Gulf of Asinara
The Gulf of Asinara is a sea sector included between the Asinara Island, Cape Falcone and the town of Castelsardo, in northern Sardinia, Italy. The communes facing its coast include Stintino, Porto Torres, Sorso and Badesi; the littoral features several beaches, some kilometers long, such as La Pelosa, le Saline Ezzi Mannu and Fiume Santo, those near Porto Torres, the beaches of Castelsardo, Badesi, Trinità d'Agultu and Isola Rossa
The Amalfi Coast is a stretch of coastline on the northern coast of the Salerno Gulf on the Tyrrhenian Sea, located in the Province of Salerno of southern Italy. The Amalfi Coast is a popular tourist destination for the region and Italy as a whole, attracting thousands of tourists annually. In 1997, the Amalfi Coast was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During the 10th–11th centuries, the Duchy of Amalfi existed on the territory of the Amalfi Coast, centered in the town of Amalfi; the Amalfi coast was controlled by the Principality of Salerno, until Amalfi was sacked by the Republic of Pisa in 1137. Like the rest of the region, the Amalfi Coast lies in a Mediterranean climate, featuring warm summers and mild winters, it is located on the steep southern shore of the Sorrentine Peninsula, leaving little room for rural and agricultural territories. The coast comprises 11,231 hectares between the Gulf of Salerno; the only land route to the Amalfi Coast is the 40 kilometres long Strada Statale 163 which runs along the coastline from the town of Vietri sul Mare in the east to Positano in the west.
Thirteen municipalities are located on the Amalfi Coast, many of them centered on tourism. The Amalfi Coast is known for its production of limoncello liqueur as the area is a known cultivator of lemons, known as sfusato amalfitano in Italian, which are grown in terraced gardens along the entire coast between February and October. Amalfi is a known maker of a hand-made thick paper, called bambagina. Other renowned local products are a particular kind of anchovies from Cetara, the colorful handmade ceramics from Vietri. There are ferries along the Amalfi Coast. There are boat excursions from Positano and Amalfi; the nearest airport is the Salerno Costa d'Amalfi Airport. However, the most used airport to reach the area from abroad is Naples International Airport; the rulers of Amalfi are the central figures in John Webster's Jacobean tragedy The Duchess of Malfi. In the last episode of the popular TV series Entourage, Ari Gold and Mrs. Gold are seen relaxing at the Amalfi Coast when Ari receives a phone call to become the chairman of Time Warner.
The Amalfi Coast is a popular destination among tourists. It was featured in Positano, a short story written by American author John Steinbeck in 1953, it was the setting in "Finding Positano, A Love Story" written by author William James in 2010. The Amalfi Coast serves as a setting for fictional tracks in the Forza Motorsport 3, Forza Motorsport 4 and Gran Turismo 4; the city of Positano featured prominently in scenes of the film Under the Tuscan Sun. In the spy comedy Knight and Day, Tom Cruise's character speaks of living on the Amalfi coast with nothing but a backpack and a motorcycle. In season 5 of the popular TV show Psych, the Amalfi coast is the proposed vacation spot for Juliet O'Hara and love interest Declan Rand. Audrey Hepburn stars in a Galaxy chocolate commercial set on the Amalfi coast. Caught in traffic, she accepts an offer to ride in a male interest's car and switches transport, she is last seen riding up the coast. Federico Fellini filmed some scenes of his movie Roma on the Amalfi Coast, included shots of author Gore Vidal, who lived there at the time.
The Amalfi Coast was used for the 2017 American superhero film Wonder Woman as the Amazon island of Themyscira. In Season 2 of 13 Reasons Why, the character Bryce Walker talks about his family's plans to spend the summer at the Amalfi Coast and invites his girlfriend, Chlöe Rice, to join him; the Dutch artist M. C. Escher produced a number of art works of the Amalfi coast. Cilentan Coast, located on the Gulf of Salerno's southern shore Province of Salerno, Italy at Curlie Amalfi Coast at ENIT – Italian National Tourist Board Sorrento and Amalfi Coast Amalfi drive – Italy Travel and Life – Tripedia the trip encyclopedia Sharing Tours Amalfi Coast
Irpinia is a district of the Apennine Mountains around Avellino, a town in Campania, South Italy, about 50 km east of Naples. It was the territory of the ancient Hirpini tribe; the territory is mountainous, with an intricate network of hills and valleys and a predominantly limestone Karst topography. To the north-east, the rocks are sandstone, the land is lower. Irpinia is centred on the section of the Apennines which runs from the Sella di Ariano to the springs of the Sele River. To the south are the Picentini Mountains, which include the highest peak of the region, Mount Terminio, from which extends the Sorrentine peninsula; the region is bordered on the east by the Ofanto valley and the San Pietro lake, while to the north it merges with Sannio and Daunia. The name "Irpinia" derives from the Oscan word "hirpus", which means wolf, the wolf remains Irpinia's symbol to this day. Oscan tribes of the Sabines, under demographic pressure, migrated towards this area in the 6th century BC from what is now Umbria.
