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Guinevere written as Guenevere or Guenever, is the wife and queen of King Arthur in the Arthurian legend. Guinevere has been portrayed as everything from a villainous and opportunistic traitor to a fatally flawed but noble and virtuous lady, she has first appeared in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, a pseudo-historical chronicle of British history written in the early 12th century, continues to be a popular character in the modern adaptations of the legend. In the medieval romances, one of the most prominent story arcs is Queen Guinevere's tragic love affair with her husband's chief knight and friend, indirectly causing the death of Arthur and many others and the downfall of the kingdom; this story first appeared in Chrétien de Troyes's Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart and became a major motif in the Lancelot-Grail of the 13th century, carrying through the Post-Vulgate Cycle and Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur. The original Welsh form of the name Gwenhwyfar, which seems to be cognate with the Irish name Findabair, can be translated as "The White Enchantress" or "The White Fay/Ghost", from Proto-Celtic *Windo- "white, holy" + *sēbarā "magical being".

Some have suggested that the name may derive from Gwenhwy-fawr, or "Gwenhwy the Great", as a contrast to Gwenhwy-fach, or "Gwenhwy the less". Gwenhwyfach appears in Welsh literature as a sister of Gwenhwyfar, but Welsh scholars Melville Richards and Rachel Bromwich both dismiss this etymology. Geoffrey of Monmouth rendered her name as Ganhumara in Latin; the name is given as Guennuuar in the Vita Gildae, while Gerald of Wales refers to her as Wenneuereia. In the 15th-century Middle Cornish play Bewnans Ke, she was called Gwynnever; the 15th-century English author Thomas Malory wrote her name as Gwenyvere. A cognate name in Modern English is Jennifer, from Cornish. In one of the Welsh Triads, there are three Gwenhwyfars married to King Arthur; the first is the daughter of Cywryd of Gwent, the second of Gwythyr ap Greidawl, the third of ogrfan Gawr. In a variant of another Welsh Triad, only the daughter of Gogfran Gawr is mentioned. There was once a popular folk rhyme known in Wales concerning Gwenhwyfar: "Gwenhwyfar ferch Ogrfan Gawr / Drwg yn fechan, gwaeth yn fawr."Welsh tradition remembers the queen's sister Gwenhwyfach and records the enmity between them.

Two Triads mention Gwenhwyfar's contention with her sister, believed to be the cause of the Battle of Camlann. In the mid-late 12th-century Welsh folktale Culhwch and Olwen, she is mentioned alongside Gwenhwyfach. German romance Diu Crône gives Guinevere two sisters, including Queen Lenomie of Alexandria. Guinevere is childless in most stories, the exceptions being Perlesvaus and Parzival and the Alliterative Morte Arthure. In the latter text, Guinevere willingly becomes Mordred's consort and bears him two sons, although the dying Arthur commands Mordred's children to be killed. There are mentions of Arthur's sons in the Welsh Triads. Other family relations are obscure. A half-sister and a brother play the antagonistic roles in the Lancelot–Grail and Diu Crône but neither character is mentioned elsewhere. While literature always named Leodegrance as Guinevere's father, her mother was unmentioned, although she was sometimes said to be dead; some works name cousins of note, though these do not appear more than once.

The earliest datable mention of Guinevere is in Geoffrey's Historia, written c. 1136. It relates that Guinevere, described as one of the great beauties of Britain, was descended from a noble Roman family on her mother's side and educated under Cador, Duke of Cornwall. Arthur leaves her in the care of his nephew Modredus when he crosses over to Europe to go to war with the Roman leader Lucius Tiberius. While her husband is absent, Guinevere is seduced by Modredus and marries him, Modredus declares himself king and takes Arthur's throne. Arthur returns to Britain and fights Modredus at the fatal Battle of Camlann. Early texts tend to portray her inauspiciously or hardly at all. One of them is Culhwch and Olwen, in which she is mentioned as Arthur's wife Gwenhwyfar, but little more is said about her, it can not be securely dated. The works of Chrétien de Troyes were some of the first to elaborate on the character Guinevere beyond the wife of Arthur; this was due to Chrétien's audience at the time, the court of Marie, Countess of Champagne, composed of courtly ladies who played social roles.

