Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that they have compromised their own standards of conduct or have violated universal moral standards and bear significant responsibility for that violation. Guilt is related to the concept of remorse. Guilt is an important factor in perpetuating obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms. Guilt and its associated causes and demerits are common themes in psychology and psychiatry. Both in specialized and in ordinary language, guilt is an affective state in which one experiences conflict at having done something that one believes one should not have done, it gives rise to a feeling which does not go away driven by'conscience'. Sigmund Freud described this as the result of a struggle between the ego and the superego – parental imprinting. Freud rejected the role of God as punisher in times of rewarder in time of wellness. While removing one source of guilt from patients, he described another.
This was the unconscious force within the individual that contributed to illness, Freud in fact coming to consider "the obstacle of an unconscious sense of guilt...as the most powerful of all obstacles to recovery." For his explicator, guilt was the inevitable companion of the signifying subject who acknowledged normality in the form of the Symbolic order. Alice Miller claims that "many people suffer all their lives from this oppressive feeling of guilt, the sense of not having lived up to their parents' expectations....no argument can overcome these guilt feelings, for they have their beginnings in life's earliest period, from that they derive their intensity." This may be linked to what Les Parrott has called "the disease of false guilt.... At the root of false guilt is the idea that what you feel must be true." If you feel guilty, you must be guilty! The philosopher Martin Buber underlined the difference between the Freudian notion of guilt, based on internal conflicts, existential guilt, based on actual harm done to others.
Guilt is associated with anxiety. In mania, according to Otto Fenichel, the patient succeeds in applying to guilt "the defense mechanism of denial by overcompensation...re-enacts being a person without guilt feelings."In psychological research, guilt can be measured by using questionnaires, such as the Differential Emotions Scale, or the Dutch Guilt Measurement Instrument. Defenses against feeling guilt can become an overriding aspect of one's personality; the methods that can be used to avoid guilt are multiple. They include: Repression used by the superego and ego against instinctive impulses, but on occasion employed against the superego/conscience itself. If the defence fails one may begin to feel guilty years for actions committed at the time. Projection is another defensive tool with wide applications, it may take the form of blaming the victim: The victim of someone else's accident or bad luck may be offered criticism, the theory being that the victim may be at fault for having attracted the other person's hostility.
Alternatively, not the guilt, but the condemning agency itself, may be projected onto other people, in the hope that they will look upon one's deeds more favorably than one's own conscience. Sharing a feeling of guilt, thereby being less alone with it, is a motive force in both art and joke-telling. Self-harm may be used as an alternative to compensating the object of one's transgression – in the form of not allowing oneself to enjoy opportunities open to one, or benefits due, as a result of uncompensated guilt feelings. Feelings of guilt can prompt subsequent virtuous behavior. People who feel guilty may be more to exercise restraint, avoid self-indulgence, exhibit less prejudice. Guilt appears to prompt reparatory behaviors to alleviate the negative emotions. People appear to engage in targeted and specific reparatory behaviors toward the persons they wronged or offended. Individuals high in psychopathy lack any true sense of guilt or remorse for harm they may have caused others. Instead, they blame someone else, or deny it outright.
A person with psychopathy has a tendency to be harmful to others. They have little ability to plan ahead for the future. An individual with psychopathy will never find themselves at fault because they will do whatever it takes to benefit themselves without reservation. A person that does not feel guilt or remorse would have no reason to find themselves at fault for something that they did with the intention of hurting another person. To a person high in psychopathy, their actions can always be rationalized to be the fault of another person; this is seen by psychologists as part of a lack of moral reasoning, an inability to evaluate situations in a moral framework, an inability to develop emotional bonds with other people due to a lack of empathy. Some evolutionary psychologists theorize that guilt and shame helped maintain beneficial relationships, such as reciprocal altruism. If a person feels guilty when he harms another, or fails to reciprocate kindness, he is more not to harm others or become too selfish.
In this way, he reduces the chances of retaliation by members of his tribe, thereby increases his survival prospects, those of the tribe or group. As with any other emotion, guilt can be manipulated to influence others; as social animals living in large, relat
John Massy Stacpoole was a New Zealand historian, heritage architect and bibliophile, responsible for the restoration of many historic buildings and wrote on colonial architecture and social history in New Zealand. Born on 30 September 1919, Stacpoole was the son of Percy Stacpoole, he was descended from early Tasmanian and New Zealand colonial settlers, was of Irish descent on his father's side. Stacpoole was educated at Mount Albert Grammar School in Auckland from 1932 to 1935, becoming head librarian and a member of the school's hockey 1st XI, he studied architecture at Auckland University College where he was a contemporary of Stephen Jelicich and Anthony Treadwell. During World War II, Stacpoole served as an officer in Auckland Regiment. However, he spent 18 months of the war in hospital. Following a period working in architectural practices in Auckland and London, Stacpoole joined the architectural division of the Ministry of Works, soon became the advisory architect to the New Zealand Historic Places Trust.
He served on the latter organisation's council and as chair of its buildings classification committee. He was intimately involved as architect in the restoration and furnishing of numerous listed historic buildings in New Zealand, including Ewelme Cottage, Waimate North mission house and Government House in Auckland, Kemp House; as an historian, Stacpoole wrote about New Zealand's architectural and social history, as well as family history and biography. He wrote seven books and many shorter works, contributed nine biographies to the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Stacpoole, John. William Mason: the first New Zealand architect. Oxford University Press. Stacpoole, John. Architecture 1820–1970. Wellington: A. H. & A. W. Reed. Stacpoole, John. Colonial architecture in New Zealand. Wellington: A. H. & A. W. Reed. ISBN 0-589-00930-3. Stacpoole, John. "Pilgrim, Ada". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Stacpoole, John. Sailing to Bohemia: a life of the Honourable William Swainson.
