West Africa

West Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, as well as the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the population of West Africa is estimated at about 381 million people as of 2018, at 381,981,000 as of 2017, of which 189,672,000 are female and 192,309,000 male. Studies of human mitochondrial DNA suggest that all humans share common ancestors from Africa, originated in the southwestern regions near the coastal border of Namibia and Angola at the approximate coordinates 12.5° E, 17.5°S with a divergence in the migration path around 37.5°E, 22.5°N near the Red Sea. A particular haplogroup of DNA, haplogroup L2, evolved between 87,000 and 107,000 years ago or approx. 90,000 YBP. Its age and widespread distribution and diversity across the continent makes its exact origin point within Africa difficult to trace with any confidence, however an origin for several L2 groups in West or Central Africa seems with the highest diversity in West Africa.

Most of its subclades are confined to West and western-Central Africa. Africans bearing the E-V38 traversed across the Sahara, from east to west 19,000 years ago. E-M2 originated in West Africa or Central Africa. Due to the large numbers of West Africans enslaved in the Atlantic slave trade, most African Americans, Afro Latin Americans and Black Caribbeans are to have mixed ancestry from different regions of western Africa. 60% of African-Americans were of the E1b1a haplogroup, within which 22.9% were of the E-M2 haplogroup. The history of West Africa can be divided into five major periods: first, its prehistory, in which the first human settlers arrived, developed agriculture, made contact with peoples to the north. Archaeological evidence from central Mali indicates that West African peoples had independently invented pottery in the region by that period, it is believed that local peoples at that time had begun to become more settled, to use pottery to store and cook indigenous grains. At Gobero, the Kiffian, who were hunters of tall stature, lived during the green Sahara between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago.

The Tenerian, who were a more built people that hunted and herded cattle, lived during the latter part of the green Sahara 7,000 to 4,500 years ago. Sedentary farming began in, or around the fifth millennium B. C, as well as the domestication of cattle. Though there is some uncertainty, some archaeologists believe that iron metallurgy was developed independently in sub-Saharan Africa. Archaeological sites containing iron smelting furnaces and slag have been excavated at sites in the Nsukka region of southeast Nigeria in what is now Igboland: dating to 2000 BC at the site of Lejja and to 750 BC and at the site of Opi. Smelting furnaces appear in the Nok culture of central Nigeria by about 550 BC and a few centuries earlier. Ironworking technology allowed an expansion of agricultural productivity, the first city-states formed. Northern tribes developed walled settlements and non-walled settlements that numbered at 400. In the forest region, Iron Age cultures began to flourish, an inter-region trade began to appear.

The desertification of the Sahara and the climatic change of the coast caused trade with upper Mediterranean peoples to be seen. The domestication of the camel allowed the development of a trans-Saharan trade with cultures across the Sahara, including Carthage and the Berbers. Local leather and gold contributed to the abundance of prosperity for many of the following empires; the development of the region's economy allowed more centralized states and civilizations to form, beginning with Dhar Tichitt that began in 1600 B. C. followed by Djenné-Djenno beginning in 300 B. C; this was succeeded by the Ghana Empire that first flourished between the 9th and 12th centuries, which gave way to the Mali Empire. In current-day Mauritania, there exist archaeological sites in the towns of Tichit and Oualata that were constructed around 2000 B. C. and were found to have originated from the Soninke branch of the Mandé peoples. Based on the archaeology of the city of Kumbi Saleh in modern-day Mauritania, the Mali empire came to dominate much of the region until its defeat by Almoravid invaders in 1052.

Three great kingdoms were identified in Bilad al-Sudan by the ninth century. They included Ghana and Kanem; the Sosso Empire sought to fill the void but was defeated by the Mandinka forces of Sundiata Keita, founder of the new Mali Empire. The Mali Empire continued to flourish for several centuries, most under Sundiata's grandnephew Musa I, before a succession of weak rulers led to its collapse under Mossi and Songhai invaders. In the 15th century, the Songhai would form a new dominant state based on Ga

Jacob Hoke

Jacob Hoke was a 19th-century American merchant and businessman in Chambersburg, whose personal observations and diary entries formed the basis for one of the earliest classic accounts of the Gettysburg Campaign during the American Civil War. He was a prolific writer of circulated religious materials for the United Brethren Church. Hoke was born in Pennsylvania, to Henry and Sarah Hoke, he was educated in the local schools and, from the age of twelve until May 1841, clerked in a country store. He moved to Chambersburg, where he engaged in a series of business ventures that led to enough capital to open his own dry goods store on Chambersburg's town square. During the early part of the Civil War, he assisted in caring for the wounded from the Battle of Antietam in the autumn of 1862. Hoke lived on the second floor above his shop; as the Confederate Army began invading the town in late June 1863, he had an excellent vantage point to observe and watch the movements of the Southern soldiers. For the next two weeks, Confederates occupied the town, much of the Army of Northern Virginia passed within view of Hoke.

