 1606, eight of the survivors, including Fawkes, were convicted and sentenced to be hanged and quartered. Details of the assassination attempt were known by the principal Jesuit of England, Father Henry Garnet. Although he was convicted of treason and sentenced to death, doubt has been cast on how much he knew of the plot; as its existence was revealed to him through confession, Garnet was prevented from informing the authorities by the absolute confidentiality of the confessional.
Although anti-Catholic legislation was introduced soon after the plot's discovery, many important and loyal Catholics retained high office during King James's reign. The thwarting of the Gunpowder Plot was commemorated for many years afterwards by special sermons and other public events such as the ringing of church bells, which have evolved into the Bonfire Night of today. Between 1533 and 1540, King Henry VIII took control of the English Church from Rome, the start of several decades of religious tension in England. English Catholics struggled in a society dominated by the newly separate and Protestant Church of England. Henry's daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, responded to the growing religious divide by introducing the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which required anyone appointed to a public or church office to swear allegiance to the monarch as head of the Church and state; the penalties for refusal were severe. Catholicism became marginalised, but despite the threat of torture or execution, priests continued to practise their faith in secret.
Queen Elizabeth and childless, steadfastly refused to name an heir. Many Catholics believed that her Catholic cousin, Queen of Scots, was the legitimate heir to the English throne, but she was executed for treason in 1587; the English Secretary of State, Robert Cecil, negotiated secretly with Mary's son and successor, King James VI of Scotland. In the months before Elizabeth's death on 24 March 1603, Cecil prepared the way for James to succeed her; some exiled Catholics favoured Philip II of Isabella, as Elizabeth's successor. More moderate Catholics looked to James's and Elizabeth's cousin Arbella Stuart, a woman thought to have Catholic sympathies; as Elizabeth's health deteriorated, the government detained those they considered to be the "principal papists", the Privy Council grew so worried that Arbella Stuart was moved closer to London to prevent her from being kidnapped by papists. Despite competing claims to the English throne, the transition of power following Elizabeth's death went smoothly.
James's succession was announced by a proclamation from Cecil on 24 March, celebrated. Leading papists, rather than causing trouble as anticipated, reacted to the news by offering their enthusiastic support for the new monarch. Jesuit priests, whose presence in England was punishable by death demonstrated their support for James, believed to embody "the natural order of things". James ordered a ceasefire in the conflict with Spain, though the two countries were still technically at war, King Philip III sent his envoy, Don Juan de Tassis, to congratulate James on his accession. In the following year both countries signed the Treaty of London. For decades, the English had lived under a monarch who refused to provide an heir, but James arrived with a family and a clear line of succession, his wife, Anne of Denmark, was the daughter of a king. Their eldest child, the nine-year-old Henry, was considered a handsome and confident boy, their two younger children and Charles, were proof that James was able to provide heirs to continue the Protestant monarchy.
James's attitude towards Catholics was more moderate than that of his predecessor even tolerant. He promised that he would not "persecute any that will be quiet and give an outward obedience to the law", believed that exile was a better solution than capital punishment: "I would be glad to have both their heads and their bodies separated from this whole island and transported beyond seas." Some Catholics believed that the martyrdom of James's m
Bassishaw is a ward in the City of London. This small ward is bounded on the east by Coleman Street ward, to the south by Cheap ward, to the north by Cripplegate ward, on the west by Aldersgate ward, it consisted only of Basinghall Street with the courts and avenues leading from it, but since a boundary review in 2003 includes streets further west, including Aldermanbury, Wood Street, and, to the north part of London Wall and St. Alphage Garden, it was the City's smallest ward. The ward is named for Basinghall, the mansion house of the Bassing family, who were prominent in the City beginning in the 13th century. King Henry III granted Adam de Basing "certain houses in Milk-street. John Leake's 1667 map of the City of London refers to the ward as "Basinghall ward". Located in this ward was a weekly cloth market, authorised by King Richard III; the coopers' guild hall was first founded in this ward in 1522, at The Swan, a public house, from 1547, a purpose-built hall accommodated the coopers. Their hall was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666 but rebuilt on the same site.
