Gulf of Finland

The Gulf of Finland is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland and Estonia all the way to Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Tallinn; the eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland belong to Russia, some of Russia's most important oil harbours are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg. As the seaway to Saint Petersburg, the Gulf of Finland has been and continues to be of considerable strategic importance to Russia; some of the environmental problems affecting the Baltic Sea are at their most pronounced in the shallow gulf. The gulf has an area of 30,000 km2; the length is 400 km and the width varies from 70 km near the entrance to 130 km on the meridian of Moshchny Island. The gulf is shallow, with the depth decreasing from the entrance to the gulf to the continent; the sharpest change occurs near Narva-Jõesuu, why this place is called the Narva wall. The average depth is 38 m with the maximum of 100 m.

The depth of the Neva Bay is less than 6 metres. Because of the large influx of fresh water from rivers from the Neva River, the gulf water has low salinity – between 0.2 and 5.8 ‰ at the surface and 0.3–8.5 ‰ near the bottom. The average water temperature is close to 0 °C in winter. Parts of the gulf can freeze from late November to late April. Complete freezing occurs by late January, it may not occur in mild winters. Frequent strong western winds surges of water and floods; the northern coast of the gulf is high and winding, with abundant small bays and skerries, but only a few large bays and peninsulas. The coast is sloping; the southern shores are smooth and shallow, but along the entire coast runs a limestone escarpment, the Baltic Klint, with a height up to 55 m. In the east, the gulf ends with Neva Bay; the gulf contains numerous banks and islands. The largest include Kotlin Island with the city of Kronstadt, Beryozovye Islands, Lisiy Island, Maly Vysotsky Island with the nearby city of Vysotsk, Moshtchny, Bolshoy Tyuters, Naissaar, Kimitoön, Kökar, Pakri Islands and others.

Starting in 1700, Russia constructed nineteen artificial islands with fortresses in the gulf. They aimed to defend Russia from maritime attacks in the context of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721; such fortresses include Fort Alexander, Krasnaya Gorka, Ino and Kronshlot. The largest rivers flowing into the gulf are the Neva, the Narva, the Kymi. Keila, Pirita, Jägala, Luga and Kovashi flow into the gulf from the south. From the north flow the Sestra River, Porvoo and several other small rivers; the Saimaa Canal connects the gulf with the Saimaa lake. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the western limit of the Gulf of Finland as a line running from Spithami, in Estonia, through the Estonian island of Osmussaar from SE to NW and on to the SW extremity of Hanko Peninsula in Finland; the modern depression can be traced to the incision of large rivers during the Cenozoic prior to the Quaternary glaciation. These rivers eroded the sedimentary strata above the Fennoscandian Shield. In particular the eroded material was made up of Cambrian-aged claystone and sandtone.

As erosion progressed, the rivers encountered harder layers of Ordovician-aged limestone, leading to the formation of the cliffs of Baltic Klint in northern Estonia and Ingria. Subsequently the depression was somewhat reshaped by glacier activities, its retreat formed the Littorina Sea, whose water level was some 7–9 metres higher than the present level of the Baltic Sea. Some 4,000 years ago the sea receded and shoals in the gulf have become its islands. Uplifting of the Baltic Shield skewed the surface of the gulf; the climate in the area is humid continental climate, characterized by temperate to hot summers and cold severe winters with regular precipitation. The vegetation is dominated by a mixture of coniferous and deciduous forests and treeless coastal meadows and cliffs; the major forest trees are pine, birch, rowan, aspen and gray alder. In the far eastern part of the gulf vegetation of the marshy areas consists of bulrush and reeds, as well as aquatic plants, such as white and yellow waterlilies and acute sedge.

Aquatic plants in the shallow waters of the gulf include Ruppia and spiny naiad. Fish species of the gulf include Atlantic salmon, viviparous eelpout, belica, European chub, common minnow, silver bream, common dace, Crucian carp, European smelt, common rudd, brown trout, pipefish, perch, lumpsucker, lamprey, garfish, common whitefish, common bream, orfe, northern pike, spined loach, Baltic

2012 United States Senate election in North Dakota

The 2012 United States Senate election in North Dakota took place on November 6, 2012, concurrently with the 2012 U. S. presidential election as well as other elections to the United States Senate and House of Representatives and various state and local elections. Incumbent Democratic-NPL U. S. Senator Kent Conrad decided to retire instead of running for re-election to a fifth term. Though each party endorses a single candidate in state political conventions in the spring, North Dakota determines actual ballot access for the general election in a statewide primary election, held June 12, 2012. Former Democratic-NPL Attorney General Heidi Heitkamp ran for and won the open seat in a close-fought victory over Republican Rick Berg, North Dakota's sole U. S. Representative, by a margin of 0.9%. Heitkamp outperformed President Obama by 18.7%, who lost North Dakota by 19.6% in the concurrent presidential election. As of 2020, this is the last time a Democrat was elected to Congress or won a statewide election in North Dakota.

The North Dakota Democratic-NPL Party held their state convention March 16–18, 2012, in Grand Forks. Former state attorney general and 2000 Democratic gubernatorial nominee Heidi Heitkamp was uncontested in seeking the official party nomination and was the only member of the party elected to appear on the state primary ballot. Heidi Heitkamp, former attorney general of North Dakota and nominee for Governor of North Dakota in 2000 Thomas Potter, Presbyterian pastor and former professor of finance at UND Kent Conrad, incumbent U. S. Senator Pam Gulleson, former state representative and former chief of staff and former state director for former senator Byron Dorgan Kristin Hedger, nominee for North Dakota Secretary of State in 2006 Joel Heitkamp, brother of Heidi Heitkamp, radio personality and former state senator Roger Johnson, president of the National Farmers Union and former North Dakota Agriculture Commissioner Tim Mathern, state senator and nominee for governor in 2008 Earl Pomeroy, former U.