In the summer of 1864, he again was in a position to witness the Civil War in his home town when much of Chambersburg was burned by Confederate cavalry under John McCausland operating under the orders of Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early. In 1884, Hoke integrated his memories, notes and outside sources into a pamphlet he entitled "Reminiscences of the War." Three years he produced a larger, more detailed work, The Great Invasion of 1863, or, General Lee in Pennsylvania. Published in Dayton, the book has become a standard reference work for a first-hand account of the two Confederate incursions into south-central Pennsylvania. For many years, Hoke was the president of the Franklin County Bible Society, he served on several church-related boards and committees, including chairing the Board of Missions for the national United Brethren Church, he had no children. Biographical Annals of Franklin County, Volume 1. Reprinted by Heritage Books, Jacob, The Great Invasion of 1863, or, General Lee in Pennsylvania....

Dayton, Ohio: W. J. Shuey, 1887

Pericles, Prince of Tyre

Pericles, Prince of Tyre is a Jacobean play written at least in part by William Shakespeare and included in modern editions of his collected works despite questions over its authorship, as it was not included in the First Folio. Whilst various arguments support that Shakespeare is the sole author of the play, modern editors agree that Shakespeare is responsible for exactly half the play—827 lines—the main portion after scene 9 that follows the story of Pericles and Marina. Modern textual studies indicate that the first two acts of 835 lines detailing the many voyages of Pericles were written by a collaborator, which strong evidence suggests to have been the victualler, panderer and pamphleteer George Wilkins. John Gower introduces each act with a prologue; the play opens in the court of Antiochus, king of Antioch, who has offered the hand of his beautiful daughter to any man who answers his riddle. Pericles, the young Prince of Tyre in Phoenicia, hears the riddle, understands its meaning: Antiochus is engaged in an incestuous relationship with his daughter.

If he reveals this truth, he will be killed, but if he answers incorrectly, he will be killed. Pericles hints that he knows the answer, asks for more time to think. Antiochus grants him forty days, sends an assassin after him. However, Pericles has fled the city in disgust. Pericles returns to Tyre, where his trusted friend and counsellor Helicanus advises him to leave the city, for Antiochus will hunt him down. Pericles leaves Helicanus as regent and sails to a city beset by famine; the generous Pericles gives the governor of the city and his wife Dionyza, grain from his ship to save their people. The famine ends, after being thanked profusely by Cleon and Dionyza, Pericles continues on. A storm washes him up on the shores of Pentapolis, he is rescued by a group of poor fishermen who inform him that Simonides, King of Pentapolis, is holding a tournament the next day and that the winner will receive the hand of his daughter Thaisa in marriage. One of the fishermen drags Pericles' suit of armour on shore that moment, the prince decides to enter the tournament.

Although his equipment is rusty, Pericles wins the hand of Thaisa in marriage. Simonides expresses doubt about the union, but soon comes to like Pericles and allows them to wed. A letter sent by the noblemen reaches Pericles in Pentapolis, who decides to return to Tyre with the pregnant Thaisa. Again, a storm arises while at sea, Thaisa appears to die giving birth to her child, Marina; the sailors insist. Pericles grudgingly agrees, decides to stop at Tarsus because he fears that Marina may not survive the storm. Luckily, Thaisa's casket washes ashore at Ephesus near the residence of Lord Cerimon, a physician who revives her. Thinking that Pericles died in the storm, Thaisa becomes a priestess in the temple of Diana. Pericles departs leaving Marina in the care of Cleon and Dionyza. Marina grows up more beautiful than Philoten the daughter of Cleon and Dionyza, so Dionyza plans Marina's murder; the plan is thwarted when pirates kidnap Marina and sell her to a brothel in Mytilene. There, Marina manages to keep her virginity by convincing the men.

Worried that she is ruining their market, the brothel rents her out as a tutor to respectable young ladies. She becomes famous for music and other decorous entertainments. Meanwhile, Pericles returns to Tarsus for his daughter; the governor and his wife claim. Pericles' wanderings bring him to Mytilene where the governor Lysimachus, seeking to cheer him up, brings in Marina, they compare their sad stories and joyfully realise they are daughter. Next, the goddess Diana appears in a dream to Pericles, tells him to come to the temple where he finds Thaisa; the wicked Cleon and Dionyza are killed. Lysimachus will marry Marina; the play draws upon two sources for the plot. The first is Confessio Amantis of an English poet and contemporary of Geoffrey Chaucer; this provides the story of Apollonius of Tyre. The second source is the Lawrence Twine prose version of Gower's tale, The Pattern of Painful Adventures, dating from c. 1576, reprinted in 1607. Moreover, a third related work is The Painful Adventures of Pericles by George Wilkins, published in 1608.

But this seems to be a "novelization" of the play, stitched together with bits from Twine. Wilkins, who with Shakespeare was a witness in the Bellott v. Mountjoy lawsuit of 1612, has been an obvious candidate for the author of the non-Shakespearean matter in the play's first two acts; the choruses spoken by Gower were influenced by Barnabe Barnes's The Diuils Charter and by The Trauailes of the Three English Brothers, by John Day, William Rowley, Wilkins. Most scholars support 1607 or early 1608 as most which accords well with what is known about the play's co-author, George Wilkins, whose extant literary career seems to span only three years, 1606 to 1608; the only published text of Pericles, the 1609 quarto, is manifestly corrupt.