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Guinea (region)

Guinea is a traditional name for the region of the African coast of West Africa which lies along the Gulf of Guinea. It is a moist tropical forest or savanna that stretches along the coast and borders the Sahel belt in the north; the etymology of "Guinea" is uncertain. The English term Guinea comes directly from the Spanish word Guinea, which in turn derives from the Portuguese word Guiné; the Portuguese term emerged in the mid-15th century to refer to the lands inhabited by the Guineus, a generic term used by the Portuguese to refer to the'black' African peoples living south of the Senegal River. The term "Guinea" is extensively used in the 1453 chronicle of Gomes Eanes de Zurara. King John II of Portugal took up the title of Senhor da Guiné from 1483, it is believed the Portuguese borrowed Guineus from the Berber term Ghinawen meaning "the burnt people". The Berber terms "aginaw" and "Akal n-Iguinawen" mean "black" and "land of the blacks", respectively. A competing theory, first forwarded by Leo Africanus in 1526, claims that'Guinea' is derived from Djenné, the great interior commercial city on the Upper Niger River.

Djenné dominated the gold and salt trade across West Africa, from the 11th century until the 13th century. It is during the period of Djenné dominance that the term Genewah comes forward into usage in Arab sources. Other theories try to connect "Guinea" to "Ghana"; the Ghana Empire is named after the Medieval trading city of Ghanah mentioned by 11th-century Arab geographers, but it is used distinctly from Genewah by Arab sources. Conversely, it remains possible that both Ghana and Djenné themselves owe their original city names to the Berber appellation for the blacks that lived there. A possible reconciliation of the theories is that the Berber Ghinawen was the source of the Djenné, which in turn gave rise to the Arabic Genewah, which made it into the Portuguese Guiné. In 1478, a Castilian armada of 35 caravels and a Portuguese fleet fought the battle of Guinea in the waters off Elmina, for the hegemony of the Guinea trade; the war ended both with a Portuguese naval victory and the official recognition by the Catholic Monarchs of the Portuguese sovereignty over most of the African territories in dispute.

This was the first colonial war among European powers. Many more would come. After the Portuguese and Castilians came the Dutch and British; the extensive trade in ivory and slaves made the region wealthy, with a number of centralized kingdoms developing in the 18th and 19th centuries. These were much smaller than the large states of the wide-open Sahel, but they had far higher population densities and were more centralized politically; the cohesion of these kingdoms caused the region to show more resistance to European incursions than other areas of Africa. Such resistance, combined with a disease environment hostile to Europeans, meant that much of Guinea was not colonised by Europeans until the end of the 19th century. Guinea is subdivided into "Lower Guinea" and "Upper Guinea". Lower Guinea is one of the most densely populated regions of Africa, covering southern Nigeria, Benin and stretching into Ghana, it includes the coastal regions as well as the interior. Upper Guinea stretches from Côte d'Ivoire to Senegal.

Within the Republic of Guinea, Lower Guinea refers to the country's coastal plain, while Upper Guinea refers to the country's interior. European traders in the region subdivided the region based on its main exports; the eastern portion around Benin and Nigeria was named the Slave Coast. What is now Ghana was called the Gold Coast, a name given to a British colony in the area which absorbed earlier European colonies. West of this was the Ivory Coast, still the name of the nation in that region. Farthest west, the area around modern Liberia and Sierra Leone was referred to as either the Pepper Coast or the Grain Coast. Benin Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire Equatorial Guinea The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Southern Nigeria Western Cameroon Lower Guinean forests Upper Guinean forests West Africa New Guinea Books DIFFIE, Bailey W. and WINIUS, George D. - Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415-1580, Volume 1, University of Minnesota Press, 1977. NEWITT, Malyn- A history of Portuguese overseas expansion, 1400-1668, New York, 2005