Authors use her good and bad qualities to constr

Jean-Marie-Louis Coupé

Jean-Marie-Louis Coupé was a French abbé, man of letters and librarian. He was ordained a priest and taught rhetorics at the College of Navarre, he became tutor to the Prince of Vaudemont, son of the Countess de Brionne, with whom he traveled to Germany and Switzerland. He published several moral and literary works, including the periodical collections of mélanges and literary varieties, he was appointed a royal censor in 1778 and custodian of the titles and genealogies department of the Bibliothèque du roi in 1785. After the fall of Robespierre in 1792, he retired in Fontainebleau and managed to earn a living by making translations of Greek and Latin authors for booksellers, he became honorary censor after the Bourbon Restauration. 1772: Manuel de morale, dédié à Monseigneur le comte d'Artois 1773: Dictionnaire des mœurs 1785–1787: Variétés littéraires, galantes, etc. 8 vol. 1779–1781: Histoire universelle des théâtres de toutes les nations, depuis Thespis jusqu'à nos jours, with Desfontaines-Lavallée, Testu et Le Fuel de Méricourt, 13 vol.

1795–1799: Les Soirées littéraires, ou Mélanges de traductions nouvelles des plus beaux morceaux de l'antiquité, de pièces instructives et amusantes, françaises et étrangères, 10 vol. 1801–1802: Spicilège de littérature ancienne ou moderne, ou Recueil d'ouvrages grecs et latins de tous les âges et de tous les genres ignorés ou peu connus, 2 vol. Translations1778: Michel de L'Hospital: Essai de traduction de quelques épîtres et autres poésies latines de Michel de L'Hôpital, avec des éclaircissements sur sa vie et son caractère, 2 vol. 1795: Seneca the Younger: Théâtre de Sénèque. Traduction nouvelle, enrichie de notes historiques, littéraires et critiques, et suivie du texte latin corrigé d'après les meilleurs manuscrits, 2 vol. 1796: Daniel Heinsius: Éloge de l'âne, 1796: Homer: Opuscules, 2 vol. 1796: Theognis of Megara: Sentences. Poème moral de Proclyde Pierre Larousse, vol. V, 1869, p. 320 Jean-Philippe Gérard et Thierry Sarmant, « Les gardes du département des Titres et généalogies et les employés attachés au Cabinet des titres.

1720 à 1883 », Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2005. Jean-Marie-Louis Coupé on Coupé on Château de Versailles

Chris Smith (Florida politician)

Christopher L. Smith is a Democratic member of the Florida Senate, representing the 31st District, which includes eastern Broward County since 2012. Smith attended Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina, where he received a degree in political science, he participated in Model United Nations while in college traveling to Moscow, Russia to participate in the International Model United Nations in 1990. Following his undergraduate work, he attended Florida State University, where he graduated with a Juris Doctor in 1995, he started working for the law firm Johnson, Murdoch, Burke & George, P. A. where he works. Many critics argue Smith's employment with Johnson, Murdoch, Burke & George, P. A. has led to conflicts in interest during his career in the State Senate: serving as a lobbyist for Florida Power & Light, Smith protested the confirmation of two former Florida Public Service Commission commissioners while serving as State Senator. Though he claimed his reservation for their confirmation was in an effort to increase diversity, it is arguably suspicious that these two commissioners had just denied FP&L's bid for their largest rate increase in history.

In 1995, he was appointed to the Fort Lauderdale Zoning Board. Following the decision by Democratic State Representative M. Mandy Dawson to run for the Florida State Senate rather than seek re-election, Smith ran to succeed her. Smith faced Perry E. Thurston, Jr. Hazel K. Armbrister, Fred Segal in the Democratic primary, opened to the entire electorate because all of the candidates were Democrats. Though Smith came in first place with 47% of the vote, the fact that he did not attain a majority mandated a run-off election between Smith and Thurston, the second-place finisher, which he won in a landslide, receiving 58% of the vote, he was unopposed in the general election, was re-elected without opposition in 2002. In 2004, Smith faced Sallie Tillman-Watson in the Democratic primary, but he turned away her challenge easily, he was re-elected to his final term in the general election without opposition. From 2004 to 2006, he served as the Minority Leader of the Florida House of Representatives. In 2008, when State Senator M. Mandy Dawson was unable to seek another term due to term limits, Smith ran to succeed her in the 29th District, which includes parts of Broward County and Palm Beach County.

In the Democratic primary, Smith defeated Earlen C. Smiley, the Deputy Superintendent of the Broward County School Board. In the general election, he was elected without opposition; when Florida Senate districts were reconfigured, Smith was drawn into the 31st District and ran for re-election there. He faced Republican Chris Smithmyer, recruited by the Republican Party of Florida to run in Smith's district due to his similar-sounding name. Smith was endorsed for re-election by the South Florida Sun-Sentinel, which praised him for becoming "the lead advocate for issues dear to Senate Democrats, from closing corporate tax loopholes to providing more state funding to make higher education more accessible and affordable." In the end, Smith was overwhelmingly re-elected over Smithmyer. For the 2012-2014 legislative term, Smith served as the Senate Democratic Leader, and, by virtue of the fact that his party was in the minority, the Minority Leader of the Senate. Chris Smith fell short of beating incumbent Broward County Commissioner Dale Holness in the race for the District 9 seat.

