The Edremit gulf is an Aegean gulf in Turkey's Balıkesir Province. It is named after Edremit, an ilçe of Balıkesir Province, situated close to the tip of the gulf at 39°34′N 26°56′E. Biga Peninsula is to the north; the southern coast belongs to the ilçe of Ayvalık, while the western entrance is enclosed with the northern part of the Greek island of Lesbos. In ancient history there were many settlements lying close to the north coast of the gulf. There are a number of ilçe centers or bigger towns around the gulf such as Behramkale, Küçükkuyu, Altınoluk, Akçay, Havran, Armutova, Ayvalık and Cunda Island. There are summer houses and holiday camps along the 70 kilometres long northern coast and the 40 kilometres long southern coast of the gulf; the gulf is famous for European sprat production. Coast guide
Karaburun is a district and the center town of the same district in Turkey's İzmir Province. The district area corresponds to the peninsula of the same name which spears north of the tourism resorts of neighboring Çeşme and its dependencies and west of the city of İzmir. In fact, the district area is one of the westernmost points of Anatolia. Karaburun town is situated close to the northern tip of the peninsula and checks the entry of the Gulf of İzmir with the town of Foça, another important tourism resort, across the waters; the district's administrative zone is bordered by the districts of Çeşme and Urla in its south and faces the Greek island of Chios to its west. Karaburun region is comparatively much less visited than Çeşme located in its south, its rate of urbanization at 20 per cent is the lowest across İzmir Province, although it provides an anticlimax to its southern neighbor and the associated attractions for those who want to escape the trails of mass tourism; the coasts of the peninsula have beautiful bays and pebble or sand beaches as yet undiscovered by outsiders, although there is one German vacation village to the north of the district center.
Taken as a whole, in contrast with Çeşme, agriculture and livestock breeding, instead of tourism, remain the principal activities on which the district's economy is based. Karaburun's flora and fauna present particularities distinguishing it from the Anatolian mainland. Karaburun's name echoes in Turkey a high variety of flower breeds present across its area, narcissus and hyacinth; the distance between Karaburun and İzmir center by way of land is 100 km and there are regular bus services and a three-lane modern highway until the toll near Çeşme. The rest of the road is narrow and curvy in some places and it may take up to two hours to reach Karaburun from İzmir; the country road is traced northwards along the eastern coast of the peninsula to reach Mordoğan first, which is, aside from Karaburun, the district's only other depending township with own municipality. After Karaburun, the same road continues towards the tip of the peninsula from where it heads west to reach the village of Küçükbahçe.
The oldest name known for the region was Mimas, in reference to the son of Gaia, one of the Giants slain by Hephaistos during the war between Gods and Giants in Greek mythology. Homer mentions the "windy Mimas" mountain in his Odyssey; the Mimas mountain is associated with Iris and Narcissus. In Ionian through to Byzantine times, the region carried the names Stelar or Stylarius, Caleberno by the Genoese and Ahırlı during the Ottoman era. There are different possibilities for the name Karaburun. One, mentioned in the municipality web site is that it would be a modified form of Caleberno. Another possibility may have to do with the translation of the Turkish name, which means "black cape", a fitting description for sailors who approach Karaburun Peninsula from open sea; the region is rich in history although its only sizeable urban center from ancient Greek, Byzantine through to Ottoman times was in Erythrai. Today the village of Ildırı stands in the ancient town's location and the village depends Çeşme.
Traces of smaller settlements can be traced back to the Bronze Age. Karaburun is the most constituted district of İzmir, although the town of Karaburun was made into a municipality in 1902. Agriculture and livestock breeding remain the principal activities on which Karaburun's economy is based; the average yearly income level per inhabitant for the district was calculated at 3,673 US Dollars in 2007. Karaburun's trade relations with the outside world abroad remain modest, with total exports recorded as 26,319 US Dollars realized in 2007 flowers, with some exports of olive and olive oil and artichokes. Underground reserves include marble quarries, deposits of basalt, slate for constructions and clay for ceramics. Mercury was mined in the past; the district's total number of companies stood at 525 the same year. There was only one bank operating through one branch in Karaburun in 2007; the total number of residences in Karaburun district was counted as 8,912, an important part constituted by secondary residences owned by seasonal inhabitants.
The total accommodation capacity of the district is 982 beds, in which the depending municipality of Mordoğan has a sizable share. The level of literacy in Karaburun nears hundred per cent, the district is advantaged by the rather comfortable number of students, 12 in 2007, per teacher. There was one doctor for 1,447 patients in Karaburun in 2007. Nearer to Karaburun is the abandoned village of Sazak whose inhabitants were subject to the 1923 Population exchange between Greece and Turkey in the frame of the Treaty of Lausanne. Sazak today is a ghost town visited by tourists from Karaburun; the whole district is quiet during winter when the population of Karaburun center falls back to the usual 2500, with the owners of summer houses gone. Its spectacular gorges and heights makes the peninsula a favorite destination among trekkers in all seasons. There is talk since years on starting ferry services from İzmir to these two centers of the peninsula, which would be quite practical by allowing visitors to avoid the difficult end-portion of the land route, but the project meets the opposition of the dolmuş lobby.
