Piraeus is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece. Piraeus is located within the Athens urban area,12 kilometres southwest from its city center, the municipality of Piraeus and several other suburban municipalities within the regional unit of Piraeus form the greater Piraeus area, with a total population of 448,997. Piraeus has a recorded history, dating to ancient Greece. During the Golden Age of Athens the Long Walls were constructed to connect Athens with Piraeus, the port of Piraeus is the chief port in Greece, the largest passenger port in Europe and the second largest in the world, servicing about 20 million passengers annually. With a throughput of 1.4 million TEUs, Piraeus is placed among the top ten ports in container traffic in Europe, the city hosted events in both the 1896 and 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens. The University of Piraeus is one of the largest universities in Greece, which roughly means the place over the passage, has been inhabited since the 26th century BC.
Consequently, it was called the Halipedon, meaning the salt field, through the centuries, the area was increasingly silted and flooding ceased, and thus by early classical times the land passage was made safe. In the late 6th century BC, the area caught attention due to its advantages, in 511 BC, the hill of Munichia was fortified by Hippias and four years Piraeus became a deme of Attica by Cleisthenes. The Athenian fleet played a role in the battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BC. From on Piraeus was permanently used as the navy base, the citys fortification was farther reinforced by the construction of the Long Walls under Cimon and Pericles, with which Piraeus was connected to Athens. Meanwhile, Piraeus was rebuilt to the grid plan of architect Hippodamus of Miletus, known as the Hippodamian plan. As a result, Piraeus flourished and became a port of high security and great commercial activity, during the Peloponnesian War, Piraeus suffered its first setback. In the second year of the war, the first cases of the Athens plague were recorded in Piraeus, in 404 BC, the Spartan fleet under Lysander blockaded Piraeus and subsequently Athens surrendered to the Spartans, putting an end to the Delian League and the war itself.
As a result, the tattered and unfortified port city was not able to compete with prosperous Rhodes, the destruction was completed in 395 AD by the Goths under Alaric I. Piraeus was led to a period of decline which lasted for fifteen centuries. During the Byzantine period the harbour of Piraeus was occasionally used for the Byzantine fleet and it was called Porto Drako by Greeks, drako meaning not just dragon, but any monster. When Piraeus was taken by the Ottoman Empire in 1456, it known as Aslan Liman. The Piraeus Lion itself was looted in 1687 by Francesco Morosini during his expedition against Athens and was carried to the Venetian Arsenal, a copy of the lion statue is on display at the Archaeological Museum of Piraeus
Igoumenitsa, is a coastal city in northwestern Greece. It is the capital of the unit of Thesprotia. Igoumenitsa is the port of Thesprotia and Epirus, and one of the largest passenger ports of Greece, connecting northwestern Mainland Greece with the Ionian Islands. The city is build on easternmost end of the Gulf of Igoumenitsa in the Ionian Sea and primary aspects of the economy are maritime, services and tourism. The 670 km long Egnatia Highway, which serves northern Greece, terminates at Igoumenitsa, making it a starting point for tourists coming from Europe. The Thesprotia Police Headquarters and the Municipal Sailing Club are located here, the city itself is build on the slopes of a forested mountain and expands perimetrically around the gulf. The 2011 census recorded 25,814 inhabitants for the wider Municipality, Igoumenitsa is known for being surrounded by several forests and for its blue waters. The nearby Drepanos Beach is one of the longest sand beaches in the region, Igoumenitsa is known by various names in different time periods.
Igoumenitsas original ancient name used to be Titani, Gitana, during the medieval and ottoman times, it was known as Grava which means cave. In 1938, after it became the city of the prefecture of Thesprotia. The name is a derivation from the Greek word Igoumeni which means commander, the name has been adopted as Gomenizza in Italian and as Gumenicë in Albanian.353 km2, the municipal unit 111.752 km2. In ancient times Igoumenitsa was known as Titani, and was one of the most important towns of the Kingdom of Thesprotis during the 4th century BC, the circumference of its walls was 2,400 metres. Internal walls, in the shape of a sickle, divided the city in half and its most noteworthy tower, located at the top of the hill, was round, and is thought to have been a religious sanctuary. Excavations have revealed a theatre which seats 2,500 and ruins of two temples, the city was a meeting place of the Epirote League. A spur near Philiates between the Kalamas River, the acropolis had a semicircular tower.