They rebuilt again in 1865, selling a part of the site to the City of London Corporation for the expansion of the Guildhall. This hall was destroyed by fire on the night of 29 December 1940; the masons' hall was constructed in 1463 in Mason's Avenue, a street which today forms part of the ward's southern boundary. Their hall was sold to the Corporation in 1865; the weavers and girdlers had their guild halls in the ward. The modern livery halls of the pewterers and brewers are located in Bassishaw. There were two churches in this small ward. St. Michael Bassishaw, dedicated to St. Michael, the archangel, founded in the 12th century. At that time, the rectorship was included in the gift of St. Bartholomew-the-Great, over time, it came to be associated with St. Pauls Cathedral itself; the church was destroyed in the Great Fire of London, rebuilt in 1679. It was united with St. Lawrence Jewry in 1897. St. Alphage London Wall damaged in the Great Fire but not rebuilt until 1777, was demolished in 1924.
The ward contains a large part of the Guildhall buildings, the main administrative centre for the City of London Corporation. The Guildhall Art Gallery and Guildhall Library both lie in Bassishaw, as part of the Guildhall buildings; the Clockmakers' Museum and Library are located at the Guildhall Library. In the ward is Wood Street police station, the headquarters of the City of London Police. There is a small police museum at this station. There is a small museum at the Chartered Insurance Institute at 20 Aldermanbury. Bassishaw is one of 25 wards in the City of London, each electing an alderman to the Court of Aldermen and commoners to the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation. Only electors who are Freemen of the City of London are eligible to stand for election. St Mary Aldermanbury A History of Bassishaw Ward c.1200 - c.1600 ebookpartnership.com Map of Early Modern London: Basinghall Ward - Historical Map and Encyclopedia of Shakespeare's London
A great hall is the main room of a royal palace, nobleman's castle or a large manor house or hall house in the Middle Ages, continued to be built in the country houses of the 16th and early 17th centuries, although by the family used the great chamber for eating and relaxing. At that time the word "great" meant big, had not acquired its modern connotations of excellence. In the medieval period the room would have been referred to as the "hall", unless the building had a secondary hall, but the term "great hall" has been predominant for surviving rooms of this type for several centuries, to distinguish them from the different type of hall found in post-medieval houses. Great halls were found in France and Scotland, but similar rooms were found in some other European countries. A typical great hall was a rectangular room between one and a half and three times as long as it was wide, higher than it was wide, it was entered through a screens passage at one end, had windows on one of the long sides including a large bay window.
There was a minstrels' gallery above the screens passage. At the other end of the hall was the dais where the high table was situated; the lord's family's more private rooms lay beyond the dais end of the hall, the kitchen and pantry were on the opposite side of the screens passage. Royal and noble residences had few living rooms until late in the Middle Ages, a great hall was a multifunctional room, it was used for receiving guests and it was the place where the household would dine together, including the lord of the house, his gentleman attendants and at least some of the servants. At night some members of the household might sleep on the floor of the great hall; the hall would have had a central hearth, with the smoke rising through the hall to a vent in the roof. The hearth was used for heating and for some of the cooking, although for larger structures a medieval kitchen would customarily lie on a lower level for the bulk of cooking; the fireplace would have an elaborate overmantel with stone or wood carvings or plasterwork which might contain coats of arms, heraldic mottoes, caryatids or other adornment.
In the upper halls of French manor houses, the fireplaces were very large and elaborate. The great hall had the most beautiful decorations in it, as well as on the window frame mouldings on the outer wall. Many French manor houses have beautifully decorated external window frames on the large mullioned windows that light the hall; this decoration marked the window as belonging to the lord's private hall. It was. In Scotland, six common furnishings were present in the sixteenth century hall: the high table and principal seat. In western France, the early manor houses were centered on a central ground-floor hall; the hall reserved for the lord and his high-ranking guests was moved up to the first-floor level. This was called upper hall. In some of the larger three-storey manor houses, the upper hall was as high as second storey roof; the smaller ground-floor hall or salle basse remained but was for receiving guests of any social order. It is common to find these two halls superimposed, one on top of the other, in larger manor houses in Normandy and Brittany.
