A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a upright frame with a weighted and angled blade suspended at the top; the condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is released and forcefully decapitating the victim with a single, clean pass so that the head falls into a basket or other receptacle below; the guillotine is best known for its use in France, in particular during the French Revolution, where the revolution's supporters celebrated it as the people's avenger and the revolution's opponents vilified it as the pre-eminent symbol of the violence of the Reign of Terror. While the name "guillotine" dates from this period, similar devices had been in use elsewhere in Europe over several centuries; the display of severed heads had long been one of the most common ways European sovereigns exhibited their power to their subjects. The guillotine was invented with the specific intention of making capital punishment more humane in accordance with Enlightenment ideals, as previous methods of execution in France had proven to be more painful and prone to error.
After its adoption, the device remained France's standard method of judicial execution until the abolition of capital punishment in 1981. The last person to be executed in France was Hamida Djandoubi, guillotined on 10 September 1977; this was the last time that the government of a Western nation executed an individual by beheading. Djandoubi was the last person executed by guillotine by any government in the world; the use of beheading machines in Europe long predates such use during the French Revolution in 1792. An early example of the principle is found in the High History of the Holy Grail, dated to about 1210. Although the device is imaginary, its function is clear; the text says: Within these three openings are the hallows set for them. And behold what I would do to them if their three heads were therein... She setteth her hand toward the openings and draweth forth a pin, fastened into the wall, a cutting blade of steel droppeth down, of steel sharper than any razor, closeth up the three openings.
"Even thus will I cut off their heads when they shall set them into those three openings thinking to adore the hallows that are beyond." The Halifax Gibbet was a wooden structure consisting of two wooden uprights, capped by a horizontal beam, of a total height of 4.5 metres. The blade was an axe head weighing 3.5 kg, attached to the bottom of a massive wooden block that slid up and down in grooves in the uprights. This device was mounted on a large square platform 1.25 metres high. It is not known; the machine remained in use. It was used for the last time, for the execution of two criminals on a single day, on 30 April 1650. A Hans Weiditz woodcut illustration from the 1532 edition of Petrarch's De remediis utriusque fortunae, or Remedies for Both Good and Bad Fortune shows a device similar to the Halifax Gibbet in the background being used for an execution. Holinshed's Chronicles of 1577 included a picture of "The execution of Murcod Ballagh near Merton in Ireland in 1307" showing a similar execution machine, suggesting its early use in Ireland.
The Maiden was constructed in 1564 for the Provost and Magistrates of Edinburgh, was in use from April 1565 to 1710. One of those executed was James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, in 1581, a 1644 publication began circulating the legend that Morton himself commissioned the Maiden after he had seen the Halifax Gibbet; the Maiden was dismantled for storage and transport, it is now on display in the National Museum of Scotland. For a period of time after its invention, the guillotine was called a louisette. However, it was named after French physician and Freemason Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, who proposed on 10 October 1789 the use of a special device to carry out executions in France in a more humane manner. A death penalty opponent, he was displeased with the breaking wheel and other common and gruesome methods of execution and sought to convince Louis XVI of France to implement a less painful alternative. While not the device's inventor, Guillotin's name became an eponym for it. Antoine Louis, together with German engineer Tobias Schmidt, built a prototype for the guillotine.
According to the memoires of the French executioner Sanson, Louis XVI. suggested the use of a straight, angled blade instead of a curved one. On 10 October 1789, physician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin proposed to the National Assembly that capital punishment should always take the form of decapitation "by means of a simple mechanism."Sensing the growing discontent, Louis XVI banned the use of the breaking wheel. In 1791, as the French Revolution progressed, the National Assembly researched a new method to be used on all condemned people regardless of class, consistent with the idea that the purpose of capital punishment was to end life rather than to inflict unnecessary pain. A committee formed under Antoine Louis, physician to the King and Secretary to the Academy of Surgery. Guillotin was on the committee; the group was influenced by beheading devices used elsewhere in Europe, such as the Italian Mannaia, the Scottish Maiden, the Halifax Gibbet. While many of these prior instruments crushed the neck or used blunt force to take off a head, devices usually used a crescent blade to
The Tullahoma-Manchester Micropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of three counties in central Tennessee, anchored by the cities of Tullahoma and Manchester. As of the 2000 census, the μSA had a population of 93,024. Coffee Franklin Moore Manchester Tullahoma Cowan Decherd Estill Springs Lynchburg New Union Monteagle Sewanee Winchester Hillsboro Huntland Lakewood Park Belvidere Sherwood As of the census of 2000, there were 93,024 people, 36,099 households, 26,445 families residing within the μSA; the racial makeup of the μSA was 93.06% White, 4.34% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.76% from other races, 1.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.84% of the population. The median income for a household in the μSA was $35,844, the median income for a family was $41,330. Males had a median income of $31,932 versus $21,160 for females; the per capita income for the μSA was $18,388.
This is a list of past and current experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron facility since its commissioning in 1959. The PS was the world's highest energy particle accelerator at the time, it served as the flagship of CERN until the 1980s when its main role became to provide injection beams to other machines such as the Super Proton Synchrotron. The information is gathered from the INSPIRE-HEP database. Experiments List of Super Proton Synchrotron experiments List of Large Hadron Collider experimentsFacilitiesCERN: European Organization for Nuclear Research PS: Proton Synchrotron SPS: Super Proton Synchrotron ISOLDE: On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISR: Intersecting Storage Rings LEP: Large Electron–Positron Collider LHC: Large Hadron Collider