Kampala Accord

The Kampala Accord was an agreement made in Kampala, Uganda in line with the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic to bring and end to the transitional phase of the Transitional Federal Government on 20 August 2011. It was signed on 9 June 2011 by HE Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, President of the Transitional Federal Government, Hon Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden, Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parliament, H. E. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of the Replublic of Uganda and Dr Augustine Mahiga, Special Representative of the Secretary General of the United Nations. One of the conditions of the Kampala Accord was that Prime Minister Mohamed Formajo would resign within 30 days. Announcement of Prime Minister Mohamed's proposed resignation was met with protests in various cities. Thousands of civilians, many government soldiers, some legislators marched through the streets of Mogadishu, calling for the dismissal of the President, the Parliament Speaker and the Parliament; the crowd demanded that the Premier be reinstated and described Mohamed as the "only honest leader in recent years".

Attacks on hotels in which members of parliament were staying and at least five deaths were reported. Additional demonstrations against the Premier's resignation were held in Galkacyo, a key trading city in the north-central Mudug region, as well as in Belet Hawo in the far south. In response, Prime Minister Formajo released a statement through the state-run Radio Mogadishu commending the armed forces for their rapid response and urging its troops to exercise restraint, he appealed to the public to calm down, indicated that "I have seen your expressions and heard your calls You are part of the decision making — what you want must be heard." Additionally, in a press conference, the Premier called for the immediate release of all protestors, detained, stated that his administration would launch an independent investigation into their arrest. Weighing in on the demonstrations, Mogadishu's Mayor Mohamed Nur suggested that "what have a problem with is that two people go and decide the fate of this government without considering the feelings of this population", that putting the issue before Parliament for approval is a more democratic course of action.

On 11 June 2011, Prime Minister Mohamed released a statement indicating that the Kampala decision ought to be presented in Parliament for debate and appraised according to the laws stipulated in the national constitution. The Premier stated that he would only step down if lawmakers voted to uphold the accord; this was echoed by the Cabinet, which indicated in a press release that, after having convened to discuss the Kampala decision, the Ministers agreed that the accord must be put before Parliament for evaluation. In addition, over 200 parliamentarians sought to urge the Prime Minister to reconvene Parliament so as to deliberate the decision, indicating in a separate statement that the accord deprived MPs of their legislative role vis-a-vis the government. On 12 June 2011, President Sharif Ahmed released a statement wherein he condemned the protests, describing them as "illegal", he suggested that some government officials were financing the rallies in Mogadishu, warned that the Al-Shabaab group of Islamists, waging war against the federal government could try to exploit the gatherings to launch terrorist attacks.

In an interview on 16 June 2011, Undersecretary for Foreign Affairs of Italy, Alfredo Mantica, expressed support for Prime Minister Mohamed's position with regard to the Kampala agreement. Mantica stated that the Italian government believed that the accord ought to be reviewed in Parliament, he indicated that "the prime minister has been in office five months. And early to judge his work, but what he has done so far has been positive. It has achieved important results; the government seemed a miracle The strength of the instability in Somalia is a constant. And the prime minister represents stability."On 19 June 2011, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed resigned from his position as Prime Minister of Somalia. Part of the controversial Kampala Accord's conditions, the agreement would see the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker and Deputies extended until August 2012, after which point new elections are to be organized. In his farewell speech, Prime Minister Mohamed indicated that he was stepping down in "the interest of the Somali people and the current situation in Somalia".

He thanked his Cabinet for its efforts in improving the security situation and the standards of governance in the country. Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Mohamed's former Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, was appointed as Acting Premier the same day. A few days on 23 June 2011, Ali was named permanent prime minister. Prime Minister Mohamed's resignation was met with anger by the general public and many lawmakers. Apprehension regarding a possible resurgence of governmental corruption and lassitude, long-standing problems which Mohamed's administration had made significant strides toward eradicating, were cited as primary reasons for the consternation. According to one legislator, many policy-makers are trying to repeal the Kampala decision, as it "subject the country to trusteeship". Another MP indicated that "lawmakers are united in their opposition to the deal" and "will object it until we throw it away". Observers have suggested that Mohamed's resignation could offer militants an opportunity to capitalize on the situation and set back the territorial gains made by his administration in the ongoing insurgency in southern Somalia.

