The Gulf of Bothnia is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It is situated between Sweden's east coast. In the south of the gulf lie the Åland Islands, between the Sea of Åland and the Archipelago Sea. Bothnia is a latinization; the Swedish name Bottenviken was just Botn, with botn being Old Norse for "gulf" or "bay", the meaning of the second element vik. The name botn was applied to the Gulf of Bothnia as Helsingjabotn in Old Norse, after Hälsingland, which at the time referred to the coastland west of the gulf. Botten was applied to the regions Västerbotten on the western side and Österbotten the eastern side; the Finnish name of Österbotten, gives a hint as to the meaning in both languages: the meaning of pohja includes both "bottom" and "north". Pohja is the base word for north, with an adjectival suffix added. Botn/botten is cognate with the English word bottom, it might be part of a general north European distinction of lowlands, as opposed to highlands, such as the Netherlandic region and Sambia.
A second possibility is that botten follows an alternative Scandinavian connotation of'furthermost'. Thus, the Gulf of Bothnia would be the farthest extent of the Ocean. Julius Pokorny gives the extended Proto-Indo-European root as *bhudh-mn with a *bhudh-no- variant, from which the Latin fundus, as in fundament, is derived; the original meaning of English north, from Proto-Indo-European *ner- "under", indicates an original sense of "lowlands" for "bottomlands". On the other hand, by "north" the classical authors meant "outermost", as the northern lands were outermost to them; the origin of the word is indeed ancient, belonging to a period before the world discoveries by the Portuguese. Until north was not seen as the magnetic top of the world, East being the normal orientation of a map. In Saami, the cardinal directions were named according to the different parts of the typical tent used by this nomadic people; the door of the tent was traditionally pointed South, in the most sunny direction, the bottom of the tent would be aligned with the North.
Thus the origin of the word pohja in its use as "north". Deriving as well from this logic is the affinity in the Finnish language of the words eteinen, meaning "entrance room/hall" and etelä, "south". According to Lönnrot, north was viewed as the bottom direction because the lowest point of the sun's path is there; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the southern limit of the Gulf of Bothnia as follows: From Simpnäsklubb in Sweden, to Flötjan, Lagskær, Fæstörne, Kökarsörn, Vænö-Kalkskær to the SW point of Hangöudde in Finland, thus including the Aland islands and adjacent shoals and channels in the Gulf of Bothnia. The gulf is 80 -- 240 km wide and has an average depth of 60 m; the maximum depth is 295 m. The surface area is 117,000 km²; the northernmost point is situated in Töre in the Bothnian Bay. Its coordinates are 65° 54'07" N 22° 39'00 E; the depth and surface area of the Gulf of Bothnia are decreasing, as the land is rising after it had been pressed down by about 2,600 to 3,300 feet by the continental ice during last ice age.
The rise is 80 cm every hundred years. It is estimated; this recovery rate will progressively slow. Into the gulf flow a number of rivers from both sides. In the south the water is the normal brackish water of the Baltic Sea, but in the north, in the Bothnian Bay, the salinity is so low, from 0.4% near Kvarken to 0.2% in the northernmost part, that many freshwater fish such as the pike and perch thrive in it. Being nearly fresh, the gulf is frozen over five months every year; the icing of the Baltic Sea ends in the northern Gulf of Bothnia. Traffic restrictions for icebreaker assistance are in force for all the gulf from late January to late April and for the northernmost ports from the middle of December to the middle of May. Geologically the Gulf of Bothnia is an ancient depression of tectonic origin; the depression in filled with sedimentary rock deposited in the Precambrian and Paleozoic. Nearby plains adjoining. While being covered by glaciers during the last 2.5 million years glacial erosion has had a limited effect in changing the topography.
Ongoing post-glacial rebound is thought to result in splitting of the Gulf of Bothnia into a southern gulf and northern lake across the Norra Kvarken area in about 2,000 years. Some historians suggest that the adventurer Ottar was referring to the Gulf of Bothnia when he spoke of the Kven Sea in the 9th century, it is possible that Claudius Clavus's usage of the term Mare Gotticus in the 15th century refers to the Gulf of Bothnia. The land surrounding the Gulf of Bothnia is forested. Trees are logged transported to the coast for milling; the gulf is important for oil transport to the coastal cities and ore transport to steel mills, for instance in Raahe. In terms of tonnage in international traffic, the largest ports on the Finnish side are Rauma and Tornio; the main ports of the Swedish side are in Skellefteå, Umeå, Sundsvall, Gävle and Hargshamn. In Luleå, iron ore pellets are exported and coal is imported. Gävle is Sweden's third-largest container port. I
I Am was an alternative progressive rock band formed in Las Vegas in 1995 and disbanded the same year. The rhythm section of the defunct band Shatterbone created the group and released an album in 1995; the band featured Greg Greer on vocals, Rod Arnett on bass, Dan Ryan on guitar, video game music composer Frank Klepacki on drums. Their first and only album, There's a Home, featured thirteen original tracks drawing influences from Tool and Soundgarden; the hidden thirteenth track, "I will..." features a man reciting self-help instructions and a humorous mantra — "the louder the apartment, the happier I will be."The eleventh track, Destructible Times, was used the same year in the video game Command & Conquer in the credits for the Brotherhood of Nod faction. Developers at Westwood Studios requested the song's use because it "reflected the war aspect and bad-ass vibe of side." The band was once recorded live while performing this song. There's a Home. After the group broke up, Klepacki joined Home Cookin' while Ryan formed Beatknuckle.
Klepacki still supports the band's music, offering There's a Home for sale on his website along with a t-shirt referencing Destructible Times. Rod Arnett - Bass guitar Greg Greer - vocals Frank Klepacki - drums Dan Ryan - Acoustic and electric guitar There's a Home – 1995 Frank Klepacki's website, featuring information on the band The Connextion
Nana Opoku Agyemang-Prempeh known as Agyemang Opoku, is a Ghanaian professional footballer. Born in Obuasi, Opoku began his career by the AshantiGold Soccer Academy and was than promoted to Ashanti Gold SC He left than Ashanti Gold and was transferred to Tunisian side Club Sportif Sfaxien as free agent, in January 2007. On December 2008, he was transferred to Al Sadd of the Qatar Stars League. On 22 February 2011, he joined another Qatari club Al-Ahli on a three-month loan deal from Al Sadd, he signed a contract with Levski Sofia during the summer of 2012 and made his official debut for the team from Bulgaria on 26 July 2012, in a 1–3 away loss against FK Sarajevo in a UEFA Europa League match. At Levski Sofia ended his contract on 27 October 2012. Opoku played at the 2005 Africa under 17 Championships and was member of the Ghana national under-17 football team at 2005 FIFA U-17 World Championship in Peru. Opoku was part of the Ghana national under-20 football team that won the 2009 FIFA U-20 World Cup in Egypt.
Ghana U-20FIFA U-20 World Cup: 2009GhanaAfrica Cup of Nations Silver Medal: 2010 Profile at worldfootball.net Profile at LevskiSofia.info