Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat and spoken predominantly by the Gujarati people. Gujarati is part of the greater Indo-European language family. Gujarati is descended from Old Gujarati. In India, it is the official language in the state of Gujarat, as well as an official language in the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu; as of 2011, Gujarati is the 6th most spoken language in India by number of native speakers, spoken by 55.5 million speakers which amounts to about 4.5% of the total Indian population. It is the 26th most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers as of 2007; the Gujarati language is more than 700 years old and is spoken by more than 55 million people worldwide. Outside of Gujarat, Gujarati is spoken in many other parts of South Asia by Gujarati migrants in Mumbai and Pakistan. Gujarati is widely spoken in many countries outside South Asia by the Gujarati diaspora. In North America, Gujarati is one of the fastest growing and most spoken Indian languages in the United States and Canada.
In Europe, Gujaratis form the second largest of the British South Asian speech communities, Gujarati is the fourth most spoken language in the U. K.'s capital London. Gujarati is spoken in Southeast Africa in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. Elsewhere, Gujarati is spoken to a lesser extent in China, Singapore and Middle Eastern countries such as Bahrain. Gujarati is a modern IA language evolved from Sanskrit; the traditional practice is to differentiate the IA languages on the basis of three historical stages: Old IA Middle IA New IA Another view postulates successive family tree splits, in which Gujarati is assumed to have separated from other IA languages in four stages: IA languages split into Northern and Western divisions based on the innovate characteristics such as plosives becoming voiced in the Northern and dental and retroflex sibilants merging with the palatal in the Eastern. Western, into Central and Southern. Central, in Gujarati/Rajasthani, Western Hindi, Punjabi/Lahanda/Sindhi, on the basis of innovation of auxiliary verbs and postpositions in Gujarati/Rajasthani.
Gujarati/Rajasthani into Gujarati and Rajasthani through development of such characteristics as auxiliary ch- and the possessive marker -n- during the 15th century. The principal changes from Sanskrit are the following: Phonological Loss of original phonemic length for vowels Change of consonant clusters to geminate and to single consonants Morphological Reduction in the number of compounds Merger of the dual with plural Replacement of case affixes by postpositions Development of periphrastic tense/voice/mood constructions Syntax Split ergativity More complex agreement systemGujarati is customarily divided into the following three historical stages: A major phonological change was the deletion of final ə, such that the modern language has consonant-final words. Grammatically, a new plural marker of -o developed. In literature, the third quarter of the 19th century saw a series of milestones for Gujarati, which had verse as its dominant mode of literary composition. Of the 46 million speakers of Gujarati in 1997 45.5 million resided in India, 150,000 in Uganda, 50,000 in Tanzania, 50,000 in Kenya and 100,000 in Karachi, excluding several hundreds of thousands of Memonis who do not self-identify as Gujarati, but hail from a region within the state of Gujarat.
However, Gujarati community leaders in Pakistan claim that there are 3 million Gujarati speakers in Karachi. Elsewhere in Pakistan, Gujarati is spoken in Lower Punjab. Pakistani Gujarati is a dialect of Gamadia. There is a certain amount of Mauritian population and a large amount of Réunion Island people who are from Gujarati descent among which some of them still speak Gujarati. A considerable Gujarati-speaking population exists in North America, most in the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the Greater Toronto Area, which have over 100,000 speakers and over 75,000 speakers but throughout the major metropolitan areas of the United States and Canada. According to the 2011 census, Gujarati is the seventeenth most spoken language in the Greater Toronto Area, the fourth most-spoken South Asian language after Hindustani and Tamil; the UK has over 200,000 speakers, many of them situated in the London area in North West London, but in Birmingham, in Leicester, Coventry and the former mill towns within Lancashire.