S. Representative Tracy Potter, state senator and nominee for the U. S. Senate in 2010 Tim Purdon, U. S. Attorney Jasper Schneider, USDA rural development State Director Mac Schneider, state senator Ryan Taylor, Minority Leader of the North Dakota Senate North Dakota Republicans endorsed U. S. Representative Rick Berg at their convention, though general election ballot access is determined by a statewide primary election held on June 12, 2012. In contrast to state political tradition, declared candidate Duane Sand did not seek the party endorsement, trying instead to defeat Berg on the June primary ballot. Rick Berg, U. S. Representative Duane Sand, former North and South Dakota Director for Americans for Prosperity Al Carlson, North Dakota state house majority leader Tony Clark, state public service commissioner Kevin Cramer, state public service commissioner Jack Dalrymple, North Dakota governor and 1992 Republican nominee for U. S. Senate Cory Fong, state tax commissioner Shane Goettle, U. S. Senator John Hoeven's state director Tony Grindberg, state senator Bob Harms, North Dakota Republican Party treasurer Brian Kalk, state public service commissioner Kim Koppelman, state representative Ed Schafer, former U.

S. agriculture secretary and former North Dakota governor Kelly Schmidt, North Dakota treasurer Wayne Stenehjem, North Dakota attorney general John Warford, mayor of Bismarck Drew Wrigley, North Dakota lieutenant governor Rick Berg, U. S. Representative Heidi Heitkamp, former attorney general of North Dakota and nominee for governor in 2000 Bill Kiefer, businessman Complete video of debate, October 15, 2012 - C-SPAN Complete video of debate, October 25, 2012 - C-SPAN In early October 2012, Crossroads GPS announced that it would launch a $16 million advertising buy in national races, of which four were this and three other Senate elections. 2012 United States Senate elections 2012 United States House of Representatives election in North Dakota 2012 North Dakota gubernatorial election North Dakota Secretary of State Campaign contributions at Outside spending at Sunlight Foundation Candidate issue positions at On the IssuesOfficial campaign websites Rick Berg for U. S. Senate Heidi Heitkamp for U.

S. Senate


Samite was a luxurious and heavy silk fabric worn in the Middle Ages, of a twill-type weave including gold or silver thread. The word was derived from Old French samit, from medieval Latin samitum, examitum deriving from the Byzantine Greek ἑξάμιτον hexamiton "six threads" interpreted as indicating the use of six yarns in the warp. Samite is still used in ecclesiastical robes, ornamental fabrics, interior decoration. Structurally, samite is a weft-faced compound twill, plain or figured, in which the main warp threads are hidden on both sides of the fabric by the floats of the ground and patterning wefts, with only the binding warps visible. By the medieval period, the term samite was applied to any rich, heavy silk material which had a satin-like gloss, indeed "satin" began as a term for lustrous samite. Fragments of samite have been discovered at many locations along the Silk Road, are associated with Sassanid Persia. Samite was "arguably the most important" silk weave of Byzantium, from the 9th century Byzantine silks entered Europe via the Italian trading ports.

Vikings, connected through their direct trade routes with Constantinople, were buried in samite embroidered with silver-wound threads in the tenth century. Silk weaving itself was established in Lucca and Venice in the 12th and 13th centuries, the statutes of the silk-weaving guilds in Venice distinguished sammet weavers from weavers of other types of silk cloth; the Crusades brought Europeans into direct contact with the Islamic world, other sources of samite, as well as other Eastern luxuries. A samite saddle-cloth known in the West as the Suaire de St-Josse, now in the Musée du Louvre, was woven in eastern Iran, some time before 961, when Abu Mansur Bakhtegin, for whom it was woven, died. At the time of the First Crusade, samite needed to be explained to a Western audience, as in the eye-witness Chanson d'Antioche: Very he took a translator and a large dromedary loaded with silver cloth, called "samite" in our language, he sent them to our fine, brave men... The Fourth Crusade brought riches unknown in the West to the crusaders who sacked Constantinople in 1204, described by Villehardouin: "The booty gained was so great that none could tell you the end of it: gold and silver, vessels and precious stones, samite, cloth of silk..."

Samite was a royal tissue: in the 1250s it features among the clothing of fitting status provided for the innovative and style-conscious English king Henry III, his family, his attendants. For those of royal blood there were mantles of samite and cloth of gold. Samite itself might be interwoven with threads wrapped in gold foil, it could be further enriched by being over-embroidered: in Chrétien de Troyes' Perceval, the Story of the Grail "On the altar, I assure you, there lay a slain knight. Over him was spread a rich, dyed samite cloth, embroidered with many golden flowers, before him burned a single candle, no more, no less." In manuscript illuminations, modern readers interpret rich figurative designs as embroidered, but Linnet Kestrel points out that they could be painted, illustrates a samite bishop's mitre painted in grisaille in the Cleveland Museum of Art. According to the Louvre the most famous example of painted silk, the Parement of Narbonne, despite being a royal commission, was only made on "fluted silk imitating samite".

In the wrong hands, samite could threaten the outward marks of social stability. Embroidered red samite cope from 1270 Samite robe 8th-11th century CE Aga Khan Museum Child's coat Sogdian samite silk, 8th century, Pritzer collection, Chicago Sogdian samite silk child's coat 8th century Textile samples from New York's Samite fragment from, with pattern in weave