A military vehicle is a type of vehicle that includes all land combat and transportation vehicles, which are designed for or are used by military forces. Many military vehicles have off-road capabilities or both. Under the Geneva Conventions, all non-combatant military vehicles such as field ambulances and mobile first aid stations must be properly and marked as such. In theory under the conventions, such vehicles are legally immune from deliberate attack by all combatants. A subtype that has become prominent since the late 20th Century is the improvised fighting vehicle, is seen in irregular warfare. A military truck is a vehicle designed to transport troops and military supplies to the battlefield, through asphalted roads and unpaved dirt roads. Several countries have manufactured their own models of military trucks, each of which has its own technical characteristics; these vehicles are adapted to the needs of the different armies on the ground. In general, these trucks are composed of a chassis, a motor, a transmission, a cabin, an area for the placement of the load and the equipment, axles of transmission, direction, electrical, hydraulic, engine cooling systems, brakes.
They can be operated with a gasoline engine or with a diesel engine, there are four-wheel drive vehicles, six wheeled, eight wheeled, ten wheeled and twelve wheeled vehicles. Land combat and military transport vehicles include: Armoured fighting vehicle Reconnaissance vehicle Military engineering vehicle Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Guns / Self-Propelled Air Defense Systems Military ambulances Electronic warfare vehicles Military draisnes Armoured trains Technical List of military vehicles List of military trucks Military aircraft Warship
The Leclerc tank is a main battle tank built by GIAT, now Nexter of France. It was named in honour of General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, who led the French element of the drive towards Paris while in command of the Free French 2nd Armoured Division in World War II; the designation AMX-56 – while popular – is not used officially. The Leclerc is in service with the United Arab Emirates Army. In production since 1991, the Leclerc entered French service in 1992, replacing the AMX 30 as the country's main armoured platform. With production now complete, the French Army has 406 Leclercs and the United Arab Emirates Army has 388; the price in 2011 was € 9.3 million. In 1964, studies were initiated about a possible replacement vehicle for the AMX 30: the Engin Principal Prospectif. In 1971, in view of the inferiority of the AMX 30 in comparison to the new generation of Soviet tanks about to be introduced, the Direction des Armements Terrestres ordered the beginning of the Char Futur project. In 1975, a working committee was created that in 1977 agreed on a list of specifications.
In February 1980 however, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed with West Germany involving the joint development of a MBT, called the Napoléon I in France and Kampfpanzer III in Germany. Fundamental disagreements about its desired configuration led to a failure of this cooperation in December 1982, it was announced that a purely French battle tank would be developed, called "EPC". The importation of foreign equipment, like the M1 Abrams, the Leopard 2, or the Merkava, had been studied and rejected. In contrast to most Western programmes of the time, much consideration was given to active, besides passive protection, to limit the overall mass of the vehicle. Mobility for evading enemy fire and fire control systems were given particular attention, it was a stated design goal to achieve at least double the protection against KE-penetrators in comparison to the level attained in current MBTs of the fifty ton weight class, the latter indicated at about 400 mm RHA equivalency, the higher level at the same time protecting against shaped charges.
Partnership with a foreign state was sought to limit the cost per unit, this was found when the United Arab Emirates ordered 436 vehicles, adding to the 426 units planned for the French Army. In 1986, the project was started under six prototypes being built swiftly. Mass production started in 1990 with the four-unit Batch 1, used for comparative tests in foreign countries; the 17 units of Batch 2 were shipped, in the hull armour. These units were diagnosed with problems in the engine and suspension, were retired. Batch 3 followed with some improvements and have been used to define the doctrine of use, instruction. Batches 4 and 5 were better built, eliminating the recurrent problems in the powerplant, are still in service, after having been refitted at the end of the 1990s; the second series started with Batch 6, with an added climate control system in the right rear of the turret. Batch 7 introduced a transmission system to the command vehicle, a data system giving instantaneous vision of the state of all battle tanks and acquired targets.