Access from the ground-floor hall to the upper hall was via an external staircase tower. The upper hall contained the lord's bedroom and living quarters off one end; the great hall would have an early listening device system, allowing conversations to be heard in the lord's bedroom above. In Scotland these devices are called a laird's lug. In many French manor houses there are small peep-holes from which the lord could observe what was happening in the hall; this type of hidden peep-hole is called a judas in French. Many great halls survive. Two large surviving royal halls are Westminster Hall and the Vladislav Hall in Prague Castle. Penshurst Place in Kent, England has a little altered 14th century example. Surviving 16th and early 17th century specimens in England and Scotland are numerous, for example those at Longleat, Burghley House, Bodysgallen Hall, Muchalls Castle and Crathes Castle; the greater centralization of power in royal hands meant that men of good social standing were less inclined to enter the service of a lord to obtain his protection, the size of the inner household shrank.
As the social gap between master and servant grew, the family retreated to the 1st floor, to private rooms. In fact, servants were not allowed to use the same staircases as nobles to access the great hall of larger castles in early times; the other living rooms in country houses became more numerous and important, by the late 17th century the halls of many new houses were vestibules, passed through to get to somewhere else, but not lived in. Other great halls like that at Bank Hall in Lancashire were downsized to create two rooms; the domestic model applied to Collegiate institutions du
Moorgate was a postern in the London Wall built by the Romans. It was turned into a gate in the 15th century. Though the gate was demolished in 1762, the name survives as a major street in the City of London; the street connects the City to the London Boroughs of Islington and Hackney, was constructed around 1846 as one of the new approaches to London Bridge. The name "Moorgate" derives from the surrounding area of Moorfields, one of the last pieces of open land in the City. Today the area is a financial centre, is home to several investment banks; the street showcases historic and contemporary office buildings. Moorgate station on the London Underground is remembered for the Moorgate tube crash of 1975. In the incident, a train terminating at the station failed to stop and crashed into a brick wall, 43 people were killed; this resulted in systems being installed on the Underground which automatically stop trains at dead-ends, which have become known as Moorgate control. The earliest descriptions of Moorgate date from the early 15th century, where it was described as only a postern in the London city wall.
Located between Bishopsgate and Cripplegate and leading to a moor known as Moorfields, it was not one of the larger or more important of the city gates. In 1415 an ordinance enacted, it was replaced with a newer and larger structure located farther to the west, which included a wooden gate to be shut at night. This gate was enlarged again in 1472 and 1511, damaged in the Great Fire of London in 1666. Although the City gates had ceased to have any modern function apart from decoration, it was replaced along with Ludgate and Temple Bar with a stone gate in 1672. Moorgate was demolished with all the other London city wall gates in 1761/2, the resulting stone was sold for £166 to the City of London Corporation to support the starlings of the newly widened centre arch of the London Bridge. Little Moorgate was a gate opposite Little Winchester Street leading into Moorfields, it had been demolished by 1755, but gave its name to a street, removed for the building of a railway. The Moorfields were one of the last pieces of open land in the City of London.
The fields were divided into three areas: the Moorfields proper, just inside the City boundaries, north of Bethlem Royal Hospital, Middle and Upper Moorfields to the north. Much of Moorfields was turned into present day Finsbury Circus. Today, the name survives in the name of the Catholic parish of St. Mary Moorfields. In addition, the London Dispensary for curing diseases of the Eye and Ear was founded on the Moorfields in 1805, evolved to become the present Moorfields Eye Hospital, now located on City Road, is close to Old Street station. Moorfields was the site of the first hydrogen balloon flight in England, when Italian Vincenzo Lunardi took off on the afternoon of 15 September 1784. Lunardi flew in a hydrogen balloon from the area of the Honourable Artillery Company near Moorfields; the ascent took place in front of 100,000 spectators as well as the Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall. The envelope of the balloon was made of oiled silk, had a diameter of 33 ft which resulted in a volume of 18,200 cubic feet.
Due to the size of the balloon, it took all of the previous evening and early morning to fill it. Lunardi first landed at Welham Green, Hertfordshire, 13 miles north of London and continued his flight to land at Ware, Hertfordshire after flying a total of 24 miles; the contemporary street of Moorgate runs north from Princes Street and Lothbury at the back of the Bank of England, across the road named London Wall and the location of the old gate, continues north. It is located inside the EC2 postal district. After leaving the City of London in the direction of the London Borough of Hackney, the street is known as Finsbury Pavement and City Road; the street was constructed around 1846 as one of the new approaches to London Bridge. While the street was formally known as "Moorgate Street", the street part of the name fell out of use. A new commercial development on Moorgate, known as Moor House, opened in 2005; the building is located at the corner of Moorgate and London Wall, was designed by Foster and Partners.
