The Star (Ballarat)
The Ballarat Star was a newspaper in Ballarat, Australia, first published on 22 September 1855. Its publication ended on 13 September 1924 when it was merged with its competitor, the Ballarat Courier; the earliest original edition of The Star, was discovered early in 2011 in the Australiana Reference Room of the Ballarat library. An unusual masthead caught the eye of the research librarian. Instead of the lion and unicorn crest in the first edition facsimile, this sixth edition displayed a centrepiece, much more elaborate. In the centre is the eight-pointed star used on the Eureka flag at the uprising nine months earlier and the motto of the British monarchy, Dieu et mon droit, in French. Above is Vita veritas, Latin meaning "Life, Truth". Underneath is Victoria, the name of the colony, separated in 1851, named after the reigning monarch, Queen Victoria; the four-page print of this newspaper was returned from conservator in October 2011. The Star began as a tri-weekly journal until 15 December 1856.
It was Ballarat's second successful newspaper, established as a reaction to the more radical Ballarat Times whose editor and owner, Henry Seekamp, was arrested for sedition the day after the tragic storming of the Eureka stockade on 3 December 1854. In the aftermath of Eureka, twenty-five liberal-minded gentlemen each contributed £25 to bring the rival newspaper into being, they named their publication after the Star Hotel in Main Street where they met to discuss the proposal and to pledge the capital for their joint-stock venture. T. D. Wanliss was appointed business manager and the first editors were J. J. Ham and Samuel Irwin; the first edition of The Ballarat Star gave a warning against anarchy but stated, "Arguments and convincing, will be the principal weapon used by us. Candour and impartiality it will be our endeavour to maintain, whilst these columns are open to all, we distinctly state that we shall most assuredly be influenced by none." Mr D. D. Wheeler, a shareholder in the first Star co-partnership, wrote: "Its first number was printed and published in the middle of a hurricane and inundation, with the printers nearly up to their middle in water."
This was at the first location in Bridge Street where the Yarrowee River ran through the low-lying Ballarat Flat, a natural flood plain and became a sea of mining sludge. It was at the heart of the alluvial mining activity in Ballarat East; the Star premises consisted of one behind the other. In the front room "copy" was produced, the second was the composing room, the third was where the hand-worked press printed the newspapers, it was decided to move the operation to higher ground on the north side of lower Sturt Street, still in the centre of commercial activity, but in the municipal district of Ballarat West. By 1870 Ballarat's two morning papers and Courier were near neighbours in lower Sturt Street and the columnists of both papers thrived on the rivalry with amusing references to the opposition; the men who wrote for The Star used it as a mouthpiece for the consolidation of all the diggers' newly won rights which had become the common rights of all Victorians. From the beginning the paper "maintained its position as a consistent advocate" of State policies which were a continuation of legislative reform in the best interests of its liberal readership.
By 1862 The Star masthead centrepiece depicted a modified Eureka star, only one word and sketches depicting life in Ballarat. There is a wheatsheaf and mining icons: a windlass, cradle and shovel and a trunk full of gold to be shipped back to the home country. In the ensuing decades the prestige of the paper was upheld "as one of the most and ably conducted organs of public opinion extant in Australia." The following reference to The Ballarat Star was reprinted from an article on Ballarat which appeared in The Illustrated Australian News of 1 August 1893, The Melbourne Age of 5 August 1893: In the 1896 Sands and McDougall's Ballarat Directory: Richard Twopeny wrote in Town Life in Australia in 1883: The price for a copy of the Ballarat Star was sixpence on 22 September 1855, 4d on 1 July 1865, 3d on 1 October 1867, 2d on 19 May 1868, 1d on 1 January 1876. In 1903 the price advertised was still one penny for "six pages daily" and "eight pages on Saturday". While still in its infancy, The Star ceased to be a joint-stock company and became a owned partnership between T. D. Wanliss and Richard Belford, the latter moving on after only a short time.
