Gulf of California

The Gulf of California is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It is bordered by the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur and Sinaloa with a coastline of 4,000 km. Rivers which flow into the Gulf of California include the Colorado, Mayo, Sinaloa and the Yaqui; the gulf's surface area is about 160,000 km2. Depths range from fording at the estuary near Yuma, Arizona, to in excess of 3,000 meters in the deepest parts; the Gulf is thought to be one of the most diverse seas on the planet, is home to more than 5,000 species of micro-invertebrates. Home to over a million people, Baja California is the second-longest peninsula in the world, after the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Parts of the Gulf of California are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. AreaThe International Hydrographic Organization defines the southern limit of the Gulf of California as: "A line joining Piaxtla Point in Mexico, the southern extreme of Lower California".

The Gulf of California is 1,126 km long and 48–241 km wide, with an area of 177,000 km2, a mean depth of 818.08 m, a volume of 145,000 km3. The Gulf of California includes three faunal regions: the Northern Gulf of California the Central Gulf of California the Southern Gulf of CaliforniaOne recognized transition zone is termed the Southwestern Baja California Peninsula. Transition zones exist between faunal regions, they vary for each individual species. Geology Geologic evidence is interpreted by geologists as indicating the Gulf of California came into being around 5.3 million years ago as tectonic forces rifted the Baja California Peninsula off the North American Plate. As part of this process, the East Pacific Rise propagated up the middle of the Gulf along the seabed; this extension of the East Pacific Rise is referred to as the Gulf of California Rift Zone. The Gulf would extend as far as Indio, except for the tremendous delta created by the Colorado River; this delta blocks the sea from flooding the Imperial Valleys.

Volcanism dominates the East Pacific Rise. The island of Isla Tortuga is one example of this ongoing volcanic activity. Furthermore, hydrothermal vents due to extension tectonic regime, related to the opening of the Gulf of California, are found in the Bahía de Concepción, Baja California Sur. Islands The Gulf of California contains 37 major islands – the two largest being Isla Ángel de la Guarda and Tiburón Island. Most of the islands are found on the peninsular side of the gulf. In fact, many of the islands of the Sea of Cortez are the result of volcanic explosions that occurred during the early history of Baja California; the islands of Islas Marías, Islas San Francisco, Isla Partida are thought to be the result of such explosions. The formations of the islands, are not dependent on each other, they were each formed as a result of an individual structural occurrence. Several islands, including Isla Coronados, are home to volcanoes; the gulf has islands which together total about 420 hectares.

All of them as a whole were enacted as "Area Reserve and Migratory Bird Refuge and Wildlife" on August 2, 1978. In June 2000, the islands were given a new category "Protection Area Wildlife". In addition to this effort by the Mexican government, for its importance and recognition worldwide, all islands in the Gulf of California are part of the international program "Man and Biosphere" and are part of the World Reserve Network UNESCO Biosphere as Special Biosphere Reserve. Due to the vast expanse covered by this federal protected area conservation and management is carried out through a system of four regional directorates by way of co-direction. There is a regional directorate in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur and Sinaloa. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the work of direct and indirect conservation is done in the islands is governed by a single Management Program, published in 2000, complemented by local and specific management programs archipelagos; the Directorate of Protection Area Wildlife California Gulf Islands in Baja California is responsible for 56 islands located off the coast of the state.

These are grouped into four archipelagos: San Luis Gonzaga or Enchanted, Guardian Angel, Bahia de los Angeles and San Lorenzo. Shores and tidesThe three general types of shores found in the Gulf of California include rocky shore, sandy beach, tidal flat; some of the rich biodiversity and high endemism that characterize the Gulf of California and make it such a hotspot for fishing can be attributed to insignificant factors, such as the types of rocks that make up a shore. Beaches with softer, more porous rocks have a higher species richness than those with harder, smoother rocks. Porous rocks will have more cracks and crevices in them, making them ideal living spaces for many animals; the rocks themselves, however need to be stable on the shore for a habitat to be stable. Additionally, the color of the rocks can affect the organisms living on a shore. For example, darker rocks will be warmer than lighter ones, can deter animals that do not have a high tolerance for heat. The

Fouchet Plan

The Fouchet Plan was a plan proposed by President Charles de Gaulle of France in 1961 as part of De Gaulle's grand design for Europe at the time. His plan included a three-power directorate, consisting of France and the United States, his plan included the Fouchet Plan. It was written by France's ambassador to Denmark; the idea was to form a new'Union of States', an intergovernmental alternative to the European Communities. De Gaulle feared a loss of French national influence in the European Communities, becoming more and more supranational so the Plan was an attempt to keep the balance of power in France's favor; the success of the European Communities and the lack of enthusiasm of other states for the idea stopped the implementation of the Fouchet Plan. The first draft of The Fouchet Plan was proposed in 1961; the plan called for a "Union of the European peoples" "without supranational institutions." It is divided into five sections, summarized below. Title I outlines the "aims" of the Union. Title II describes the institutions, their composition, their various powers and relationships to one another.

Title III describes the "Obligations of Member States". Title IV describes the Finances of the Union, Title V describes General provisions; the plan set forth two major aims of the Union: a common foreign policy and a common defense policy. Other aims of the Union were the development of the "common heritage" of the Member States and "the protection of the values on which their civilization rests"; the plan proposed three institutions of the Union: a "Council", a "European Parliament", a "European Political Commission." The Council would adopt decisions unanimously. However, if one or two members are absent, it would "not prevent a decision from being taken." The Council would meet twice every four months, once at the Head of State or Government level and once at the Foreign Minister level. De Gaulle proposed that the decisions of the council be binding on Member States, but did not propose a method of enforcement. Should a Member State abstain from the adoption of a decision, that decision would not be enforced on that state.