It incorporated minor improvements in the visor. Batch 8 was a modernisation of the electronic system, Batch 9 replaced the thermal imaging ATHOS by a SAGEM Iris with better resolution. All previous batches will be modernised up to the standards of Batch 9 from 2005. In 2004, Batch 10 was presented, incorporating new information systems which could share the disposition of enemy and friendly units to all vehicles on the battlefield, a new armor package; this was the beginning of the 96-unit third series. By 2007, 355 tanks should have been operational, 320 of them incorporated in four regiments, each of 80 Leclerc vehicles; as of 2010, after a French defence review, each of the four regiments operated 60 Leclerc tanks for a total of 240 in operational units. Due to finance cuts, only 254 tanks were operational in 2011; the four regiments are: 1e régiment de chasseurs stationed near Verdun, part of the 7th Armoured Brigade 4e régiment de dragons stationed in Carnoux-en-Provence, part of the 7th Armoured Brigade 12e régiment de cuirassiers stationed in Olivet, part of the 2nd Armoured Brigade 501e régiment de chars de combat stationed in Mourmelon-le-Grand, 2nd Armoured Brigade In September 2018 Der Spiegel raised questions about the size of the commission paid by GIAT to intermediaries.
The Leclerc is equipped with a GIAT CN120-26 120mm smoothbore cannon. This cannon is capable of firing the same NATO standard 120mm rounds as the German Leopard 2 and US M1 Abrams, but in practice only French-produced ammunition is issued; the gun is insulated with a thermal sleeve and has an automatic compressed-air fume extraction system instead of the usual bore evacuator. The Leclerc has a unique autoloading system, designed for it, reduces the crew to three by eliminating the human loader; the turret of the Leclerc was designed around the auto-loading system in order to avoid the problems common to other tanks with an autoloader. The Leclerc autoloader allows a rate of fire of 12 shots per minute and holds 22 rounds of ready ammunition; the most common types are the armour piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot with a tungsten core and the high explosive anti-tank round. The gun is 52 calibres long instead
The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army, it is armed with a 120 mm smoothbore cannon, is powered by a V-12 twin-turbo diesel engine. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and 12 other European countries, as well as several non-European nations, including Canada, Indonesia and Turkey; the Leopard 2 was used in Kosovo with the German Army, has seen action in Afghanistan with the Dutch and Canadian contributions to the International Security Assistance Force, as well as seeing action in Syria with the Turkish Armed Forces against ISIS and the YPG. There are two main development batches of the tank: the original models up to Leopard 2A4, which have vertically faced turret armour, the improved batch, namely the Leopard 2A5 and newer versions, which have angled arrow-shaped turret appliqué armour together with other improvements.
All models feature digital fire control systems with laser rangefinders, a stabilised main gun and coaxial machine gun, advanced night vision and sighting equipment. The tank has the ability to engage moving targets while moving over rough terrain; as the Leopard 1 was just entering service, the German military was interested in producing an improved tank in the next decade. This resulted in the start of the MBT-70 development in cooperation with the United States beginning in 1963; however in 1967 it became questionable whether the MBT-70 would enter service at any time in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the German government issued the order to research future upgrade options of the Leopard 1 to the German company Porsche in 1967; this study was named vergoldeter Leopard and focused on incorporating advanced technology into the Leopard design. The projected upgrades added an autoloader, a coaxial autocannon and an independent commander's periscope; the anti-air machine gun could be operated from inside the vehicle and a TV surveillance camera was mounted on an expendable mast.
The shape of the turret and hull was optimised using cast steel armour, while the suspension and the engine exhaust vents were improved. Following the end of Gilded Leopard study in 1967, the West-German government decided to focus on the Experimentalentwicklung as feasibility study and to develop new components for upgrading the Leopard 1 and for use on a future main battle tank programme. At first 25 million DM were invested, but after the industry came to the conclusion that with such a low budget the development of the two projected testbeds was not possible, a total of 30 to 32 million DM was invested; the experimental development was contracted to the company Krauss-Maffei, but with the obligation to cooperate with Porsche for the development of the chassis and with Wegmann for the development of the turret. Two prototypes with differing components were built with the aim to improve the conception of the Leopard 1 in such a way that it would match the firepower requirements of the MBT-70.