The Australiana Research Room of the Ballarat Library holds an early original edition of The Star, Ballarat, 6th edition, dated Saturday, 4 October 1855. As of 2011 it has not been microfilmed; the Ballaarat Mechanics' Institute holds original editions of The Ballarat Star from June 1859 to 13 September 1924. State Library of Victoria holds the full date range for The Ballarat Star from 22 September 1855 to 13 September 1924 and it is the microfilmed masters from this collection that have been sent to Canberra to be digitised.\ The microfilm held at the State Library of Victoria does not hold the full run of "The Star" Ballarat. Australiana Collection of Central Highlands Regional Library Corporation has microfilmed copies of The Ballarat Star from 1855 to 1924; this is the full range copied from the originals held in State Library of Victoria. CHRLC has an Index to The Star 1855-1868 on microfiche. List of newspapers in Australia Sands & McDouga
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 410,301, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall; the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory, 280 km south-west of Sydney, 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran. Although Canberra is the capital and seat of government, many federal government ministries have secondary seats in state capital cities, as do the Governor-General and the Prime Minister; the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australia's two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being an planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States, or Brasília in Brazil. Following an international contest for the city's design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected and construction commenced in 1913.
The Griffins' plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, was centred on axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks in the Australian Capital Territory. The city's design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation; the growth and development of Canberra were hindered by the World Wars and the Great Depression, which exacerbated a series of planning disputes and the ineffectiveness of a procession of bodies that were created in turn to oversee the development of the city. The national capital emerged as a thriving city after World War II, as Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies championed its development and the National Capital Development Commission was formed with executive powers. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority; as the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament House, the official residence of the Monarch's representative the Governor-General, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies.
It is the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Australian War Memorial, Australian National University, Royal Australian Mint, Australian Institute of Sport, National Gallery, National Museum and the National Library. The Australian Army's officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital; the ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power. The ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, has its own Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states; as the city has a high proportion of public servants, the Commonwealth Government contributes the largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single employer in Canberra, although no longer the majority employer. Compared to the national averages, the unemployment rate is the average income higher. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations.
The word "Canberra" is popularly claimed to derive from the word Kambera or Canberry, claimed to mean "meeting place" in Ngunnawal, one of the Indigenous languages spoken in the district by Aboriginal Australians before European settlers arrived, although there is no clear evidence to support this. An alternative definition has been claimed by numerous local commentators over the years, including the Ngunnawal elder Don Bell, whereby Canberra or Nganbra means "woman's breasts" and is the indigenous name for the two mountains, Black Mountain and Mount Ainslie, which lie opposite each other. In the 1860s, the name was reported by Queanbeyan newspaper owner John Gale to be an interpretation of the name nganbra or nganbira, meaning "hollow between a woman's breasts", referring to the Sullivans Creek floodplain between Mount Ainslie and Black Mountain. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivan's Creek floodplain between these two mountains as "Nganbra". "Nganbra" or "Nganbira" could have been anglicised to the name "Canberry", as the locality soon become known to European settlers.
R. H. Cambage in his 1919 book Notes on the Native Flora of New South Wales, Part X, the Federal Capital Territory noted that Joshua John Moore, the first settler in the region, named the area Canberry in 1823 stating that "there seems no doubt that the original was a native name, but its meaning is unknown."' Survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. In 1920, some of the older residents of the district claimed that the name was derived from the Australian Cranberry which grew abundantly in the area, noting that the local name for the plant was canberry. Although popularly pronounced or, the original pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians. Anthropologist Norman Tindale suggested the principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal people, while the Ngarigo lived to the south of the ACT, the Wandandian to the east, the Walgulu to the south, Gandangara people to the north and Wiradjuri to the north-west.