Auckland: Puriri. ISBN 9780908943357. Stacpoole, John. Beyond the ivy curtain: the story of the Northern Club, 1869–2009. Auckland: Northern Club. ISBN 9780473158125. Stacpoole had a long involvement with the Auckland City Art Gallery and served as chair of the Mckelvie Trust, which administers the bequest of James Mackelvie to the gallery. In 2005, Stacpoole donated his collection of 1000 books of Irish literature to Auckland Libraries. Stacpoole died in Auckland on 5 September 2018. In the 1975 Queen's Birthday Honours, Stacpoole was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire, for services to the preservation of historic buildings. In 2004, he was elected an honorary life member of the Historic Places Trust, he was a Fellow of the Auckland War Memorial Museum, in 2013 he was inducted into the Mount Albert Grammar School hall of distinction
Shawn Moran is an American former professional motorcycle speedway rider, one of the most popular and talented riders to race for Sheffield Tigers who represented the United States in international speedway competitions. Moran first rode in British speedway for Hull Vikings in 1979 under the alias'David East', before riding under his real identity in 1980, he joined Sheffield from Hull in 1980 for £8,000 and established himself as a fans' favourite who topped the clubs averages every year he was with them. After finishing 15th at the 1980 European Under-21 Championship, Moran won the 1981 Championship in Slaný, Czechoslovakia with a 15-point maximum; this championship was renamed as the World Under-21 Championship in 1988. Shawn and fellow Californian Ron Preston who won the title in 1979, are the only American riders to have won the Under-21 title. In 1982, along with reigning World Champion Bruce Penhall, Bobby Schwartz, Scott Autrey, his older brother Kelly Moran, Shawn won the Speedway World Team Cup at the White City Stadium in London, England.
He would repeat this success with Team USA in 1990 at the Svítkov Stadion in Pardubice, Czechoslovakia alongside Sam Ermolenko, Rick Miller, Billy Hamill and Kelly Moran. Moran helped the US team to second place in both 1985 and 1988 at the Veterans Memorial Stadium in Long Beach, while finishing third in 1984 and 1987. In 1986 Moran was joined by his brother Kelly at Sheffield. Shawn amassed a total of 3,257 points for the Tigers at an average of 9.36. Although regarded as a world-class rider, the individual World Championship eluded him. Moran was first nicknamed'Shooey' by Bobby "Boogaloo" Schwartz and it stuck throughout his career, he rode in three World Championships in 1984 where he finished 8th, 1985 where he finished 5th and 1990. Arguably 1985 was his best season as he won both the Overseas and Intercontinental Finals on his way to the World Final at Bradford, he finished the 1985 World Final at the Odsal Stadium in fifth place with 10-points and two wins from his 5 rides. In the 1990 World Final at Odsal he lost a run-off to Sweden's Per Jonsson after both finished on 13 points, 1 point clear of Australia's Todd Wiltshire.
Moran, remains America's only World Longtrack Champion. He won the crown in 1983, he is a three time winner of the Intercontinental Final, winning in 1984 in Vojens. Denmark, 1985 in Vetlanda, 1990 at Fjelsted in Denmark. In 1989 Moran won the Peter Craven Memorial Trophy at the Belle Vue Stadium in Manchester. During his career, Shawn Moran was a regular visitor to Australia, he proved to be a popular rider'Down Under' and enjoyed success on the larger Australian tracks. In the 1989/90 Australian season Moran was a resident international rider at the tight North Arm Speedway in Adelaide, rode for a "Rest of the World" team in a series of test matches against the Australians throughout the season. In 1984 Moran released a cover version of the 1975 Chris Spedding single, "Motor Bikin'". 1984 - Göteborg, Ullevi - 8th - 7pts 1985 - Bradford, Odsal Stadium - 5th - 10pts 1990 - Bradford, Odsal Stadium - 2nd - 13pts + 2pts** 1990 - Disqualified - Failed random drug and alcohol test at 1990 Overseas Final 1984 - Lonigo, Pista Speedway – 4th – 19pts 1985 - Rybnik, Rybnik Municipal Stadium - 3rd - 22pts 1988 - Bradford, Odsal Stadium - 3rd - 39pts 1982 - London, White City Stadium - Winner - 34pts 1984 - Leszno, Alfred Smoczyk Stadium – 3rd – 20pts 1985 - Long Beach, Veterans Memorial Stadium – 2nd – 35pts 1986 - Göteborg, Vojens, Speedway Center, Odsal Stadium - 2nd - 76pts 1987 - Fredericia, Fredericia Speedway, Brandon Stadium, Marketa Stadium - 3rd - 93pts 1988 - Long Beach, Veterans Memorial Stadium - 2nd - 32pts 1990 - Pardubice, Svítkov Stadion - Winner - 37pts 1980 - Pocking, Rottalstadion - 15th - 2pts 1981 - Slaný, Slaný Speedway - Winner - 15ptsBetween 1977 and 1987 the Under-21 Championship was known as the European Junior Championship.