A high first-hit probability at ranges of 2,000 metres and the ability to engage targets on the move thanks to a computerised fire control system were the main goals of the experimental development. The resulting vehicles were nicknamed Keiler. Two prototypes of the Keiler were built in 1969 and 1970, both of them being powered by the MB 872 engine; the MBT-70 was a revolutionary design, but after large cost overruns and technological problems, Germany withdrew from the project in 1969. After unsuccessful attempts of saving the MBT-70 by conceptual changes in order to eliminate the biggest issue—the driver being seated in the turret—it became clear in late 1969 that Germany would stop the bi-national development; the assistant secretary of the military procurement division of the German Ministry of Defence suggested reusing as much technologies developed for the MBT-70 as possible in a further programme, nicknamed Eber due to him being named Eberhardt. The Eber used a modified MBT-70 hull, with the driver being seated in the hull.
Only a wooden mock-up was made. One year a choice was made to continue the development based on the earlier Keiler project of the late 1960s, instead of finishing the development of the Eber. In 1971, the name of the design was determined as Leopard 2 with the original Leopard retroactively becoming the Leopard 1, Paul-Werner Krapke became the project officer of the Leopard 2 program. Two versions were projected: the gun-armed Leopard 2K and the Leopard 2FK, which would be armed with the XM150 gun/launcher weapon of the MBT-70; that year 17 prototypes were ordered, but only 16 hulls were built as the production of hull PT12 was cancelled. Ten were ordered before another seven were ordered; the 17 turrets were designated T1 to T17, the hulls were designated PT1 to PT11 and PT13 to PT17. To test a larger number of components and concepts, each prototype was fitted with components not found on the other prototypes. Ten of the turrets were equipped with 105 mm smoothbore guns, the other seven prototypes were equipped with a 120 mm smoothbore gun.
Hulls PT11 and PT17 were fitted with a hydropneumatic suspension based on the MBT-70 design. The running gears of these two hulls had only six road wheels. Different types of APUs were mounted in the prototypes. All turrets were equipped with a machine gun for air-defence except the turret mounted on PT11, where a 20 mm remotely operated autocannon was mounted. With the exception of hulls PT07, PT09, PT1
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U. S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U. S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, ending between the Revolutions of 1989, which ended communism in Eastern Europe, the 1991 collapse of the USSR, when nations of the Soviet Union abolished communism and restored their independence. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars; the conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.
Some major Cold War frontlines such as Indochina and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, was a self-proclaimed Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a totalitarian leader with different titles over time, a small committee called the Politburo; the Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. The two worlds were fighting for dominance in low-developed regions known as the Third World. In time, a neutral bloc arose in these regions with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. Notwithstanding isolated incidents of air-to-air dogfights and shoot-downs, the two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat. However, both were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, technological competitions such as the Space Race; the first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe and creating the NATO alliance; the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded.
The USSR and the US competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about nuclear weapons testing, but soon in Europe and the US; the peace movement, in particular the anti-nuclear movement, gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, continued to grow through the'70s and'80s with large protest marches and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global nuclear disarmament. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies France, demonstrated greater independence of action.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War, which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of KAL Flight 007 and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises, both in 1983. The United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was suffering from economic stag
Military vehicles are armoured to withstand the impact of shrapnel, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire. Such vehicles include armoured fighting vehicles like tanks and ships. Civilian vehicles may be armoured; these vehicles include cars used by officials and others in conflict zones or where violent crime is common. Civilian armoured cars are routinely used by security firms to carry money or valuables to reduce the risk of highway robbery or the hijacking of the cargo. Armour may be used in vehicles to protect from threats other than a deliberate attack; some spacecraft are equipped with specialised armour to protect them against impacts from micrometeoroids or fragments of space junk. Modern aircraft powered by jet engines have them fitted with a sort of armour in the form of an aramid composite kevlar bandage around the fan casing or debris containment walls built into the casing of their gas turbine engines to prevent injuries or airframe damage should the fan, compressor, or turbine blades break free.