The Hirpini occupied the region Sabato, Calore Irpino and Ofanto, becoming differentiated with time from the Samnites who settled the area from Molise and Matese. The main centres of the Hirpini were Malies or Maloenton, Aequum Tuticum, Compsa, Aquilonia and Abellinum. No certain date for the arrival of the Hiripini in the region can be given, they were settled here at the time of the First Samnite War. Their name is found in sources from 280 BC, when the Greek general Pyrrhus of Epirus made his expedition into Italy. A bronze medal reveals that they signed an alliance with the Samnites in 275 BC. Abellinum was conquered by the Romans in 252 BC; the Hirpini suffered internal divisions at the time of the Second Punic War. Caius Marius gave them Roman citizenship in 87 BC, but they were deprived of any privilege under the former's victor, Sulla. In 22 BC Hirpinia became an imperial colony under the name Livia, which received substantial immigration from the Eastern Roman provinces at the time of emperor Alexander Severus.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Irpinia came successively under Byzantine, Hohenstaufen, Anjou and Spanish domination. As part of the Kingdom of Naples it was included in the Principato Ultra or Ulterior, the sole land-locked province of the kingdom. Feudalism was abolished in 1806, the same year in which Avellino was declared capital of the province. Irpinia became part of the newly united Kingdom of Italy in 1861. On November 23, 1980, the 6.9 Mw Irpinia earthquake affected the area with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X, killing 2,483–4,900, injuring 7,700–8,934. Irpinia has a proud tradition of producing wines such as Fiano di Avellino, Greco di Tufo and Taurasi, all of which are classified as DOCG, its cheeses, including scamorza and caciocavallo, have a high reputation. Irpinia’s salami and sausages are popular, as are its chestnuts, its hazelnuts and the black truffles of Bagnoli Irpino. Tourist amenities are the ski resort Laceno, with a lake near Mount Terminio, some villages.
The most popular Irpinia's town is Ariano Irpino, which lies on the top of three steep hills and is provided with ancient sights, majolica shops and traditional restaurants. Other noteworthy centers are Mirabella Eclano, Rocca San Felice and Calitri. Among the religious sanctuaries there are Montevergine, the Shrine of St. Gerard, the Sanctuary of Carpignano, the Sanctuary of Valleluogo. Avellino, with a population of c. 55,000, is by far the largest municipality in the region. Others include: Ariano Irpino Atripalda Bisaccia Cervinara Fontanarosa Frigento Calitri Gesualdo Grottaminarda Lacedonia Lioni Mercogliano Mirabella Eclano Montella Nusco Sant'Angelo dei Lombardi Solofra Serino Montoro Ariano Irpino Avellino Campania Duchy of Benevento Hirpini Irpinian dialect List of earthquakes in Irpinia Oscan language Province of Avellino Samnites Gargano, Mauro. Candida: in loco eminente et de bona aria. Naples: MCM. Info and history of Irpinia Associazione Irpinia Nostra http://www.opinioneirpina.it Site that wants to show through forums and opinion polls of the people Irpino.