Karaburun Peninsula September 2006 Karaburun, Turkey migrant boat disaster
Güllük Gulf called Mandalya Gulf, is an Aegean gulf of Turkey. The gulf is situated to the south of Dilek Peninsula. Administratively, its coast is a part of Bodrum and Milas ilçes of Muğla Province, except for a small region, a part of Didim ilçe of Aydın Province; the width of the gulf from north to south is over 13.5 miles, the distance between the entrance and the maximum inlet, from west to east, is over 20 miles. The gulf is famous for tourist resorts such as Güllük, Torba, Güvercinlik and Türkbükü; the archaeological site of Iasos is at the east coast of the gulf. Some coves on the eastern part of the bay are occupied by fish farms which threaten to spoil the environment
Gulf of Fethiye
The Gulf of Fethiye is a branch of the Mediterranean Sea in southwestern Turkey. The cities Fethiye and Göcek of Muğla Province are situated around the gulf, it is bounded on the west on the east by Cape İblis/Cape Angistro. It is a popular area for yachting; until 1923, it was known as the Gulf of Meğri/Makri/Macre/Mekri, the former Greek-origin name of Fethiye. It is located in ancient Lycia, was known as the Gulf of Telmessos or the Glaucus Sinus; the ancient cities of Lydae and Telmessos lay on it
Sea of Marmara
The Sea of Marmara known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Dardanelles strait to the Aegean Sea; the former separates Istanbul into its Asian and European sides. The Sea of Marmara is a small sea with an area of 11,350 km2, dimensions 280 km × 80 km, its greatest depth is 1,370 m. The sea takes its name from Marmara Island, rich in sources of marble, from the Greek μάρμαρον, "marble"; the sea's ancient Greek name Propontis derives from pro- and pontos, deriving from the fact that the Greeks sailed through it to reach the Black Sea, Pontos. In Greek mythology, a storm on Propontis brought the Argonauts back to an island they had left, precipitating a battle where either Jason or Heracles killed King Cyzicus, who mistook them for his Pelasgian enemies.
The surface salinity of the sea averages about 22 parts per thousand, greater than that of the Black Sea, but only about two-thirds that of most oceans. The water is much more saline at the sea bottom, averaging salinities of around 38 parts per thousand, similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea; this high-density saline water, like that of the Black Sea, does not migrate to the surface. Water from the Susurluk and Gonen Rivers reduces the salinity of the sea, though with less influence than on the Black Sea. With little land in Thrace draining southward all of these rivers flow from Anatolia; the sea contains the archipelago of the Prince Islands and Marmara Island, Avşa and Paşalimanı. The south coast of the sea is indented, includes the Gulf of İzmit, the Gulf of Gemlik, Gulf of Bandırma and the Gulf of Erdek. During a storm on December 29, 1999, the Russian oil tanker Volgoneft broke in two in the Sea of Marmara, more than 1,500 tonnes of oil were spilled into the water; the North Anatolian Fault, which has triggered many major earthquakes in recent years, such as the August and November 1999 earthquakes in Izmit and Düzce runs under the sea.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Sea of Marmara as follows: On the West. The Dardanelles limit of the Aegean Sea. On the Northeast. A line joining Cape Rumili with Cape Anatoli. Towns and cities on the Marmara Sea coast include: 1509 Constantinople earthquake 1999 İzmit earthquake Black Sea deluge hypothesis Kanal İstanbul Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits Turkish Straits Media related to Sea of Marmara at Wikimedia Commons Encyclopædia Britannica SCIENCE FOCUS – SeaWiFS, Sea of Marmara: Where Ancient Myth and Modern Science Mix
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
Gulf of Alexandretta
The Gulf of Alexandretta or İskenderun is a gulf of the eastern Mediterranean or Levantine Sea. It lies beside the southern Turkish provinces of Hatay; the gulf is named for the nearby Turkish city of the classical Alexandretta. It was formerly known as the Sea or Gulf of Issus. Herodotus records it as the Marandynian Bay, after the nearby town of Myriandrus; the Gulf of Alexandretta forms the easternmost inlet of the Mediterranean Sea. It lies beside the southern coast of Turkey near its border with Syria. In antiquity, the adjacent Nur Mountains were thought to separate the regions of Cilicia and Syria, although Herodotus at one point places the division further south at Ras al-Bassit. Çukurova, the modern equivalent to Cilicia List of gulfs Rennell, The Geographical System of Herodotus Examined and Explained... Vol. I, London: C. J. G. & F. Rivington