Florida Senate - Chris Smith Florida House of Representatives - Chris Smith Chris Smith for State Senate


Murexiella is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Muricidae, the murex snails or rock snails. This name has become a synonym of Favartia Clench & Perez Farfante, 1945 Species within the genus Murexiella include: Murexiella puntagordana The other species have been brought into synonymy Murexiella andamanensis Houart & Surya Rao, 1996: synonym of Favartia andamanensis Murexiella angermeyerae: synonym of Maxwellia angermeyerae Murexiella asteriae Nicolay, 1972: synonym of Favartia bojadorensis Murexiella bojadorensis: synonym of Favartia bojadorensis Murexiella edwardpauli Petuch, 1990: synonym of Favartia edwardpauli Murexiella gemma: synonym of Maxwellia gemma Murexiella glypta: synonym of Favartia glypta Murexiella hidalgoi: synonym of Favartia hidalgoi Murexiella hilli Petuch, 1987: synonym of Favartia hilli Murexiella iemanja Petuch, 1979: synonym of Favartia glypta Murexiella kalafuti Petuch, 1987: synonym of Favartia kalafuti Murexiella keenae Vokes, 1970: synonym of Favartia keenae Murexiella laurae Vokes, 1970: synonym of Favartia laurae Murexiella leonardhilli Petuch, 1987: synonym of Favartia macgintyi Murexiella levicula: synonym of Favartia levicula Murexiella macgintyi: synonym of Favartia macgintyi Murexiella mactanensis Emerson & D'Attilio, 1979: synonym of Favartia mactanensis Murexiella martini Shikama, 1977: synonym of Favartia martini Murexiella mildredae Poorman, 1980: synonym of Murexsul mildredae Murexiella peregrina Olivera, 1980: synonym of Favartia peregrina Murexiella radwini Emerson & D'Attilio, 1970: synonym of Favartia radwini Murexiella santarosana: synonym of Maxwellia santarosana Murexiella taylorae Petuch, 1987: synonym of Favartia taylorae Murexiella venustula Poorman, 1983: synonym of Favartia exigua

Albrecht Gustav von Manstein

Albert Ehrenreich Gustav von Manstein was a Prussian general who served during the Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-German War. He was the adoptive grandfather of Erich von Manstein. Manstein entered the 3rd Infantry Regiment in 1822. In 1841 he was promoted to first lieutenant and he became an adjutant on the staff of the I Army Corps. By 1864 he had been promoted to the rank of Major General and given command of the 6th Infantry Division, which he led during the Second Schleswig War in the Battle of Dybbøl and at Als. During the Austro-Prussian War he commanded the reserve of the First Army, which he led during the battle of Königgrätz and for which he was awarded the Pour le Mérite. In 1867, Manstein was given command of IX Corps and was promoted to General der Infanterie in 1868; when the Franco-German War started in August 1870, IX Corps became part of the Second Army of Prince Friedrich Karl. Manstein and his Corps distinguished themselves at Gravelotte. After the fall of the Second Empire, Manstein fought in the Loire Valley in the campaigns at Orleans and Le Mans.

For his services during the war he was awarded 100.000 thaler. He retired in 1873. Howard, The Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France 1870–1871, New York: Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-26671-8. Poten, Berhard von: Manstein, Albrecht Ehrenreich Gustav v. in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Band 20, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1884, S. 248

Carola Saavedra

Carola Saavedra is a Chilean-born Brazilian writer. Saavedra was moved with her family to Brazil when she was three years old, she graduated in journalism by Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro. She lived in Spain and Germany, where she got a master's degree in communication studies, she lives in Rio de Janeiro. Saavedra was an invited author at Festa Literária Internacional de Paraty in 2010. In September 2018, Carola Saavedra launched her new novel With Sonolentas Armas in Porto Alegre. Premio APCA for Best Novel, 2008, for Flores azuis Prêmio Rachel de Queiroz, Young Author category, 2010, for Paisagem com dromedárioSaavedra was a runner-up for São Paulo de Literatura and Jabuti prizes. Paisagem com dromedário Flores azuis Toda terça Do lado de fora Granta Magazine's The Best of Young Brazilian Novelists anthology Geração Zero Zero Essa história está diferente – Dez contos para canções de Chico Buarque Escritores escritos Um homem célebre: Machado recriado Official blog Video interview to ed. Saraiva Interview to newspaper Estado de S. Paulo