More: videos, a section devoted to immigrants and others. Irpinia portal News from Irpinia XD Magazine Irpinia
The Tyrrhenian Sea is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy. It is named for the Tyrrhenian people, identified since the 6th century BCE with the Etruscans of Italy; the sea is bounded by the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, the Italian peninsula to the east, the island of Sicily. The Tyrrhenian sea includes a number of small islands like Capri and Ustica; the maximum depth of the sea is 3,785 metres. The Tyrrhenian Sea is situated near where the Eurasian Plates meet; the eight Aeolian Islands and Ustica are located in the southern part of the sea, north of Sicily. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Tyrrhenian Sea as follows: In the Strait of Messina: A line joining the North extreme of Cape Paci with the East extreme of the Island of Sicily, Cape Peloro. On the Southwest: A line running from Cape Lilibeo to the South extreme of Cape Teulada in Sardinia. In the Strait of Bonifacio: A line joining the West extreme of Cape Testa in Sardinia with the Southwest extreme of Cape Feno in Corsica.
On the North: A line joining Cape Corse in Corsica, with Tinetto Island and thence through Tino and Palmaria islands to San Pietro Point on the coast of Italy. There are four exits from the Tyrrhenian Sea: The Tyrrhenian Basin is divided into two basins, the Vavilov plain and the Marsili plain, they are separated by the undersea ridge known after Arturo Issel. The Tyrrhenian Sea is a back-arc basin that formed due to the rollback of the Calabrian slab towards South-East during the Neogene. Episodes of fast and slow trench retreat formed first the Vavilov basin and the Marsili basin. Submarine volcanoes formed because trench retreat produces extension in the overriding plate allowing the mantle to rise below the surface and melts; the magmatism here is affected by the fluids released from the slab. Its name derives from the Greek name for the Etruscans, who were said to be emigrants from Lydia and led by the prince Tyrrhenus; the Etruscans settled along the coast of modern Tuscany and referred to the water as the "Sea of the Etruscans".
Islands of the Tyrrhenian Sea include: Corsica Sardinia Sicily Elba Ischia Capri Ustica The main ports of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy are: Naples, Civitavecchia, Salerno and Gioia Tauro. In France the most important port is Bastia. Note that though the phrase "port of Rome" is used, there is in fact no port in Rome. Instead, the "port of Rome" refers to the maritime facilities at Civitavecchia, some 68 km to the northwest of Rome, not too far from its airport. Giglio Porto is a small island port in this area, it rose to prominence, when the Costa Concordia ran aground a few metres off the coast of Giglio and sank. The ship was refloated and towed to Genoa for scrapping. In Greek mythology, it is believed that the cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea housed the four winds kept by Aeolus; the winds are the Mistral from the Rhône valley, the Libeccio from the southwest, the Sirocco and Ostro from the south
Campania is a region in Southern Italy. As of 2018, the region has a population of around 5,820,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy. Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Mediterranean Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands and Capri for administration as part of the region. Campania was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture; the capital city of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture in regard to gastronomy, architecture and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Oplontis, Aeclanum and Velia; the name of Campania itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside" or "happy countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania make it important in the tourism industry along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri; the original inhabitants of Campania were three defined groups of the Ancient peoples of Italy, who all spoke the Oscan language, part of the Italic family.
During the 8th century BC, people from Euboea in Greece, known as Cumaeans, began to establish colonies in the area around the modern day province of Naples. Another Oscan tribe, the Samnites, moved down from central Italy into Campania. Since the Samnites were more warlike than the Campanians, they took over the cities of Capua and Cumae, in an area, one of the most prosperous and fertile in the Italian Peninsula at the time. During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with the Roman Republic in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with the Romans securing rich pastures of northern Campania during the First Samnite War; the major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis, when the town was captured by the Samnites, the Neapolitans were left with no other option than to call on the Romans, with whom they established an alliance, setting off the Second Samnite War. The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo recaptured Neapolis by 326 BC and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some autonomy as a civitas foederata while aligned with Rome.
The Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern Campania and additional regions further to the south. Campania was a full-fledged part of the Roman Republic by the end of the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside, its Greek language and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman culture. During the Pyrrhic War the battle took place in Campania at Maleventum in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious, they renamed the city Beneventum, which grew in stature until it was second only to Capua in southern Italy. During the Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality with Rome, allied with Carthage; the rebellious Capuans were isolated from the rest of Campania. Naples resisted Hannibal due to the imposing walls. Capua was starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC, the Romans were victorious; the rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin language as official and was Romanised.