They have opined that firing the Premier would not resolve the long-standing power struggle between President Sharif Ahmed and Parliament Speaker

Ani Villanueva

Ani Villanueva is a Venezuelan visual and performance artist, best known for her performances and collaborative works during the 1980s. Her work is influenced by her extensive education that she received throughout her life. Many of her more notable performances juxtapose fantasy with reality, while her paintings are abstract and minimalist; the daughter of Venezuelan painter Mary Brandt, Ani was surrounded and influenced by art of all kinds, including music and dance. During the 1970s, Ani travelled in order to further her education, attending the Andrés Bello Catholic University in Caracas, the University of Essex in England, the École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris, studying psychology, political science, Taoism respectively. Villanueva's work consisting of multiple mediums, was influenced by the artistic education she received during her upbringing. Villanueva's influences and collaborations went beyond styles. For example, her collaboration with Carlos Villanueva and two British artists, incorporates elements from two distinctly different art styles and methodologies.

Villanueva began her career after departing the École Pratique des Hautes Études, dancing with the Parisian group, during 1981 and 1982. She moved on to artistic and performance pieces during this time as well. Unlike many other Latin American artists at the time, Villanueva did not express her political opinions or views through her art. At this time in her career, Villanueva had a stylistically notable usage of movement and theatricality in her works, with many of her works utilizing the aforementioned elements to great artistic effect. Medium used: Video, sound. A painting ominously moves through various parts of an art gallery, crawling through various display rooms and caressing paintings while a foreboding melody discordantly plays in the background; this work contains horror elements, such as the disturbing, humanoid painting and unsettling background music. Many of Brandt's paintings spread through the gallery rooms are abstract collages of color. Medium used: Video, sound. A projection of a boa constrictor descends on Villanueva, thus giving the audience the impression that she has become one with the indigenous flora and fauna.

This performance is one of the few that Villanueva displayed internationally, at the Astoria Theater in London. In 1985, Villanueva and director Diego Barboza won the prize for non-objective art at the Salón Arturo Michelena for their collaboration, De la escuela de Atenas a la nueva escuela de Caracas. Villanueva's art shifted from provocative performances to art that delves into the motifs of flora and fauna, she travelled to the coastal regions of Choroní, Venezuela and began drawing inspiration for her new art producing installations related to marine and coral ecosystems. Today, Villanueva focuses on abstract art; this performance was named after mid-to-late 17th century female philosopher and scholar Juana Inés de la Cruz and was performed at the Miami Art Museum. In this performance, Villanueva acts as the aforementioned de la Cruz. Casos de Cosas translated into English as "cases of things", is an assemblage that incorporates six pack rings for soda cans held together by zip ties; this piece was part of her focus on marine and coral ecosystems, as well as an incorporation of her training in mixed media art.

In 2005, Villanueva won first prize at the 8th Bienal Nacional de Escultura Francisco Narvaez, an event in which artists submit sculptures or other installations for competition. Many of Villanueva's notable works are not in museums or galleries today, as many of Villanueva's works incorporated mixed mediums and performance art. Villanueva's more recent abstract works are displayed in various museums across Venezuela. Guanipa, Moraima. "El acuario personal de Ani Villanueva." El Universal, October 21, 1994. Guédez, Víctor. "La nueva dimensión de los utensilios." Papel Literario de El Nacional, October 9, 2004, 2. Márquez, Felipe. "El color aparente." In Alamar: Ani Villanueva Brandt, unpaged. Caracas: Galería K, 1994. Nahas, Dominique. Small Works. New York: Artsforum Gallery, 1999