The building has 28,000 m² of office space in 19 storeys, is built in the location of a smaller office building built in the 1960s known as Moor House. A 36 m shaft under the building incorporates part of Crossrail's new station and ticket hall serving Liverpool Street. During the 1940s-60s, HM Customs and Excise investigation staff were based at Moorgate Hall, 153 Moorgate. There is a campus of the London Metropolitan University a Polytechnic, part of the London Guildhall University, on Moorgate; the campus houses its business school, a library, other administrative facilities. There is a small side street to the east off of Moorgate, known as Moorgate Place, it now connects to another side street known in turn connecting to Moorgate. The side street is the location of the Chartered Accountants' Hall, home of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales; the Guildhall is connected to Moorgate station via Bas
Atlantic slave trade
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people to the Americas. The slave trade used the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries; the vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were people from central and western Africa, sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders, who brought them to the Americas. The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies were dependent on the supply of secure labour for the production of commodity crops, making goods and clothing to sell in Europe; this was crucial to those western European countries which, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with each other to create overseas empires. The Portuguese were the first to engage in the Atlantic slave trade in the 16th century. In 1526, they completed the first transatlantic slave voyage to Brazil, other European countries soon followed.
Shipowners regarded the slaves as cargo to be transported to the Americas as and cheaply as possible, there to be sold to work on coffee, cocoa and cotton plantations and silver mines, rice fields, construction industry, cutting timber for ships, in skilled labour, as domestic servants. The first Africans imported to the English colonies were classified as "indentured servants", like workers coming from England, as "apprentices for life". By the middle of the 17th century, slavery had hardened as a racial caste, with the slaves and their offspring being the property of their owners, children born to slave mothers were slaves; as property, the people were considered merchandise or units of labour, were sold at markets with other goods and services. The major Atlantic slave trading nations, ordered by trade volume, were: the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, the Dutch Empires. Several had established outposts on the African coast where they purchased slaves from local African leaders.
These slaves were managed by a factor, established on or near the coast to expedite the shipping of slaves to the New World. Slaves were kept in a factory while awaiting shipment. Current estimates are that about 12 to 12.8 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic over a span of 400 years, although the number purchased by the traders was higher, as the passage had a high death rate. Near the beginning of the 19th century, various governments acted to ban the trade, although illegal smuggling still occurred. In the early 21st century, several governments issued apologies for the transatlantic slave trade; the Atlantic slave trade developed after trade contacts were established between the "Old World" and the "New World". For centuries, tidal currents had made ocean travel difficult and risky for the ships that were available, as such there had been little, if any, maritime contact between the peoples living in these continents. In the 15th century, new European developments in seafaring technologies resulted in ships being better equipped to deal with the tidal currents, could begin traversing the Atlantic Ocean.
Between 1600 and 1800 300,000 sailors engaged in the slave trade visited West Africa. In doing so, they came into contact with societies living along the west African coast and in the Americas which they had never encountered. Historian Pierre Chaunu termed the consequences of European navigation "disenclavement", with it marking an end of isolation for some societies and an increase in inter-societal contact for most others. Historian John Thornton noted, "A number of technical and geographical factors combined to make Europeans the most people to explore the Atlantic and develop its commerce", he identified these as being the drive to find new and profitable commercial opportunities outside Europe as well as the desire to create an alternative trade network to that controlled by the Muslim Empire of the Middle East, viewed as a commercial and religious threat to European Christendom. In particular, European traders wanted to trade for gold, which could be found in western Africa, to find a maritime route to "the Indies", where they could trade for luxury goods such as spices without having to obtain these items from Middle Eastern Islamic traders.