The design and purpose of the vehicle determines the amount of armour plating carried, as the plating is very heavy and excessive amounts of armour restrict mobility. In order to decrease this problem, some new materials and material compositions are being researched which include buckypaper, aluminium foam armour plates. Rolled homogeneous armour is strong and tough. Steel with these characteristics are produced by processing cast steel billets of appropriate size and rolling them into plates of required thickness. Rolling and forging irons out the grain structure in the steel, removing imperfections which would reduce the strength of the steel. Rolling elongates the grain structure in the steel to form long lines, which enable the stress the steel is placed under when loaded to flow throughout the metal, not be concentrated in one area. Aluminium is used, it is most used on APCs and armoured cars. Wrought iron was used on ironclad warships. Early European iron armour consisted of 10 to 13 cm of wrought iron backed by up to one meter of solid wood.
Titanium has twice the density of aluminium, but is as strong as iron. So, despite being more expensive, it finds an application in areas where weight is a concern, such as personal armour and military aviation; some notable examples of its use include the USAF A-10 Thunderbolt II and the Soviet/Russian-built Sukhoi Su-25 ground-attack aircraft, utilising a bathtub-shaped titanium enclosure for the pilot, as well as the Soviet/Russian Mil Mi-24 attack helicopter. Because of its high density, depleted uranium can be used in tank armour, sandwiched between sheets of steel armour plate. For instance, some late-production M1A1HA and M1A2 Abrams tanks built after 1998 have DU reinforcement as part of the armour plating in the front of the hull and the front of the turret, there is a program to upgrade the rest. Plastic metal was a type of vehicle armour developed for merchant ships by the British Admiralty in 1940; the original composition was described as 50% clean granite of half-inch size, 43% of limestone mineral, 7% of bitumen.
It was applied in a layer two inches thick and backed by half an inch of steel. Plastic armour was effective at stopping armour piercing bullets because the hard granite particles would deflect the bullet, which would lodge between plastic armour and the steel backing plate. Plastic armour could be applied by pouring it into a cavity formed by the steel backing plate and a temporary wooden form. Bulletproof glass is a colloquial term for glass, resistant to being penetrated when struck by bullets; the industry refers to it as bullet-resistant glass or transparent armour. Bullet-resistant glass is constructed using a strong but transparent material such as polycarbonate thermoplastic or by using layers of laminated glass; the desired result is a material with the appearance and light-transmitting behaviour of standard glass, which offers varying degrees of protection from small arms fire. The polycarbonate layer consisting of products such as Armormax, Cyrolon, Lexan or Tuffak, is sandwiched between layers of regular glass.
The use of plastic in the laminate provides impact-resistance, such as physical assault with a hammer, an axe, etc. The plastic provides little in the way of bullet-resistance; the glass, much harder than plastic, flattens the bullet and thereby prevents penetration. This type of bullet-resistant glass is 70–75 mm thick. Bullet-resistant glass constructed of laminated glass layers is built from glass sheets bonded together with polyvinyl butyral, polyurethane or ethylene-vinyl acetate; this type of bullet-resistant glass has been in regular use on combat vehicles since World War II. Newer materials are being developed. One such, aluminium oxynitride, is much lighter but at US$10–15 per square inch is much more costly. Ceramic's precise mechanism for defeating HEAT was uncovered in the 1980s. High speed photography showed that the ceramic material shatters as the HEAT round penetrates, the energetic fragments destroying the geometry of the metal jet generated by the hollow charge diminishing the penetration.
Ceramic layers can be used as part of composite armour solutions. The high hardness of some ceramic materials serves as a disruptor that shatters and spreads the kinetic energy of pr
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot. Solid shot may contain a pyrotechnic compound if a spotting charge is used, it was called a "bombshell", but "shell" has come to be unambiguous in a military context. All explosive- and incendiary-filled projectiles for mortars, were called grenades, derived from the pomegranate, so called because the many-seeded fruit suggested the powder-filled, fragmenting bomb, or from the similarity of shape. Words cognate with grenade are still used for an artillery or mortar projectile in some European languages. Shells are large-caliber projectiles fired by artillery, combat vehicles, warships. Shells have the shape of a cylinder topped by an ogive-shaped nose for good aerodynamic performance with a tapering base, but some specialized types are quite different. Solid cannonballs did not need a fuse, but hollow munitions filled with something such as gunpowder to fragment the ball, needed a fuse, either impact or time.