Connemara pony

The Connemara Pony is a pony breed originating in Ireland. They are known for their athleticism and good disposition; the breed makes excellent show ponies. The Connemara region in County Galway in western Ireland, where the breed first became recognised as a distinct type, is a harsh landscape, thus giving rise to a pony breed of hardy, strong individuals; some believe that the Connemara developed from Scandinavian ponies that the Vikings first brought to Ireland. Another source was the Irish Hobby, a now-extinct breed established prior to the 13th century. Legend, says that galleons from the Spanish Armada ran aground in 1588, the Andalusians on board were set loose; the Spanish horses bred with the native stock. For additional strength and stamina, Arabian blood was added in the 18th century, they were crossed with Hackneys and Thoroughbreds. Too much crossbreeding began to dilute the pony bloodlines, so the Connemara Pony Breeders' Society, worked to preserve the breed type; the stud book was established in 1926.

Today, Connemaras are bred worldwide in Ireland and Britain, as well as on the European continent, North America and South Africa. The Connemara Pony Breeders Society was established in 1923 and set out to ensure the "preservation and improvement of the Connemara Pony" as the native breed of Ireland; the society has been doing so since its founding. The annual show allows the assembly of the largest collection of Connemara Ponies worldwide and is used to buy and sell ponies from Ireland and abroad; the original breed standard is set by the Connemara Pony Breeders' Society of Ireland, used by the British Connemara Pony Society. The adults are 128 to 148 cm in height, with a strong back and hindquarters, deep and broad through the ribs, with a riding-type well laid-back shoulder and well-placed neck without undue crest, giving a good length of rein; the head should be of pony type, broad between the eyes, which should be large and appear kind, with a deep but refined jaw and defined cheekbone.

The ears should be of pony type. The legs should be short from the knees and hocks to the ground, with a strong, muscular upper leg and well-defined knees and hocks, well-shaped hard feet, which are of a medium size; the action should be free and easy. Permitted colours are grey, brown, dun, chestnut and cream. Pinto colouring is not accepted; the Connemara Pony should be suitable for adults and children. If a Connemara Pony is to be passed as grade 1 on inspection by the Connemara Pony Breeder's Society, it must meet the breed standard. Connemaras in North America range from 13 to 15 hands; some Connemara Ponies carry the autosomal recessive disorder hoof wall separation disease and all foals born are tested as part of the registration process. The Connemara is best known today as a sports pony. Ridden by both children and adults, it is considered to be a versatile pony breed, competitive in show jumping and eventing, but with the stamina for endurance riding, they are shown in harness. Connemara Pony shows are held worldwide, with particular popularity in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

Mountain and moorland pony breeds < Link to the NICPBA - NI Connemara Pony Breeders Association Ulster Connemara Pony Breeders Association Connemara Pony Breeders Society American Connemara Pony Society British Connemara Pony Society Profile International Committee of Connemara Pony Societies Connemara Pony Breeder Online Pedigree Resources Connemara Pony Breeders Society of Australia

José Moreno Carbonero

José Moreno Carbonero was a Spanish painter and decorator. A prominent member of the Málaga School of Painting, he is considered one of the last great history painters of the 19th century, he was a celebrated portrait painter. He created genre scenes and some landscapes and still lifes. Moreno Carbonero was recognized, both nationally and internationally, during his lifetime, he received awards, among others, at the Exposition Universelle of Paris in 1889, the Budapest International Exhibition in 1890, the Universal Exhibition of Berlin in 1891 and the only medal at the World's Columbian Exposition of Chicago in 1893. His work is represented at some of the most influential museums in the world, with El Prado Museum, in Madrid, holding an important collection. Among his masterworks are The Entry of Roger de Flor in Constantinople, The Prince don Carlos de Viana, The Conversion of the Duke of Gandía and The Founding of Buenos Aires. Moreno Carbonero was born in the Perchel quarter of the son of a carpenter.