As part of the Roman Empire, with Latium, formed the most important region of the Augustan divisions of Italia. In ancient times Misenum, at the extreme northern end of the bay of Naples, was the largest base of the Roman navy, since its port was the base of the Classis Misenensis, the most important Roman fleet, it was first established as a naval base in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, the right-hand man of the emperor Augustus. Roman Emperors chose Campania as a holiday destination, among them Claudius and Tiberius, the latter of whom is infamously linked to the island of Capri, it was during this period that Christianity came to Campania. Two of the apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, are said to have preached in the city of Naples, there were several martyrs during this time; the period of relative calm was violently interrupted by the epic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 which buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. With the Decline of the Roman Empire, its last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was put in a manor house prison near Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, in 476, ushering in the beginning of the Middle Ages and a period of uncertainty in regard to the future of the area.
The area had many duchies and principalities during the Middle Ages, in the hands of the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards. Under the Normans, the smaller independent states were brought together as part of the Kingdom of Sicily, before the mainland broke away to form the Kingdom of Naples, it was during this period that elements of Spanish and Aragonese culture were introduced to Campania. After a period as a Norman kingdom, the Kingdom of Sicily passed to the Hohenstaufens, who were a powerful Germanic royal house of Swabian origins; the University of Naples Federico II was founded by Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king. Charles moved the capital from Palermo to Naples where he resided at the Castel Nuovo. During this period, much Gothic architec
Terra di Lavoro
Terra di Lavoro is the name of a historical region of Southern Italy. It corresponds roughy to the modern southern Lazio and northern Campania and upper north west and west border area of Molise regions of Italy. In Italian the name means "Land of Work", but in fact derives from the ancient Liburia, a territory north of Aversa which took its name from the ancient tribe of the Leborini; the Terra di Lavoro was a giustizierato and a province of the Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom of Naples. After the Congress of Vienna it became a department of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, after the unification of Italy, a province of the Regno d'Italia; the capital was Capua until 1818 and Caserta. In the pre-Republican Italy, the Terra di Lavoro was one of the largest provinces: it comprised the current province of Caserta, the southern part of today's provinces of Latina and Frosinone, the countryside of Nola of the province of Naples, the Sannio; the main cities in the province were Capua, Sessa Aurunca, Gaeta, Isola del Liri, Nola, Aquino and Roccasecca.
The Pontine Islands were part of the province. In 1863 the upper valley of the Volturno was separated to form the new province of Campobasso, while the communes in the Valle Caudina became part of the provinces of Benevento and Avellino. In 1927 the province of Frosinone was established and the Terra di Lavoro was abolished by personal order by Benito Mussolini, its communes were annexed to the province of Rome, Benevento, Campobasso and, after 1934, to the province of Littoria. In 1945 the new province of Caserta was created, including communes of the central Terra di Lavoro part of the province of Naples and Campobasso. Kingdom of Two Sicilies Kingdom of Naples Province of Frosinone Province of Caserta Province of Latina
Province of Avellino
The Province of Avellino is a province in the Campania region of Southern Italy. The area is characterized by numerous small villages scattered across the province, it has an area of 2,806 square kilometres and a total population of 427,310 in 2012. There are 118 comuni in the province, with the main towns being Ariano Irpino. See Comuni of the Province of Avellino, it is an inner province, with no connection to the sea. The ancient name of the area was "Hirpinia", derived from the Oscan term hirpus, an animal, still present in the territory, though in reduced numbers. In the province of Avellino there are many archaeological Roman sites, with Aeclanum being the most important. In the Middle Age, the County of Ariano was the first political body established in 1022 by the Normans in the South of Italy, there Roger II promulgated in 1140 the Assizes of Ariano, the first legislative code of the Kingdom. In the medieval Kingdom of Naples the provincial area corresponded to the Principato Ultra, though some places were included in Capitanata or Principato Citra.
The modern province was established after the unification of Italy. Tourist destinations are the Sanctuaries of Montevergine, San Gerardo Maiella of Caposele and San Francesco a Folloni; the Selachoidei National Gallery at Avellino houses one of the largest collections of cartilaginous fishes in the country. Natural attractions include the Monti Piacentini and Partenio Regional Parks, together with two WWF sites, Valle della Caccia in Senerchia and the area around the Ofanto dam in Conza della Campania. Typical products are hazelnuts, the chestnut of Montella, the renowned wines Aglianico, Taurasi and Fiano, cheeses, the black truffle of Bagnoli Irpino, the olive oil of Ariano Irpino. Irpinia Official website