Percussion fuses with a spherical projectile presented a challenge because there was no way of ensuring that the impact mechanism contacted the target. Therefore, shells needed a time fuse, ignited before or during firing and burned until the shell reached its target; the earliest record of shells being used in combat was by the Republic of Venice at Jadra in 1376. Shells with fuses were used at the 1421 siege of St Boniface in Corsica; these were two hollowed hemispheres of bronze held together by an iron hoop. Written evidence for early explosive shells in China appears in the early Ming Dynasty Chinese military manual Huolongjing, compiled by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen sometime before the latter's death, a preface added by Jiao in 1412; as described in their book, these hollow, gunpowder-packed shells were made of cast iron. At least since the 16th century grenades made of ceramics or glass were in use in Central Europe. A hoard of several hundred ceramic grenades were discovered during building works in front of a bastion of the Bavarian city of Ingolstadt, Germany dated to the 17th century.
Lots of the grenades igniters. Most the grenades were intentionally dumped in the moat of the bastion before the year 1723. An early problem was that there was no means of measuring the time to detonation — reliable fuses did not yet exist and the burning time of the powder fuse was subject to considerable trial and error. Early powder burning fuses had to be loaded fuse down to be ignited by firing or a portfire put down the barrel to light the fuse. Other shells were wrapped in bitumen cloth, which would ignite during the firing and in turn ignite a powder fuse. Shells came into regular use in the 16th century, for example a 1543 English mortar shell was filled with'wildfire'. By the 18th century, it was known that the fuse toward the muzzle could be lit by the flash through the windage between the shell and the barrel. At about this time, shells began to be employed for horizontal fire from howitzers with a small propelling charge and, in 1779, experiments demonstrated that they could be used from guns with heavier charges.
The use of exploding shells from field artillery became commonplace from early in the 19th century. Until the mid 19th century, shells remained as simple exploding spheres that used gunpowder, set off by a slow burning fuse, they were made of cast iron, but bronze, lead and glass shell casings were experimented with. The word bomb encompassed them at the time, as heard in the lyrics of The Star-Spangled Banner, although today that sense of bomb is obsolete; the thickness of the metal body was about a sixth of their diameter and they were about two thirds the weight of solid shot of the same caliber. To ensure that shells were loaded with their fuses toward the muzzle, they were attached to wooden bottoms called sabots. In 1819, a committee of British artillery officers recognized that they were essential stores and in 1830 Britain standardized sabot thickness as a half inch; the sabot was intended to reduce jamming during loading. Despite the use of exploding shell, the use of smoothbore cannons firing spherical projectiles of shot remained the dominant artillery method until the 1850s.
The mid 19th century saw a revolution in artillery, with the introduction of the first practical rifled breech loading weapons. The new methods resulted in the reshaping of the spherical shell into its modern recognizable cylindro-conoidal form; this shape improved the in-flight stability of the projectile and meant that the primitive time fuzes could be replaced with the percussion fuze situated in the nose of the shell. The new shape meant that further, armor-piercing designs could be used. During the 20th Century, shells became streamlined. In World War I, ogives were two circular radius head - the curve was a segment of a circle having a radius of twice the shell caliber. After that war, ogive shapes became more elongated. From the 1960s, higher quality steels were introduced by some countries for their HE shells, this enabled thinner shell walls with less weight of metal and hence a greater weight of explosive. Ogives were further elongated to improve their ballistic performance. Advances in metallurgy in the industrial era allowed for the construction of rifled breech-loading guns that could fire at a much greater muzzle velocity.