Although many of the initial Atlantic naval explorations were led by Iberians, members of many European nationalities were involved, including sailors from Portugal, the Italian kingdoms, England and the Netherlands. This diversity led Thornton to describe the initial "exploration of the Atlantic" as "a international exercise if many of the dramatic discoveries were made under the sponsorship of the Iberian monarchs"; that leadership gave rise to the myth that "the Iberians were the sole leaders of the exploration". Slavery was prevalent in many parts of Africa for many centuries before the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. There is evidence that enslaved people from some parts of Africa were exported to states in Africa and Asia prior to the European colonization of the Americas; the Atlantic slave trade was not the only slave trade from Africa, although it was the largest in volume and intensity. As Elikia M'bokolo wrote in Le Monde diplomatique: The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes.
Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries... Fou
Roman Britain was the area of the island of Great Britain, governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD. It comprised the whole of England and Wales and, for a short period, southern Scotland. Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars. According to Caesar, the Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesar's enemies, he received tribute, installed a friendly king over the Trinovantes, returned to Gaul. Planned invasions under Augustus were called off in 34, 27, 25 BC. In 40 AD, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel on the continent, only to have them gather seashells according to Suetonius as a symbolic gesture to proclaim Caligula's victory over the sea. Three years Claudius directed four legions to invade Britain and restore an exiled king over the Atrebates; the Romans defeated the Catuvellauni, organized their conquests as the Province of Britain. By the year 47, the Romans held the lands southeast of the Fosse Way.
Control over Wales was delayed by reverses and the effects of Boudica's uprising, but the Romans expanded northward. The conquest of Britain continued under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who expanded the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia. In the summer of 84, Agricola faced the armies of the Caledonians, led by Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Battle casualties were estimated by Tacitus to be around the 10,000's on the Caledonian side and about 360 on the Roman side; the bloodbath at Mons Graupius concluded the forty-year conquest of Britain, a period that saw between 100,000 and 250,000 Britons killed. In the context of pre-industrial warfare and of a total population of Britain of c.2 million, these are high figures. Under the 2nd-century emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, two walls were built to defend the Roman province from the Caledonians, whose realms in the Scottish Highlands were never controlled. Around 197, the Severan Reforms divided Britain into two provinces: Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior.
During the Diocletian Reforms, at the end of the 3rd century, Britannia was divided into four provinces under the direction of a vicarius, who administered the Diocese of the Britains. A fifth province, Valentia, is attested in the 4th century. For much of the period of the Roman occupation, Britannia was subject to barbarian invasions and came under the control of imperial usurpers and imperial pretenders; the final Roman withdrawal from Britain occurred around 410. Following the conquest of the Britons, a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged as the Romans introduced improved agriculture, urban planning, industrial production, architecture; the Roman goddess Britannia became the female personification of Britain. After the initial invasions, Roman historians only mention Britain in passing. Thus, most present knowledge derives from archaeological investigations and occasional epigraphic evidence lauding the Britannic achievements of an emperor. Roman citizens settled in Britain from many parts of the Empire.
Britain was known to the Classical world. The Greeks referred to the Cassiterides, or "tin islands", placed them near the west coast of Europe; the Carthaginian sailor Himilco is said to have visited the island in the 5th century BC and the Greek explorer Pytheas in the 4th. It was regarded with some writers refusing to believe it existed at all; the first direct Roman contact was when Julius Caesar undertook two expeditions in 55 and 54 BC, as part of his conquest of Gaul, believing the Britons were helping the Gallic resistance. The first expedition was more a reconnaissance than a full invasion and gained a foothold on the coast of Kent but was unable to advance further because of storm damage to the ships and a lack of cavalry. Despite the military failure it was a political success, with the Roman Senate declaring a 20-day public holiday in Rome to honour the unprecedented achievement of obtaining hostages from Britain and defeating Belgian tribes on returning to the continent; the second invasion involved a larger force and Caesar coerced or invited many of the native Celtic tribes to pay tribute and give hostages in return for peace.