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites as well as stone tools and arrangements. Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some po
The Riverine Grazier
The Riverine Grazier is an English language newspaper published in Hay, New South Wales from 1873. The paper absorbed the Riverina Times, Hay Standard and Journal of Water Conservation in October 1902; the first issue of The Riverine Grazier was on 29 October 1873. The paper could be subscribed to for £ 1 per year, it contained agricultural information and advertisements for goods and services in the area. Its founder was John Andrew. L. C. and John Johnston O. B. E., an accountant with Cobb and Co. branch manager for the Equitable Assurance Company, of New Zealand. In 1902 it moved to new premises opposite Tattersall's Hotel and shortly afterwards purchased and incorporated the Riverina Times; the various versions of the paper have been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program project hosted by the National Library of Australia. List of newspapers in New South Wales List of newspapers in Australia The Riverine Grazier at Trove Holden, W Sprague 1961, Australia goes to press, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Mayer, Henry 1964, The press in Australia, Lansdowne Press, Melbourne. Walker, R B 1976, The newspaper press in New South Wales 1803-1920, Sydney University Press, Sydney
Squizzy Taylor (film)
Squizzy Taylor is a 1982 Australian drama film based on the life of Melbourne gangster, Squizzy Taylor, directed by Kevin James Dobson and starring David Atkins, Jackie Weaver and Alan Cassell. Writer Roger Simpson had been researching the period since he helped adapt Power Without Glory The filmmakers used research done by Nigel Buesst for his film on Squizzy Taylor; the film was shot on location in Melbourne. Its critical and commercial response was limited. Squizzy Taylor was released on DVD with a new transfer by Umbrella Entertainment in July 2007; the DVD is compatible with all region codes and includes special features such as the theatrical trailer and a featurette titled The Rise and Fall of Squizzy Taylor. Cinema of Australia Squizzy Taylor at the National Film and Sound Archive Squizzy Taylor on IMDb Squizzy Taylor at Oz Movies
St Michael's Uniting Church, Melbourne
St Michael’s Uniting Church is a Church in Collins Street in central Melbourne, Australia. The Collins Street Independent Church, a Congregational Union of Australia Church, Collins Street Uniting Church, St Michael's has become well known as a centre of liberal theology and political radicalism under its recent Executive Minister Dr Francis Macnab; the Church became a congregation of the Uniting Church in Australia at its inception in 1977. The first church on this site was built in 1839, one of the first Churches in the Port Phillip District; the original Church was demolished in 1866 to make way for the larger Church now on the site. The Church was designed by Joseph Reed, who designed the Melbourne Town Hall and the Royal Exhibition Building; the Church is classified by the National Trust of Australia. It was variously known as the Independent Church and the Congregational Church before it was given its present name; the building is in the Lombardic architectural style, with multi-coloured exterior brickwork, open cloisters on the side of the building and Romanesque arches.
The interior of the Church was designed in accordance with the principles of the Congregationalist Church, as a place where all members of the congregation could both hear and see the preacher. It features a sloping floor with tiered seating and a gallery to increase the capacity of the church; the Church underwent major renovations in the 1970s. It is now undergoing further renovations to its exterior structure. Dr Francis Macnab, PhD, DSc, DD, MA, FBPsS was the Executive Minister of St Michael’s from February 1971 to December 2016. In addition to his duties as a minister, Macnab was the founder and previous executive director of The Cairnmillar Institute, a non-for-profit clinic for counselling available to the general public and a postgraduate school of psychology and psychotherapy. Dr Macnab holds a Doctor of Divinity degree from the University of Aberdeen, he has honorary doctorates from the University of Melbourne and RMIT in psychology and applied science. Through Cairnmillar and St Michael’s, Macnab developed a healthy ageing program called Successful Ageing and Enjoyment for people aged between 55-105.
He recognised a need for The Big Tent Project, aimed at supporting kindergarten aged children suffering from mental health issues. Mingary Counselling Service is another section of Dr Macnab’s on going support for the public. Under the leadership of the Director Dr Lynette Kramer, Mingary offers low cost counselling to the general public where counselled by interns of Cairnmillar completing placement hours, thus providing students with the appropriate training, but the public with a sustainable, affordable counselling service. Whilst the study of psychology and religion is not a new phenomenon, Dr Macnab is one of the only spiritual preachers in the city of Melbourne to accept and encourage people of vast backgrounds to join the congregation and discuss topics of self and living a fulfilled life. Dr Macnab chooses to promote a spiritual awareness as opposed to enforcing religious views but encourages people to accept them. Dr Macnab is an internationally renowned public speaker, having spoken at several international conferences, he is the former president of the International Council of Psychologists, a one-time research fellow at Aberdeen University.