His exact birthdate has been object of debate cited as March 1860, but the original birth certificate is conserved and states he was born on 24 March 1858. A precocious artist, in 1868 he joined the school of fine arts in his home town and took classes in the studio of Bernardo Ferrándiz, he sold his first painting at age fifteen for 2000 pesetas and came to be known as "el niño Moreno" because of his early mastery of oil painting. Bernardo Ferrándiz was the leading Málaga artist of the moment and introduced his young student to history painting. Ferrándiz instilled in him his own revolutionary views which he expressed in his historical works by proclaiming a commitment to independence and nonconformity. Moreno Carbonero obtained the gold medal in the Exhibition of the Lyceum of Málaga in 1872, being only fourteen. In 1873 Moreno Carbonero visited Morocco, where he began to make African-themed paintings, influenced by Mariano Fortuny. In 1875 he traveled to Paris thanks to a scholarship granted by the local government of Málaga.

In Paris he joined the workshop of the painter Jean-Léon Gérôme, known for his Academic and Orientalist works. He got to know the famous art dealer Adolphe Goupil. Goupil introduced him to the market of small genre paintings referred to in French as tableautins. In this area he achieved his first successes and he developed a virtuoso style comparable to that of Fortuny. In 1881 Moreno Carbonero went to study in Rome as a boarder on a stipend. After he returned to Spain, he won gold medals at the national exhibitions in 1881 with his painting The prince don Carlos de Viana and in 1884 with The Conversion of the Duke of Gandía, which he had painted during his stay in Rome; as his fame grew, he received commissions from various official institutions. In 1888 the Spanish Senate commissioned from him the painting The Entry of Roger de Flor in Constantinople, considered one of the most spectacular artworks within the genre of historical painting and still decorate the walls of the Conference Hall in the Senate.

For this large-scale painting, that depicts the Italian mercenary Roger de Flor and his troops of Almogavar warriors entering the city to relieve the Byzantine emperor from the Turkish, Moreno Carbonero extensively researched in Paris about Byzantine architecture and decoration, he used dozens of models to recreate the complete atmosphere in the Málaga bullfighting arena. Smaller paintings derived from this work, depicting individual Almogavar warriors, are known to exist. In 1910, the Argentine Government asked him to execute a canvas with the theme of the founding of Buenos Aires to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the revolution of Argentina. King Alfonso XIII of Spain gave this work as a gift to the city of Buenos Aires; the king visited the studio of Moreno Carbonero during the creation of the work and kept in the bedroom of the Royal Palace of Madrid a design for the portrait of Juan de Garay, the founder of Buenos Aires, depicted in the canvas. Moreno Carbonero was awarded in 1888 the highest award in the Vatican Exposition and participated in the International Exhibitions in Munich and Vienna.

He obtained a second medal at the Exposition Universelle of Paris in 1889, a great gold medal at the Budapest International Exhibition in 1890, an honorary diploma at the Universal Exhibition of Berlin in 1891 and the only medal at the World's Columbian Exposition of Chicago in 1893. From 1892 he taught as professor of live drawing at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando and he was an Academician of the same organisation. In 1924 he was made Hijo Predilecto. After his death in Madrid on 15 April 1942, his body was transferred to Málaga, where he is buried in the San Miguel cemetery. In 1958 a monument created by Mariano Benlliure was erected in the Puerta Oscura gardens to honour the artist. José Moreno Carbonero was principally a history painter, he was further a painter of portraits, genre scenes, some landscapes and still lifes. His work was eclectic in style and was influenced by the work of Fortuny. In his portraits he used a realistic style; as a history painter Moreno Carbonero excelled through clean brushstrokes.