A friendly local king, was installed, his rival, was brought to terms. Hostages were taken, but historians disagree over whether any tribute was paid after Caesar returned to Gaul. Caesar conquered no territory and left no troops behind but he established clients and brought Britain into Rome's sphere of influence. Augustus planned invasions in 34, 27 and 25 BC, but circumstances were never favourable, the relationship between Britain and Rome settled into one of diplomacy and trade. Strabo, writing late in Augustus's reign, claimed that taxes on trade brought in more annual revenue than any conquest could. Archaeology shows. Strabo mentions British kings who sent embassies to Augustus and Augustus's own Res Gestae refers to two British kings he received as refugees; when some of Tiberius's ships were carried to Britain in a storm during his campaigns in Germany in 16 AD, they came back with tales of monsters. Rome appears to have encouraged a balance of power in southern Britain, supporting two powerful kingdoms: the Catuvellauni, ruled by the descendants of Tasciovanus, the Atrebates, ruled by the descendants of Commius.
This policy was followed until 39 or 40
Horace Jones (architect)
Sir Horace Jones was an English architect noted for his work as Architect and Surveyor to the City of London from 1864 until his death. He served as president of the Royal Institute of British Architects from 1882 until 1884, was knighted in 1886, his most recognised work, Tower Bridge, was completed posthumously. The son of David Jones, attorney, by Sarah Lydia Shephard, Jones was born at 15 Size Lane, London, he was articled to John Wallen and surveyor, of 16 Aldermanbury, subsequently in 1841-42 travelled to Italy and Greece studying ancient architecture. In 1843 he commenced practice as an architect at Holborn. Beginning with Cardiff Town Hall and Caversham Park, he designed and carried out many buildings of importance, soon concentrating on London, he was surveyor for the Duke of Buckingham's Tufnell Park estate, for the Barnard estate, the Bethnal Green estate. On 26 February 1864 he was elected architect and surveyor to the City of London, succeeding James Bunstone Bunning. Jones completed projects begun by his predecessor, such as the City Lunatic Asylum at Dartford, was in charge of several renovations and additions to the Guildhall.
He designed and built some of London's most famous markets, in particular Smithfield and Leadenhall. He designed the memorial at Temple Bar, replacing Wren's arch, a notorious traffic obstacle. Jones' final legacy is one of the most recognised buildings in Tower Bridge, it was designed in collaboration with the civil engineer John Wolfe Barry, brought in as an expert to devise the mechanism for the bascule bridge. Following Jones' death during the initial stages of construction, the execution lay in the hands of Barry. Jones became an associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1842, a fellow in 1855 and served as the Institute's president from 1882 to 1883, he was knighted on On 30 July 1886. He was a freemason, from 1882 until his death was Grand Superintendent of Works. Jones married Ann Elizabeth Patch, the daughter of John Patch, a barrister, on 15 April 1875, he died at 30 Devonshire Place, Portland Place, London, on 21 May 1887, was buried in West Norwood Cemetery on 27 May.
A portrait of Jones by Walter William Ouless RA was exhibited at the Royal Academy Exhibition in 1887. All in London unless otherwise stated. Cardiff Town Hall, c. 1850-53, demolished 1913. Marshall & Snelgrove's department store, Oxford Street, 1850s. Surrey Music Hall, 1856. Sovereign Assurance offices, Piccadilly, 1857. British and Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company's office, Threadneedle Street, 1859. A contemporary account refers to the building's "rather fanciful, ornate French Renaiassance facade, crowned by a lofty clock-tower." Council Chamber, Guildhall, 1884. Caversham Park, Oxfordshire, c. 1850. Smithfield Market. Built in three stages: Central Meat Market, 1866–67. Foreign Cattle Market, 1871. Conversion of Convoys Wharf, Deptford. Library and Museum, Guildhall, 1872. Billingsgate Market, 1874-78. Temple Bar Memorial, 1880; the elaborate pedestal in a Neo-Renaissance style, decorated with some reliefs as well as statues of Queen Victoria and The Prince of Wales, serves as the base for Charles Bell Birch's Griffin, the symbol of the City of London.
Leadenhall Market, 1880-81. Former Guildhall School of Music and Drama, John Carpenter Street, completed in 1886. Tower Bridge, approved design 1884, construction by John Wolfe Barry 1886-94. Jones' stonework in the Baronial Style, supposed to be in harmony with the nearby Tower of London, is pure facade which disguises the modern metal structure underneath; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Jones, Horace". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. G. C. Boase, Sir Horace rev. Valerie Scott, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004 Sir Horace Jones, biography at the Tower Bridge Restoration website