He holds honorary doctorates from Aberdeen University and RMIT in psychology and Applied Science, is a registered psychologist and Fellow of the Australian Psychological Society. In 1992 he was honoured as a member of the Order of Australia. In 2016, he was awarded Emeritus Professor status by The Cairnmillar Institute. Since 1 May 2018 Reverend David Dawes, Reverend John Smith and Reverend Peter Burnham and others have been visiting preachers at St Michael's. Reverend Ric Holland was part time Supply Minister from 1 February 2017 till 30 April 2018. "Mingary - the Quiet Place" is a contemplative space at St Michael's opened in 1991. Mingary offers low-cost counselling under the supervision of the manager psychologist, Lynette Kramer. Mingary is run in conjunction with the Cairnmillar Institute and the Australian Foundation for Aftermath Reactions, both of which Francis Macnab founded; the minister since 1971, Macnab holds degrees in psychology and is a fellow of the Australian Psychological Society.
In September 2008, Dr Francis Macnab launched what he called a "New Faith" including posters reading "The Ten Commandments, one of the most negative documents written." Macnab described Moses as a mass murderer, Abraham as concocted and Jesus as a Jewish peasant and not God. The Moderator of the Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, the Rev'd Jason Kioa, described Dr Macnab's comments challenging the divinity of Jesus as questioning some of the faith's most basic beliefs, turning away from 2000 years of "orthodox Christian belief". Other members of the Synod published their concerns; the Synod of Victoria and Tasmania directed St Michael's Uniting Church to remove advertising for its new faith and apologise to Jews and Muslims for the comments it contained about the Ten Commandments. The Uniting Church did not move to discipline Macnab. In an address on 5 October 2008, Dr Macnab defended his comments, including against suggestions they were offensive to Jews, citing his study in undergraduate and postgraduate work in Hebrew language and history, including distinctions, saying "Some of the comments have been knee-jerk reactions and overloaded with bad manners."
He stated, "While I have no intention of denigrating the Ten Commandments as a sacred symbol of the Jewish Torah and the Old Covenant, I say they are negat
Judiciary of Australia
The judiciary of Australia comprises judges who sit in federal courts and courts of the States and Territories of Australia. The High Court of Australia sits at the apex of the Australian court hierarchy as the ultimate court of appeal on matters of both federal and State law; the large number of courts in Australia have different procedural powers and characteristics, different jurisdictional limits, different remedial powers and different cost structures. Under the Australian Constitution, federal judicial power is vested in the High Court of Australia and such other federal courts as may be created by the federal Parliament; these courts include the Federal Court of Australia, the Federal Circuit Court of Australia, the Family Court of Australia. Federal jurisdiction can be vested in State courts; the Supreme Courts of the states and territories are superior courts of record with general and unlimited jurisdiction within their own state or territory. They can try any justiciable dispute, whether it be for money or not, whether it be for $1 or $1 billion.
Like the Supreme Courts, the Family Court and Federal Court are superior courts of record, which means that they have certain inherent procedural and contempt powers. But unlike their Supreme Court counterparts, their subject matter jurisdiction must be granted by statute. Under the doctrine of "accrued jurisdiction", the Federal Court can, rule on issues outside its explicit jurisdiction, provided that they are part of a larger matter that the court does have jurisdiction over; the High Court has limited trial powers, but rarely exercises them. It has ample power to transfer cases started there to another, more appropriate court, so that the High Court can conserve its energies for its appellate functions. Common law and equity are administered by the same courts, in a manner similar to that of the Supreme Court of Judicature Act 1873. Legal and equitable remedies may be pursued in the one action in the one court. Judges are appointed without intervention by the existing judiciary. Once appointed, judges have tenure and there are restrictions on their removal from office.
For example, a federal judge may not be removed from office except by the Governor-General upon an address of both Houses of Parliament for proved misbehavior. Judges in Australia are appointed by the Executive government of the relevant jurisdiction, most judges have practised as a barrister. Federal judges may only serve until age 70. There is no constitutional limit on the length of service of State court judges, but State laws fix a retirement age. For example, in New South Wales, judges must retire at age 72, though they can remain as "acting judges" until age 76; the hierarchy consists of a variety of courts and tribunals at both the federal and state and territory levels, with the High Court being the highest court in the Australian judicial system. A single body of Australian common law is applied in the various Australian courts, determined by the High Court now that appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council have been abolished; the High Court has described the concept of a superior court as having'no ready application in Australia to federal courts.'
