Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes referred to as Malesherbes or Lamoignon-Malesherbes, was a French statesman and minister in the ancien régime, counsel for the defense of Louis XVI. He is known for his vigorous criticism of royal abuses as President of the Cour des Aides and his role, as director of censorship, in helping with the publication of the Encyclopédie. Despite his committed monarchism, his writings contributed to the development of liberalism during the French Age of Enlightenment. Born in Paris to a famous legal family which belonged to the noblesse de robe, Malesherbes was educated for the legal profession; the young lawyer's career received a boost when his father, Guillaume de Lamoignon de Blancmesnil, was appointed Chancellor in 1750. This latter office entailed supervision of all French censorship, in this capacity Malesherbes maintained communication with the literary leaders of Paris, including Diderot and Rousseau, he was instrumental in the publication of the Encyclopédie, to the consternation of the Church and the Jesuits.
In 1771, the Cour des Aides was dissolved by order of Cardinal Richelieu for its opposition to a new method of administering justice devised by Maupeou, who planned to diminish its powers and those of the parlements in general. Malesherbes, as President of the cour des aides, criticized the proposal for over-centralizing the justice system and abolishing the hereditary "nobility of the robe," which he believed had been a defender of the people and a check on royal power due to its independence, he published a strong remonstrance against the new system, was banished to his country seat at Malesherbes. For the next three years, Malesherbes dedicated himself to travel and gardening. Indeed, he had always been an enthusiastic botanist. Malesherbes was recalled to Paris with the reconstituted cour des aides on the accession of Louis XVI. Louis XVI was so impressed with the plan -- and fearful for the future of his government -- that Malesherbes was appointed minister of the maison du roi in 1775.
During the same year, Malesherbes was elected to the Académie française. He held office as a royal minister only nine months. On retiring from the ministry with Turgot in 1776, he again spent some time at his country seat, but the state of pre-Revolutionary France made it impossible for Malesherbes to withdraw from political life. In 1787, he authored an essay on Protestant rights that did much to procure civil recognition for them in France. In December 1792, with the King imprisoned and facing trial, Malesherbes volunteered to undertake his legal defense, he argued for the King's life, together with François Tronchet and Raymond Desèze, before the Convention, it was his painful task to break the news of his condemnation to the king. After this effort he returned once more to the country, but in December 1793 he was arrested with his daughter, his son-in-law M. de Rosanbo, his grandchildren. He was brought back to Paris and imprisoned with his family for "conspiracy with the emigrants"; the family was imprisoned in the Prison Portes-Libres, in April 1794 they were guillotined in Paris.
His son-in-law, Louis Le Peletier de Rosanbo, was guillotined on 21 April 1794. On April 22, 1794, his daughter Antoinette, granddaughter Aline and her husband Jean-Baptiste de Chateaubriand, two of his secretaries were executed with him; as he leaves prison to get into the sinister cart, his foot hits a stone and makes him make a misstep. "That," he said, smiling sadly, "a bad omen. On 10 May, his older sister Anne-Nicole, Countess of Sénozan, 76, was executed on the same day as Madame Elisabeth, the king's sister. Although he remained a committed royalist until his death, Malesherbes was hardly untouched by the radical Enlightenment currents that transformed France, he was influenced by his reading of Fenelon and Montesquieu and his friendships with Rousseau and Turgot. On multiple occasions throughout his career, he recognized the grievances cited by revolutionaries when he criticized the monarchy for its unfair and arbitrary taxation policies and profligate spending. Although he believed hierarchy was natural and desirable, he was concerned about its distortionary effects on administration and justice.