A small theater and gateways which are still visible, the Kalamas may have been navigable to this point. The city was destroyed by the Romans in 167 BC and on it was annexed into the Roman Empire and it was ruled by Ottoman Empire and was renamed as Reşadiye in 1909 honour of Mehmet V, Ottoman Sultan between 1909 and 1918. During Italo-Turkish War, Hamidiye torpedo boat was sunk by an Italian destroyer on December 30,1912 in here, the town was destroyed in 1944 during the Axis occupation of Greece and a new settlement grew up around the new ferry terminal in the 1950s and 1960s
Gulf of Patras
The Gulf of Patras is a branch of the Ionian Sea. On the east, it is closed by the Strait of Rion between capes Rio and Antirrio, near the Rio-Antirio bridge, that is the entrance of the Gulf of Corinth, on the west, it is bounded by a line from Oxeia island to Cape Araxos. To the north it is bounded by the shore of Aetolia-Acarnania in continental Greece and it is 40–50 km long, 10–20 km wide, and has an area of 350–400 km2. The port city of Patras lies to the southeast and is the major port on the gulf. It serves ferries to Ancona and Brindisi in Italy along with Kefallonia, on the northern shore Missolonghi has a port. There are beaches in the south, the east and parts of the north, the old ports of Rio and Antirio lie east of the Gulf, and there is a ferry service which complements the traffic over the Rio-Antirio bridge. The gulf is rich in fish, a number of major naval battles took place in the Gulf of Patras, the Battle of Patras in 1772, and the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, one of the largest naval battles ever fought.
Lepanto itself lies further east, in the Gulf of Corinth, application of a biomarker suite including evaluation of translation efficiency in Mytilus galloprovincialis cells
The Corinth Canal is a canal that connects the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Sea. It cuts through the narrow Isthmus of Corinth and separates the Peloponnese from the Greek mainland, the builders dug the canal through the Isthmus at sea level, no locks are employed. It is 6.4 kilometres in length and only 21.4 metres wide at its base and it now has little economic importance. The canal was proposed in classical times and an effort was made to build it in the 1st century CE. Construction started in 1881 but was hampered by geological and financial problems that bankrupted the original builders and it is now used mainly for tourist traffic. Several rulers in antiquity dreamed of digging a cutting through the Isthmus, the first to propose such an undertaking was the tyrant Periander in the 7th century BCE. Remnants of the Diolkos still exist next to the modern canal, the philosopher Apollonius of Tyana prophesied that ill would befall anyone who proposed to dig a Corinthian canal.
Caligula, the third Roman Emperor, commissioned a study in CE40 from Egyptian experts who claimed incorrectly that the Corinthian Gulf was higher than the Saronic Gulf, as a result, they concluded, if a canal was dug the island of Aegina would be inundated. Caligulas interest in the idea got no further as he too was assassinated, according to Suetonius, the canal was dug to a distance of four stades. A memorial of the attempt in the form of a relief of Hercules was left by Neros workers, other than this, as the modern canal follows the same course as Neros, no remains have survived. The Greek philosopher and Roman senator Herodes Atticus is known to have considered digging a canal in the 2nd century CE, the Venetians considered it in 1687 after their conquest of the Peloponnese but likewise did not initiate a project. The idea of a Corinth Canal was revived after Greece gained formal independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. French entrepreneurs were put in charge but, following the bankruptcy of the French company that dug the Panama Canal, French banks refused to lend money and the company went bankrupt too.
A fresh concession was granted to the Société Internationale du Canal Maritime de Corinthe in 1881, construction was formally inaugurated on 23 April 1882 in the presence of King George I of Greece. The companys head, the Hungarian István Türr, went bankrupt, as did the company itself, construction resumed in 1890 when the project was transferred to a Greek company, and was finally completed on 25 July 1893 after eleven years work. The canal experienced financial and operational difficulties after completion, for these reasons, many ship operators did not bother to use the canal and traffic was far below what had been predicted. An annual traffic of just under 4 million net tons had been anticipated, by 1913 the total had risen to some 1.5 million net tons, but the disruption caused by the First World War resulted in a major decline in traffic. Another persistent problem was due to the heavily faulted nature of the rock, in an active seismic zone
Itea, is a town and a former municipality in the southeastern part of Phocis, Greece. Since 2011 local government reforms made the city a part of the municipality Delphi, the municipal unit Itea consists of the communities Itea and Tritaia. Itea is situated on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth,2 km west of Kirra,8 km southwest of Delphi,11 km south of Amfissa and 52 km east of Naupactus. The Greek National Road 48 connects Itea with Naupactus and Livadeia, the community of Itea covers an area of 6.305 km2 while the municipal unit covers an area of 26.351 km2. List of settlements in Phocis Itea-Parnassos-Delphi
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea.
Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
Galaxidi or Galaxeidi, is a town and a former municipality in the southern part of Phocis, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Delphi, the municipal unit has an area of 126.088 km2. Galaxidi has a harbor on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth. It is 7 km southwest of Itea,15 km southwest of Delphi,17 km south of Amfissa and 48 km east of Naupactus, the Greek National Road 48 connects Galaxidi with Naupactus and Delphi. Galaxidi is a 2. 5h to 3h drive from the capital Athens, modern Galaxidi is built on the site of ancient Haleion, a city of western Locris. Traces of habitation are discernible since prehistoric times with a peak in the Early Helladic Period, a significant Mycenaean settlement has been located at Villa, the hill of St. Athanasios revealed a fortified Geometric settlement. In the Archaic and Classical periods was developed the administrative and religious centre at the site of Agios Vlasis. It seems that in ca.300 BC the present site was settled and surrounded by a fortification wall, Haleion flourished throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods until the 2nd century AD.
Galaxidi is mentioned for the first time in the late 10th century, the inhabitants fled to the offshore islands, and the town was not settled again until 50 years later. The most important harbour of the Gulf of Itea alongside Krissa, after the Fourth Crusade it came under the control of the Frankish Lordship of Salona, but was recovered by the Greek Despotate of Epirus in 1211. The town remained under Epirote control until the division of the realm in c. 1268, in 1311 it was conquered, along with Salona, by the Catalan Company. It was captured by the Ottomans in 1397, but was regained shortly after by the Despotate of the Morea under Theodore I Palaiologos, in 1403 it was ceded briefly to the Knights Hospitaller. In 1447/8 it was refortified by Constantine Kantakouzenos, but this did not prevent its capture by the Ottomans shortly after. Ottoman presence in the settlement was minimal, the majority of the inhabitants consisting of Orthodox Christians, the city flourished due to the development of maritime trade in the 18th century.
Particularly after the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, many of the owners of Galaxidi operated under the Russian flag. It recovered, and in the course of the 19th century it thrived as a commercial and maritime centre, until the late 19th century, Galaxidi had a sizeable merchant marine fleet and was a prosperous commercial centre. This is reflected in the size and style of the local buildings, preservation of the traditional architecture has facilitated the growth of tourism in recent decades. The marine museum contains exhibits from this period, in recent years commercial fish farming has been developing
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales and porpoises. Most species live in the sea, some in rivers, the name is derived from the Latin cetus whale and Greek ketos huge fish. The extinct ancestors of modern whales are the Archaeoceti, while cetaceans were historically thought to have descended from mesonychids, molecular evidence supports them as a relative of Artiodactyls. Cetaceans belong to the order Cetartiodactyla and their closest living relatives are hippopotamuses and other hoofed mammals, having diverged about 50 million years ago. Cetaceans range in size from the 1 m and 50 kg Mauis dolphin to the 29.9 m and 190,000 kg blue whale and they have streamlined bodies and two limbs that are modified into flippers. Dolphins are able to very tight turns while swimming at high speeds. The hindlimbs of cetaceans are internal, and are thought to be vestigial, baleen whales have short hairs on their mouth, unlike the toothed whales.
Cetaceans have well-developed senses—their eyesight and hearing are adapted for both air and water, and baleen whales have a system in their vibrissae. They have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin to maintain body heat in cold water, Some species are well adapted for diving to great depths. Although cetaceans are widespread, most species prefer the waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They spend their lives in the water, having to mate, give birth, molt or escape predators, like killer whales. This has drastically affected their anatomy to be able to do so and they feed largely on fish and marine invertebrates, but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals and birds, such as penguins and seals. Some baleen whales are specialised for feeding on benthic creatures, male cetaceans typically mate with more than one female, although the degree of polygyny varies with the species. Cetaceans are not shown to have pair bonds, male cetacean strategies for reproductive success vary between herding females, defending potential mates from other males, or whale song which attracts mates.
Calves are typically born in the fall and winter months, cetaceans produce a number of vocalizations, notably the clicks and whistles of dolphins, the moaning songs of the humpback whale. The meat and oil of cetaceans have traditionally used by indigenous peoples of the Arctic. Cetaceans have been depicted in cultures worldwide. Dolphins are commonly kept in captivity and are sometimes trained to perform tricks and tasks
Aetolia-Acarnania is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece and the administrative region of West Greece. A combination of the regions of Aetolia and Acarnania, it is the countrys largest regional unit. Its capital is Missolonghi for historical reasons, with its biggest city, the area is now connected with the Peloponnese peninsula via the Rio-Antirio Bridge. The surrounding regional units take in Arta in Epirus, a narrow length bordering Karditsa of Thessaly, Evrytania to the northeast, Mountains dominate the north, northeast and southeast, especially the Acarnanian Mountains. The longest and main river is the Acheloos, which ends as a delta in wetlands to the southwest on a fertile valley. The second longest is Evinos, others include the Ermitsa, the Inachos, the regional unit excludes the islands lying to its west, since they belong to the Kefalonia and Ithaca regional units. There is one reservoir and a lake in its central part, lakes include the Amvrakia, the Lysimachia and Trichonida, and artificial lakes and reservoirs include Kastraki, the largest lake in Greece since its creation in 1970, and Stratos.