Despite this, Australian courts are characterised as either'superior' or'inferior.' The Federal Court and the Supreme Courts of each State and Territory are considered to be superior courts. There is no single definition of the term'superior court'. In many respects Australian superior courts are similar to the Senior Courts of Wales. In Australia, superior courts generally: have unlimited jurisdiction in law and equity, or at least are not subject to jurisdictional limits as to the remedies they may grant. Inferior courts are those beneath superior courts in the appellate hierarchy, are seen to include the Magistrates and District Court of each State as well as the Federal Circuit Court. Inferior courts are characterised by: jurisdiction conferred by statute and limited as to subject matter or the quantum of relief; these courts among them have jurisdiction over Commonwealth law, that is, law made by the Federal parliament of Australia. The High Court is the highest court in Australia, it was created by section 71 of the Constitution.
It has appellate jurisdiction over all other courts. It has some original jurisdiction, has the power of constitutional review; the High Court of Australia is the superior court to all federal courts, is the final route of appeal from all state superior courts. Appeals to the High Court are by special leave only, granted. Therefore, for most cases, the appellate divisions of the Supreme Courts of each state and territory and the Federal Court are the ultimate appellate courts; the Full Court of the High Court is the ultimate appeal court for Australia. Appeals from Australian courts to the Privy Council were possible, however the Privy Council Act 1968 closed off all appeals to the Privy Council in matters involving federal legislation, the Privy Council Act 1975 closed all routes of appeal from the High Court; the Australia Act 1986 elimi
The Argus (Melbourne)
The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, established in 1846 and closed in 1957. It was considered to be the general Australian newspaper of record for this period. Known as a conservative newspaper for most of its history, it adopted a left-leaning approach from 1949; the Argus's main competitor was The Age. The newspaper was owned by William Kerr, a journalist who had worked with The Sydney Gazette before moving to Melbourne in 1839 to work on John Pascoe Fawkner's newspaper, the Port Phillip Patriot; the first edition was published on 2 June 1846, with the paper soon known for its scurrilous abuse and sarcasm, such that by 1853, Kerr had lost ownership after a series of libel suits. The paper was published under the name of Edward Wilson. By the 1880s, Richard Twopeny regarded it as "the best daily paper published out of England." The paper become a stablemate to the weekly, The Australasian, to become The Australasian Post in 1946. During the Depression in 1933, it launched the Melbourne Evening Star in competition with The Herald newspaper of The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, but was forced to close the venture in 1936.
In 1949 the paper was acquired by the London-based Daily Mirror newspaper group. On 28 July 1952, The Argus became the first newspaper in the world to publish colour photographs in a daily paper; the paper had interests in radio and, in 1956, the new medium of television, being part of the consortium General Telecasters Victoria and its television station GTV-9. The company's newspaper operation experienced a severe loss of profitability in the 1950s, attributable to increased costs of newsprint and acute competition for newspaper circulation in Melbourne. In 1957, the paper was discontinued and sold to the Herald and Weekly Times group, which undertook to re-employ Argus staff and continue publication of selected features, HWT made an allocation of shares to the UK owners; the final edition was published on 19 January 1957. The company's other print and broadcasting operations were unaffected; the takeover of The Argus by the powerful Mirror Group, of Fleet Street, led to hopes of a renaissance for The Argus.
Fresh capital, new ideas, new strategies from London. But instead, the new arrivals from England finished up destroying their new possession. Frederick William Haddon – Argus sub-editor in 1863, editor 1867–1898 Edward Wilson Andrew Murray, editor in 1855 and 1856 Howard Willoughby Julian Howard Ashton, journalist and critic Roy Curthoys, editor 1929–1935 List of newspapers in Australia Argus Building Argus finals system, a series of systems for determining the Premiers of the Victorian Football League and other Australian rules football competitions in the early 20th century Australasian Sketcher with Pen and Pencil Don Hauser, The Printers of the Streets and Lanes Of Melbourne Nondescript Press, Melbourne 2006 Jim Usher The Argus – life and death of a newspaper Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne 2008 The Melbourne Argus at Trove The Argus at Trove The Argus: Special War Edition – 1 May 1915 Digitised World War I Victorian newspapers from the State Library of Victoria