A portion of these numbers consists of East African Gujaratis who, under increasing discrimination and policies of Africanisation in their newly independent resident countries, were left with uncertain futures and citizenships. Most, with British passports, settled in the UK. Gujarati is offered as a GCSE subject for students in the UK. Gujarati parents in the diaspora are not comfortable with the possibility of their language not surviving them. In a study, 80% of Malayali parents felt that "Children would be better off with English", compared to 36% of Kannada parents and only 19% of Gujarati parents. Besides being spoken by the Gujarati people, non-Gujarati residents of and migrants to the state o
Man's Fate was an abandoned 1969 film adaptation of the novel Man's Fate by Andre Malraux to have been directed by Fred Zinnemann and produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Following the critical and commercial success of his 1966 film A Man for All Seasons, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture and earned Zinnemmann the Best Director Oscar, the filmmaker announced plans to create a film version of André Malraux's Man's Fate, a 1933 novel about the failed 1927 Communist revolution that took place in Shanghai and the existential quandaries facing a group of people whose lives were changed by the event."I had an enormous, enormous need to do Man's Fate because that book was a bible to us in my generation," said Zinnemann in a late-life interview. "It was one of the great novels of the'30s and'40s and to be asked to make a film of it was one of the greatest events of my life."MGM agreed to produce the film. Zinnemann began his career as a feature film director at that studio with the thriller The Seventh Cross.
The screenplay for the film adaptation was created by the Chinese-born novelist Han Suyin, best known for her 1952 book A Many-Splendoured Thing. Zinnemann scouted out locations in Malaysia and Singapore, with interior scenes to be shot at the MGM studios in London, where sets and costumes were created. David Niven, Peter Finch and Liv Ullmann were signed as the stars of the film; the pre-production process for Man's Fate stretched three years before it reached the production stage. During this period, MGM began to experience severe financial problems. James T. Aubrey, a former production chief for the CBS television network, was hired in 1969 as the studio's new president. One of his earliest decisions was to cancel all planned films that did not show signs of commercial viability. Zinnemann's $ US 3 million version of Man's Fate was one of 12 films; the production of Man's Fate was canceled one week. Zinnemmann would state that his cast and crew continued working without salaries in the period between the news of the cancellation being made public and the scheduled start of filming on November 24, 1969.
"I soon found that no one in the unit wanted to stop rehearsing, salary or no salary," he recalled. "We worked for three more days until the script was rehearsed, scene by scene. After the usual farewell party as if on the set of a real picture, everybody went home." Zinnemann sued MGM for damages relating to the cancellation, with the case being settled in his favour in 1973. The Italian director Bernardo Bertolucci proposed adapting the film in the 1980s to the Chinese government. In 2001, U. S. filmmaker Michael Cimino announced he would create a film version of Man's Fate, with Daniel Day-Lewis, John Malkovich, Uma Thurman and Johnny Depp in the lead roles. Cimino died in 2016, the proposed film was not made
Verbling is an online language learning platform that pairs individuals with language teachers via video chat. The company was created at Y Combinator in 2011. In 2015, Verbling raised $2.7 million in series A round funding. Funders have included Draper Fisher Jurvetson, SV Angel, Sam Altman, Joshua Schachter. Verbling was founded in 2011 by Jake Jolis, Mikael Bernstein, Gustav Rydstedt after meeting while attending Stanford University; the company's initial platform, Verbling Friends, connected users interested in learning each other's language to each other via video chat. Verbling was backed by Y Combinator and listed as one of five startups to watch in Summer 2011 by Gigaom. Verbling Enterprise aims to address one of the biggest problems in international business: language barriers. Although email and video conferencing have made it easy to communicate over long distances, international colleagues don't understand each other. In 2012, the company raised $1 million in funding and moved its headquarters from Palo Alto to San Francisco, California.
In November 2013, the company added nine new languages and Google Hangouts-powered chats. Verbling launched Verbling Classes, a teaching platform in December 2013, which were discontinued in favor of private lessons; the classes were live streamed so other users could watch the class without directly interacting with the lesson. In 2015, Verbling raised $2.7 million in series A round funding to expand its technology to more platforms. The same year the company began offering free lessons in Swedish to Syrian refugees displaced by the Syrian Civil War. In October 2016, the company launched Verbling Enterprise, a platform designed for companies to help their employees take language lessons online, with Volkswagen Group and Inditex as partners. In 2017, Verbling launched iOS mobile apps; the platform had 2000 teachers, offering classes in 43 languages, that year