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Guinness

Guinness is a dark Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate, Ireland, in 1759, it is one of the most successful beer brands worldwide, brewed in 50 countries, available in over 120. Sales in 2011 amounted to 850 million litres, it is popular with the Irish, both in Ireland and abroad. In spite of declining consumption since 2001, it is still the best-selling alcoholic drink in Ireland where Guinness & Co. Brewery makes €2 billion worth of beer annually; the Guinness Storehouse is a tourist attraction at St. James's Gate Brewery in Ireland. Since opening in 2000, it has received over 20 million visitors. Guinness's flavour derives from malted barley and roasted unmalted barley, a modern development, not becoming part of the grist until the mid-20th century. For many years, a portion of aged brew was blended with freshly brewed beer to give a sharp lactic acid flavour. Although Guinness's palate still features a characteristic "tang", the company has refused to confirm whether this type of blending still occurs.

The draught beer's thick, creamy head comes from mixing the beer with carbon dioxide. The company moved its headquarters to London at the beginning of the Anglo-Irish Trade War in 1932. In 1997, Guinness Plc merged with Grand Metropolitan to form the British multinational alcoholic-drinks producer Diageo plc, based in London. Arthur Guinness started brewing ales in 1759 at Dublin. On 31 December 1759, he signed a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum for the unused brewery. Ten years on 19 May 1769, Guinness first exported his ale: he shipped six-and-a-half barrels to Great Britain. Arthur Guinness started selling the dark beer porter in 1778; the first Guinness beers to use the term were Single Stout and Double Stout in the 1840s. Throughout the bulk of its history, Guinness produced only three variations of a single beer type: porter or single stout, double or extra and foreign stout for export. "Stout" referred to a beer's strength, but shifted meaning toward body and colour. Porter was referred to as "plain", as mentioned in the famous refrain of Flann O'Brien's poem "The Workman's Friend": "A pint of plain is your only man."Already one of the top-three British and Irish brewers, Guinness's sales soared from 350,000 barrels in 1868 to 779,000 barrels in 1876.

In October 1886 Guinness became a public company, was averaging sales of 1.138 million barrels a year. This was despite the brewery's refusal to either offer its beer at a discount. Though Guinness owned no public houses, the company was valued at £6 million and shares were 20 times oversubscribed, with share prices rising to a 60 per cent premium on the first day of trading; the breweries pioneered several quality control efforts. The brewery hired the statistician William Sealy Gosset in 1899, who achieved lasting fame under the pseudonym "Student" for techniques developed for Guinness Student's t-distribution and the more known Student's t-test. By 1900 the brewery was operating unparalleled welfare schemes for its 5,000 employees. By 1907 the welfare schemes were costing the brewery £40,000 a year, one-fifth of the total wages bill; the improvements were supervised by Sir John Lumsden. By 1914, Guinness was producing 2.652 million barrels of beer a year, more than double that of its nearest competitor Bass, was supplying more than 10 per cent of the total UK beer market.

In the 1930s, Guinness became the seventh largest company in the world. Before 1939, if a Guinness brewer wished to marry a Catholic, his resignation was requested. According to Thomas Molloy, writing in the Irish Independent, "It had no qualms about selling drink to Catholics but it did everything it could to avoid employing them until the 1960s."Guinness thought they brewed their last porter in 1973. In the 1970s, following declining sales, the decision was taken to make Guinness Extra Stout more "drinkable"; the gravity was subsequently reduced, the brand was relaunched in 1981. Pale malt was used for the first time, isomerized hop extract began to be used. In 2014, two new porters were introduced: Dublin Porter. Guinness acquired the Distillers Company in 1986; this led to a scandal and criminal trial concerning the artificial inflation of the Guinness share price during the takeover bid engineered by the chairman, Ernest Saunders. A subsequent £5.2 million success fee paid to an American lawyer and Guinness director, Tom Ward, was the subject of the case Guinness plc v Saunders, in which the House of Lords declared that the payment had been invalid.

In the 1980s, as the IRA's bombing campaign spread to London and the rest of Britain, Guinness considered scrapping the Harp as its logo. The company merged with Grand Metropolitan in 1997 to form Diageo. Due to controversy over the merger, the company was maintained as a separate entity within Diageo and has retained the rights to the product and all associated trademarks of Guinness; the Guinness brewery in Park Royal, London closed in 2005. The production of all Guinness sold in the UK and Ireland was moved to St. James's Gate Brewery, Dublin. Guinness has been referred to as "that black stuff". Guinness had a fleet of ships and yachts; the Irish Sunday Independent newspaper reported on 17 June 2007 that Diageo intended to close the historic St James's Gate plant in Dublin and move to a greenfield site on the outskirts of the city. This news caused some controversy; the following day, the Irish Daily Mail ran a follow-up story with a double page spread complete with images and a history of the plant since 1759.

Diageo said that talk of a move was pure specul

Silvana Cardoso

Silvana Cardoso is a Portuguese fluid dynamicist working in Britain. She is professor of Fluid Mechanics and the Environment at the University of Cambridge and a fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, she leads the Fluids and the Environment research group at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology. Her research focuses on fluid mechanics and environmental science, in particular the interaction of natural convection and chemical kinetics including turbulent plumes and thermals in the environment, such as the BP oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan and oceanic methane releases. Flow and reaction in porous media, e.g. the spreading of carbon dioxide in geological storage at Sleipner gas field in the North Sea. Cool flames and thermo-kinetic explosions, as occurred in the crash of TWA flight 800. Self-assembling porous precipitate structures, such as chemical gardens and submarine hydrothermal vents.

She is on the International Advisory Panel of the journal Chemical Engineering Science and the Editorial Board of Chemical Engineering Journal. In 2016 she was awarded the Davidson medal of the Institution of Chemical Engineers. Recent press interest in her work has included pieces on whether natural geochemical reactions can delay or prevent the spreading of carbon dioxide in subsurface aquifers used for carbon capture and storage, the possible melting of oceanic methane hydrate deposits owing to climate change, the importance to astrobiology of brinicles on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Page at Cambridge Fluids Network regarding fluid mechanics research at Cambridge Page at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology Page at Pembroke College Page at University of Cambridge Silvana Cardoso at the Mathematics Genealogy Project

Elias 2-27

Elias 2-27 is a YSO star with a protoplanetary disc around it, located in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud, a star-forming region in the Ophiuchus constellation, some 450 light-years away. This star system became the first observed with density waves in the disc, giving it a spiral structure. Elias 2-27 is located near the double star Rho Ophiuchi. In 2016, it was discovered that disc perturbations from density waves organized the disc debris into a pinwheel structure, with sweeping spiral arms; this marks the first instance of such an observation in a protoplanetary disc, though they have been predicted. The spiral arms start at 100 AU and extend out to 300 AU. Laura M. Pérez. "Spiral density waves in a young protoplanetary disk". Science. 353: 1519–1521. ArXiv:1610.05139. Bibcode:2016Sci...353.1519P. Doi:10.1126/science.aaf8296