Malesherbes stressed the importance of communication in governing, believing the King should be more engaged with public opinion and grievances. Malesherbes' moderate and reformist tendencies were on full display during his tenure at the Librairie; when he retired from his post, Voltaire wrote that “M. de Malesherbes tirelessly served the human spirit by giving to the press more liberty than it has had.” Indeed, censorship at the time was not perceived as automatically inimical to the Enligh
This is a condensed list of worldwide tropical cyclone records set by different storms and seasons. List of weather records Tornado records List of the most intense tropical cyclones List of wettest tropical cyclones List of tropical cyclones List of Atlantic hurricane records List of Pacific hurricanes ^α Although Luis produced the highest confirmed wave height for a tropical cyclone, it is possible that Hurricane Ivan produced a wave measuring 131 feet. ^β It is believed that reconnaissance aircraft overestimated wind speeds in tropical cyclones from the 1940s to the 1960s, data from this time period is considered unreliable. Typhoon Nancy may not have sustained Category 5 winds for such a long duration. Tropical Cyclone Records from the Global Weather & Climate Extremes Bureau of Meteorology, Australian Cyclone History Discussion of size extremes for tropical cyclones near Australia "Faq: Hurricanes, And Tropical Cyclones". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
"THE DEADLIEST, COSTLIEST, AND MOST INTENSE UNITED STATES HURRICANES FROM 1900 TO 2000". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-12-23. Typhoon Ophelia Record: Had a 5000 mi traveling
Oded Schramm was an Israeli-American mathematician known for the invention of the Schramm–Loewner evolution and for working at the intersection of conformal field theory and probability theory. Schramm was born in Jerusalem, his father, Michael Schramm, was a biochemistry professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He attended Hebrew University, where he received his bachelor's degree in mathematics and computer science in 1986 and his master's degree in 1987, under the supervision of Gil Kalai, he received his Ph. D. from Princeton University in 1990 under the supervision of William Thurston. After receiving his doctorate, he worked for two years at the University of California, San Diego, had a permanent position at the Weizmann Institute from 1992 to 1999. In 1999 he moved to the Theory Group at Microsoft Research in Redmond, where he remained for the rest of his life, he and his wife had two children and Pele. On September 1, 2008, Schramm fell to his death while solo climbing Guye Peak, north of Snoqualmie Pass in Washington.
A constant theme in Schramm's research was the exploration of relations between discrete models and their continuous scaling limits, which for a number of models turn out to be conformally invariant. Schramm's most significant contribution was the invention of Schramm–Loewner evolution, a tool which has paved the way for mathematical proofs of conjectured scaling limit relations on models from statistical mechanics such as self-avoiding random walk and percolation; this technique has had a profound impact on the field. It has been recognized by many awards to Schramm and others, including a Fields Medal to Wendelin Werner, one of Schramm's principal collaborators, along with Gregory Lawler; the New York Times wrote in his obituary: If Dr. Schramm had been born three weeks and a day he would certainly have been one of the winners of the Fields Medal the highest honor in mathematics, in 2002. Schramm's doctorate was in complex analysis, but he made contributions in many other areas of pure mathematics, although self-taught in those areas.
He would prove a result by himself before reading the literature to obtain an appropriate credit. His proof was original or more elegant than the original. Besides conformally invariant planar processes and SLE, he made fundamental contributions to several topics: Circle packings and discrete conformal geometry. Embeddings of Gromov hyperbolic spaces. Percolation and minimal spanning trees and forests, harmonic functions on Cayley graphs of infinite finitely generated groups and the hyperbolic plane. Limits of sequences of finite graphs. Noise sensitivity of Boolean functions, with applications to dynamical percolation. Random turn the infinity Laplacian equation. Random permutations. Erdős Prize Salem Prize Clay Research Award, for his work in combining analytic power with geometric insight in the field of random walks and probability theory in general for formulating stochastic Loewner evolution, his work opens new reinvigorates research in these fields. Loève Prize Henri Poincaré Prize, For his contributions to discrete conformal geometry, where he discovered new classes of circle patterns described by integrable systems and proved the ultimate results on convergence to the corresponding conformal mappings, for the discovery of the Stochastic Loewner Process as a candidate for scaling limits in two dimensional statistical mechanics.
SIAM George Pólya Prize, with Gregory Lawler and Wendelin Werner, for groundbreaking work on the development and application of stochastic Loewner evolution. Of particular note is the rigorous establishment of the existence and conformal invariance of critical scaling limits of a number of 2D lattice models arising in statistical physics. Ostrowski Prize Elected in 2008 as a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Schramm, Oded, "Scaling limits of loop-erased random walks and uniform spanning trees", Israel Journal of Mathematics, 118: 221–288, arXiv:math. PR/9904022, doi:10.1007/BF02803524, MR 1776084. Schramm's paper introducing the Schramm–Loewner evolution. Schramm, Oded, "Conformally invariant scaling limits: an overview and a collection of problems", International Congress of Mathematicians. Vol. I, Eur. Math. Soc. Zürich, pp. 513–543, arXiv:math/0602151, Bibcode:2006math......2151S, doi:10.4171/022-1/20, ISBN 978-3-03719-022-7, MR 2334202 Schramm, Benjamini, Itai. Conformally Invariant Scaling Limits and SLE, MSRI presentation by Oded Schramm, May 2001.
Terence Tao, "Oded Schramm". Publication list Oded Schramm at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Oded Schramm Memorial page Oded Schramm Memorial blog Oded Schramm Memorial Workshop – August 30–31, 2009 at Microsoft Research Oded Schramm obituary in the IMS Bulletin O'Connor, John J..