However, these states would be able to opt in at any time. The parliament would deliberate "on matters concerning the aims of the Union", as outlined in Title I, Article II, it would address oral or written questions to the Council. The Council would be free to act independently of the parliament, but must reply to parliament recommendations within four months; the main role of the Political Commission of the Union would be to assist the Council by preparing its deliberations, carrying out its decisions, performing the duties the Council entrusts to it. The Commission would consist of "senior officials of the Foreign Affairs departments of each Member State." Title III called for cooperation between the Member States, mandating that they work towards the aims of the Union. The budget of the Union would be "drawn up by the Council each year", would be funded by contributions from the Member States. Article 13 lays out the proportional contribution of each Member State at the time. Title V lays out how amendments should be made to the Plan, how they would be ratified, provisions for admission of new Member states, other standard details.

A second draft of the Fouchet plan was proposed when it appeared that the first would prove unsuccessful. Some concessions would have to be made in terms of what de Gaulle wanted for the union, its structure, the French role. Much like the original Fouchet plan, the second draft continued to push for intergovernmental structures, it highlighted the importance of the individual member states. The second draft aimed at common interests among certain states, rather than ensuring their close cooperation in predetermined fields; the second draft called for a structural change through the addition of Committees of Ministers. Two committees are explicitly mentioned: a committee for foreign affairs and a committee for education; these two groups were to meet four times a year and would be under the supervision of the proposed council. The council would be able to create new committees when they deemed it necessary. Lastly, although it is not emphasized, France's role was diminished and the European Political Commission would no longer meet in Paris.

The driving political force behind the Fouchet Plan was French President Charles de Gaulle. Concerned about the growing supranational tendencies of the European Economic Community, he sought to implement a new intergovernmental vision of cooperation which would put decision-making power back into the hands of the nation-states. After convincing the other five heads of state to agree to regular meetings, de Gaulle pushed the idea of further political cooperation. Headed by the French ambassador to Denmark, Christian Fouchet, a committee assembled to discuss the French recommendations. All of the suggestions put forward increased the intergovernmental nature of the organization, but the first draft of the plan included a provision for a common foreign policy; this last aspect is telling: while the rest of "The Six" valued their membership in NATO, de Gaulle made no effort to hide his hostility towards it and what he considered to be undue American influence in Europe. In 1959, when de Gaulle began to focus his attention away from France and Algeria and more on Europe as a whole, he began to propose more regular meetings of the six member states.

He suggested that the meetings be backed by a secretariat. West Germany and Italy in particular looked favourably on these proposals. However, when de Gaulle first introduced the Fouchet Plan in 1961, it faced opposition

ASL Viking

The ASL Viking was a single-engined two seater biplane aircraft designed and built by Horatio Barber's Aeronautical Syndicate Ltd. at Hendon. It was first flown in January 1912; the Aeronautical Syndicate Ltd. was an enterprise established by Horatio Barber in order to promote aviation in Britain. During 1910 he had designed a number of aircraft, in 1910 the Syndicate had leased premises at Hendon Aerodrome. Here, in addition to constructing aircraft, they had a flying school, using Barber's ASL Valkyrie canard monoplanes. During 1911 Barber started work on the Viking; this bore no resemblance to Barber's earlier aircraft, being a biplane with the control surfaces mounted at the back, in what was to become the conventional aircraft layout. The power installation was less commonplace, with a front-mounted 50 hp Gnome Omega rotary engine driving a pair of 8 ft 6 in two-bladed wooden tractor configuration propellers mounted midway between the two wings on shafts on the inner interplane struts; the unstaggered parallel-chord wings were of three-bay configuration, with the outer interplane struts at the extreme ends of the wings and without any cabane bracing between the fuselage and upper wing.

Lateral control was effected by a pair of mixed aluminium and steel ailerons attached to the rear interplane struts midway between the wings and spanning the outer two bays on each side. The rectangular fuselage, mounted above the centre section of lower wing, was a wire-braced mixed silver spruce and ash wood construction, tapering to a horizontal knife-edge at the tail; the cockpit, which accommodated two people sitting side by side, was placed below the upper wing. The engine was covered by a semicircular section aluminium fairing which extended forward from the cockpit. Aft of this the fuselage was fabric-covered; the tail surfaces consisted of the rudder being half above the fuselage and a half below it, a wire-braced horizontal stabiliser and elevator. It had a two-wheel main undercarriage, supplemented by a central sprung skid under the nose, a sprung tailskid and sprung skids on the tip of the lower wings; the Viking was first flown early in 1912 and flew well, although the power installation was troublesome.

Due to a lack of any commercial success Barber wound up the Aerial Syndicate in April 1912, most of its assets being acquired by Frederick Handley Page, the Viking was the last of Barber's aircraft designs to be constructed. The Viking was sold to manager of the Chanter Flying School at Shoreham. There it was fitted with a pair of floats, the twin propellers were replaced by a single propeller mounted directly onto the engine and the fabric covering was removed from the rear part of the fuselage. Data from British Aircraft 1809-1906General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 26 ft Wingspan: 31 ft Wing area: 310 sq ft Empty weight: 800 lb Powerplant: 1 × Gnome Omega 7-cyl. Air-cooled rotary piston engine, 50 hp Propellers: 2-bladed 2x A. S. L. Wooden fixed pitch tractor proppellers, 8 ft 6 in diameterPerformance Cruise speed: 55 mph Endurance: 6 hours Avro Type E Royal Aircraft Factory B. E. 1 Bristol Gordon England biplanes Coventry Ordnance Works No. 11 and 12 biplanes Grace and Wilson, Maggie.