After the British artillery was shown up in the Cri
A weapon mount is an assembly used to hold a weapon a gun. Weapon mounts can be broken down into two categories: static mounts and non-static mounts. A static mount is a non-portable weapon support component either mounted directly to the ground, on a fortification, or as part of a vehicle. A gun turret protects the crew or mechanism of a weapon and at the same time lets the weapon be aimed and fired in many directions. A turret is a rotating weapon platform one that crosses the armour of whatever it is mounted on with a structure called a barbette or basket and has a protective structure on top. If it has no gunhouse it is a barbette. Turrets are used to mount machine guns, autocannons or large-calibre guns, they may be remotely controlled. A small turret, or sub-turret on a larger one, is called a cupola; the term cupola describes rotating turrets that carry no weapons but instead are sighting devices, as in the case of tank commanders. A finial is an small sub-turret or sub-sub-turret mounted on a cupola turret.
The gun is fixed on its horizontal axis and rotated by turning the turret, with trunnions on the gun used to allow it to elevate. Alternatively, in an oscillating turret the entire upper section of the turret moves to elevate and depress the gun. A casemate is an armoured structure consisting of a static primary surface incorporating a limited-traverse gun mount: this takes the form of either a gun mounted through a fixed armour plate or a mount consisting of a partial cylinder of armour "sandwiched" between plates at the top and bottom. A coaxial mount is mounted beside or above the primary weapon and thus points in the same general direction as the main armament, relying on the host weapon's ability to traverse in order to change arc; the term coaxial is something of a misnomer as the arrangement is speaking paraxial, though for ballistic purposes the axis is the same in practical terms. Nearly all main battle tanks and most infantry fighting vehicles have a coaxial machine gun mounted to fire along a parallel axis to the main gun.
Coaxial weapons are aimed by use of the main gun control. It is used to engage infantry or other "soft" targets where use of shots from the main gun would be dangerous, ineffective or wasteful; some weapons such as the M40 recoilless rifle and the Mk 153 Shoulder-Launched Multipurpose Assault Weapon have a smaller caliber spotting rifle mounted in coaxial fashion to the barrel or launch tube. These weapons fire special cartridges designed to mimic the ballistic arc of the host weapon's ammunition, using tracer or point-detonating rounds so that a gunner can determine where a shot will land in order to place fire accurately. Due to the adoption of more advanced systems such as laser rangefinders, they are used on modern weapons. A fixed mount is incapable of horizontal movement, though not vertical movement; the entire mounting must be moved in order to change direction of fire. Fixed mounts are most found on aircraft, most direct the weapon forward, along the aircraft's vector of movement, so that a pilot can aim by pointing the nose of the aircraft at the target.
Some aircraft designs used different concept of fixed mounts, as found in Schräge Musik or AC-47 Spooky. The Stridsvagn 103 is an unusual turretless main battle tank with a fixed main gun, aimed using the tank's tracks and suspension. Military aircraft often used fixed mounts called hardpoints or weapon stations to attach disposable stores such as missiles and external fuel tanks: these devices mount a standardised set of locking lugs to which many different types of armament can be affixed. Fixed traverse mounts capable of only elevation are common on larger self-propelled guns, as well being the mounting method used by all railroad guns. A pintle mount is a fixed mount that allows the gun to be traversed and/or elevated while keeping the gun in one fixed position: the mounting is either a rod on the underside of the gun that mates with a socket, or an intermediary gun cradle that mounts to the sides of the weapon's barrel or receiver. Due to the stability offered by the mount, the gun does not use a shoulder stock, with many modern examples using spade grips.
It is most found on armoured vehicles, side gun stations on WW2 and earlier bomber aircraft, the door guns of transport helicopters. Early single-shot examples referred to as swivel guns were mounted on the deck rails of naval vessels in the age of sail to deter boarders at close range. Larger guns require a heavier mounting referred to as a pedestal, larger guns a turntable platform: a pedestal mount may be directly manipulated, but larger guns require power assistance or the use of mechanical handwheels for traverse and elevation. Large mounts might include seats for the crew fixed to the gun cradle or the floor of the turntable. Unlike a turret, this type of mount has little or no armour protection at most a gunshield or splinter shield; this is a power-assisted mounting on the outside of whatever it is mounted on bolted down to the surface and with only the control wires crossing the armour. Such mountings are used on armoured fighting vehicles for anti-personnel weapons to avoid exposing a crewmen to return fire, and