Two lagoons are found in the part of the regional unit, the Messolongi. Its climate tends toward hot summers and mild winters in the low-lying areas. At the highest elevations, summers are cool, and snow, during the Ottoman period, between the 16th century until the Greek War of Independence, the region was called Karleli and formed a province in the Rumelia Eyalet. Evrytania separated from the prefecture in 1948, in the 20th century, ferry services between Rio and the Peloponnese began. And in the 1950s and the 1960s ferry services began to incorporate vehicles, following World War II and the Greek Civil War a number of buildings needed to be repaired. A drawbridge linking the island of Lefkada began in the 1960s, two more dams were added, the Stratos Hydroelectric Dam in the 1980s and another in the late-1980s. The following years, GR-5 bypassed Messolonghi and Agrinion and GR-38 became connected with paved road with Eurytania, in the late-1980s, the by-pass of Naupaktos began construction but after paving the road, the signs did not appear and until 1998, it was left unopened.
In 1999, the road was re-repaired and finally opened to traffic, in 2000, the construction of the Rio-Antirio or the Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge connecting the Peloponnese began construction and was opened to traffic in August 2004. A railway formally served the places from Kryoneri and Agrinio and served with the ferry with Rio, in the 1980s, the service came to an end and was the next on the list of prefectures not connected with rail. Greek National Road 5/E55, SE, S, Cen, N Greek National Road 38, Cen
Antirrio is a town and a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Nafpaktia, the municipal unit has an area of 50.794 km2. It is situated on the side of the narrow Strait of Rio. Since August 2004 the Rio–Antirrio bridge connects northwestern Greece with the Peloponnese, the name Antirrio means opposite Rio. The municipal unit Antirrio is subdivided into the communities, Antirrio Makyneia Molykreio Antirrio is situated at the western entrance of the Gulf of Corinth. It is 3 km northwest of Rio,10 km north of Patras and 9 km southwest of Naupactus,8 km to the northwest is the 1,039 m high mountain Klokova, rising steeply from the Gulf of Patras coast. The Rio–Antirrio bridge, carrying Motorway 5, connects it with the Peloponnese peninsula, Greek National Road 5 connects it with Missolonghi and northwestern Greece, Greek National Road 48 with Naupactus and Livadeia. The Port of Antirrio was an important ferry port for traffic from the Peloponnese to northwestern Greece, adjacent to the port is a lighthouse and the fortress of Antirrio.
Http, //www. qsl. net/sv2ael/sv2ael. files/faroi/details/antirio. htm - Lighthouse GTP - Antirrio GTP - Municipal unit of Antirrio List of settlements in Aetolia-Acarnania
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement. Large faults within the Earths crust result from the action of tectonic forces. Energy release associated with movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes. A fault plane is the plane that represents the surface of a fault. A fault trace or fault line is the intersection of a plane with the ground surface. A fault trace is the line commonly plotted on maps to represent a fault. Since faults do not usually consist of a single, clean fracture, the two sides of a non-vertical fault are known as the hanging wall and footwall. By definition, the wall occurs above the fault plane. This terminology comes from mining, when working a tabular ore body, because of friction and the rigidity of rocks, they cannot glide or flow past each other easily, and occasionally all movement stops. A fault in ductile rocks can release instantaneously when the rate is too great.
The energy released by instantaneous strain-release causes earthquakes, a common phenomenon along transform boundaries, slip is defined as the relative movement of geological features present on either side of a fault plane, and is a displacement vector. A faults sense of slip is defined as the motion of the rock on each side of the fault with respect to the other side. In practice, it is only possible to find the slip direction of faults. Based on direction of slip, faults can be categorized as, strike-slip. Dip-slip, offset is predominantly vertical and/or perpendicular to the fault trace, oblique-slip, combining significant strike and dip slip. The fault surface is usually vertical and the footwall moves either left or right or laterally with very little vertical motion. Strike-slip faults with left-lateral motion are known as sinistral faults. Those with right-lateral motion are known as dextral faults