In his history paintings he was influenced by the genre painting on small format that he practised in his early years. He showed a preference for leaving aside the grand events of history in favour of depicting the feelings and reactions of participants in events from the past, he cared a lot about the historical accuracy of his history paintings. This explains why he asked that the p

Crime scene getaway

A crime scene getaway is the act of fleeing the location where one has broken the law. It is an act that the offender may or may not have planned in detail, resulting in a variety of outcomes. A crime scene is the "location of a crime; the "getaway" is any escape by a perpetrator from that scene, which may have been witnessed by eyewitnesses or law enforcement. The crime scene getaway is the subject of several penal laws, as well as a "notion" in academic studies of criminology. A perpetrator can escape a crime scene by running, riding a horse, riding a bicycle, riding a motorcycle, driving a getaway car, or riding with a getaway driver, among other methods. If motor vehicles are used for the getaway each vehicle is a new crime scene. In some jurisdictions, the act of making a go away from a crime scene is an inchoate criminal offense in itself, though it is viewed as natural behavior for a lawbreaker. For example, under New York law, "escape" is defined as escaping detention. Traditionally, for thousands of years, the standard method of escape from a crime scene was for the perpetrator to run away, faster than the constable on patrol, sheriff, or the night watchman.

This was common into the 20th century. For example, according to the Warren Commission report, Lee Harvey Oswald infamously walked ran away from the Texas Book Depository from where he shot President Kennedy on November 22, 1963. If another means of transportation becomes unavailable, the suspect may have to run. Once humans domesticated horses, that animal became a favorite way to escape a crime scene. Jesse James and many old "Wild West" bank robbers and train robbers of the 19th century used horses to get way from the scene of their larceny; the etymology of two common terms for peace officers in premodern times indicates that their major role may have been to prevent horse theft—or escape by horse. These are constable, marshall, a loanword from Old Norman French, which in turn is borrowed from Old Frankish *marhskalk "stable boy, servant", cognate with Germanic *marha- "horse" and skalk- "servant". A motor vehicle referred to as a getaway car, is used by the offender to flee the scene of a crime.

Getaway cars are prevalent in major crimes such as bank homicides. But not always, a getaway car is stolen and is abandoned soon after the crime, in the hope that the vehicle cannot be traced to the offender. If the vehicle does not belong to the driver and is abandoned, a trace may not be possible without examination of forensic evidence. In some cases, the offender may go to extreme measures to discard the getaway vehicle in order to hide his'tracks' by dumping it in a river or secluded park, and/or setting it on fire; the criminal investigation can be further complicated by the use of multiple getaway vehicles, which can confuse eyewitnesses, as well as creating multiple places to investigate: each vehicle is a new crime scene. In Forensics for Dummies, the rookie is reminded: "At a minimum, the crime scene includes... Areas from which the site can be entered, exited, or escaped...."Since a getaway vehicle requires a getaway driver, this additional co-defendant creates problems in itself.

First, having a second perpetrator involved creates yet another inchoate offence that the prosecutor can use in an indictment: conspiracy. A co-conspirator may cooperate with police, either intentionally by'turning state's evidence' by way of a plea bargain, or inadvertently by giving away information to persons outside the conspiracy. If the driver, who may have parked some distance away, unknowingly drives past the scene of the crime, the getaway vehicle itself may identify the occupants to the crime victim and police; this is true if the vehicle has unique markings or is an unusual model. Without a driver, the perpetrator may make errors due to the stress associated with the crime, or lack of ability to multi-task. Witnesses to the crime will attempt to take note of the tags or other important details of the car and report this information to law enforcement, it may be possible to identify the offender if an officer spots the offender in possession of the vehicle prior to its abandonment.

In one news story: The homeowner was at the back of the house at the time of the incident, was able to identify the getaway vehicle. When police arrived at the scene, they began to drive around the neighborhoods, until they found and the vehicle, driving around some four blocks away. Crime victims can hinder escape by disabling or moving the getaway vehicle. If a witness follows the offender to the point of abandonment, observes the offender's tracks from beyond this point, that may help the police. However, such civilian involvement may be dangerous, is not recommended by police departments. In other cases, the public may be hesitant to cooperate, with or without the offer of a reward:Witnesses are reluctant to come forward. Many people who could help with an investigation don't, they sometimes d