The State Legislative Assembly is the lower house of a state legislature in the States and Union Territories of India. In the 29 states and 2 union territories with unicameral state legislature it is the sole legislative house. In 7 states it is the lowest house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being Vidhan Parishad or the State Legislative Council. 5 Union Territories have no legislative body. Each Member of the Legislative Assembly is directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies. In 14 states the Governor of a state may appoint one Anglo-Indian MLA to their respective states Assemblies, in accordance with the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution of India; the Constitution of India states that a State Legislative Assembly must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of Goa, Sikkim and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members.
A Vidhan Sabha may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the majority coalition. To become a member of a State Legislative Assembly, a person must be a citizen of India, not less than 25 years of age, he or she should not be bankrupt. He or she should state an affidavit that there are no criminal procedures against him or her. Speaker of State Legislative Assembly, responsible for the conduct of business of the body, a Deputy Speaker to preside during the Speaker's absence; the Speaker manages all debates and discussions in the house. He or she is a member of the stronger political party A State Legislative Assembly holds equal legislative power with the upper house of state legislature, the State Legislative Council, except in the area of money bills in which case the State Legislative Assembly has the ultimate authority. A motion of no confidence against the government in the state can only be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly.
If it is passed by a majority vote the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers must collectively resign. A money bill can only be introduced in State Legislative Assembly. In bicameral jurisdictions, after it is passed in the State Legislative Assembly, it is sent to the Vidhan Parishad, where it can be kept for a maximum time of 14 days. In matters related to ordinary bills, the will of Legislative Assembly prevails and there is no provision of joint sitting. In such cases, Legislative council can delay the legislation by maximum 4 months. † – In these fourteen legislative assemblies, one seat is reserved for the nominated Anglo-Indian member. ‡ – In Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly, two seats are reserved for the nominated women members. # – In Puducherry Legislative Assembly, three seats are reserved for the nominated members by the Union Government of India. Legislative assembly Legislative council State governments of India State Assembly elections in India Politics of India Legislative Bodies in India website Assembly constituency level publications website Laws of India website to download laws made by different states Punjab State Legislative Assembly Election Results 2012
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country, the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres off the coast of northeastern Venezuela, it shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, Venezuela to the south and west. The island of Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498 until Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonisers more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889. Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976.
As of 2015, the sovereign state of Trinidad and Tobago had the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity in the Americas after the United States and Canada. It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals. Trinidad and Tobago is known for its Carnival and Diwali celebrations and as the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, music styles such as calypso, soca and chutney. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê. However, other authors dispute this etymology with some claiming that cairi does not mean hummingbird and some claiming that kairi, or iere means island. Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. Tobago's cigar-like shape may have given it its Spanish name and some of its other Amerindian names, such as Aloubaéra and Urupaina, although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/, rhyming with lumbago, "may go".
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude. At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Covering an area of 5,128 km2, the country consists of the two main islands and Tobago, numerous smaller landforms, including Chacachacare, Huevos, Gaspar Grande, Little Tobago, St. Giles Island. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with an average length of 80 kilometres and an average width of 59 kilometres. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, are thus geologically considered to lie in South America; the terrain of the islands is a mixture of plains. The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, 940 metres above sea level; as the majority of the population lives on the island of Trinidad, this is the location of most major towns and cities.
There are four major municipalities in Trinidad: Port of Spain, the capital, San Fernando and Chaguanas. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough. Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being heavy clays; the alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East–West Corridor are the most fertile. The Northern Range consists of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks; the Northern Lowlands consist of younger shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, with Miocene formations along the southern and eastern flanks; the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift. The Southern Lowlands consist of Miocene and Pliocene sands and gravels; these overlie oil and natural gas deposits north of the Los Bajos Fault. The Southern Range forms the third anticlinal uplift, it consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills.
The rocks consist of sandstones, shales and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene. Oil sands and mud volcanoes are common in this area; the climate is tropical. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first five months of the year, the rainy season in the remaining seven of the year. Winds are dominated by the northeast trade winds. Unlike most of the other Caribbean islands, both Trinidad and Tobago have escaped the wrath of major devastating hurricanes, including Hurricane Ivan, the most powerful storm to have passed close to the islands in recent history, in September 2004. In the Northern Range, the climate is different in contrast to the sweltering heat of the plains below. With constant cloud and mist cover, heavy rains in the mountains, the temperature is much cooler. Record temperatures for Trinidad and Tobago are 39 °C for the high in Port of Spain, a low of 12 °C; because Trinidad and Tobago lies
Shivpuri District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state of India. The town of Shivpuri is the district headquarters. Most of present-day Shivpuri District formed Narwar District of the erstwhile princely state of Gwalior, with Shivpuri as administrative headquarters of the district. After India's independence in 1947, the princely states acceded to the Government of India, Shivpuri District acquired its present boundaries with the addition of the small princely state of Khaniadhana in the southeast of the district, portions of Datia state in the northeast, most of Pauri estate in the northwest. Shivpuri District became part of the new state of Madhya Bharat, merged into Madhya Pradesh in 1956. Shivpuri District has Narwar town of historical importance just east of the Kali Sind River, situated at a distance of 41 km from Shivpuri, it is famous for medieval fortress of Narwar. It is famous for rice cultivation; the famous farmer of village samoha recorded 138.6 quintal paddy yield from one ha kharif rice cultivation by the SRI method.
Madhav Chauk is a main market of city Shivpuri. All marketing facilities are available here. Madhav National Park is located between Jhansi-Shivpuri road, its area is 157.58 square kilometers. The park is open to visitors throughout the year. Blackbuck, Indian gazelle and chital Knil large number of cows, Chausinga, black buck, sloth bears and other inhabitants of the park. Shivpuri is famous for Madhav National Park; this national park has flat grasslands around the lake. It is rich in biodiversity. Sakhya Sagar and Madhav Sagar lakes, created on Manier River in 1918, are two important biodiversity support systems in the national park; the Sailing Club situated on Sakhya Sagar at the entrance of the National park is a place of scenic beauty. Col. G. S. Dhillon, last survivor of the Historic trial on 5 November 1945 at the Red Fort Shivpuri Tourism Center. Here the tourist is always keep coming. Shivpuri is the center of attraction for tourists throughout the year, but Shivpuri attract to tourist after first rain.
Tourist Village is located here to stay for tourist near Picnic Spot Bhadaiya Kund. Chhatari ornate marble is a fine example of workmanship, its campus is on Chhatari Road. As we enter in the campus of Chhatari, we view first memorial of dowager queen Maharani Sakhya Raje Scindia, in a delighful fusion of Hindu and Islamic architectural styles, with their shikhara type spires and Rajput and Mughal pavilions. A tank is created in front of this memorial; the memorial of Madhav Rav Scindhia is built across the tank facing to wards Maharani Sakhya Raje Scindhia. One side of the tank a temple is established of Lord Ram with Seeta and other side a temple is established of Radha- Krishna. All memorials & temples are built by Scindhia Princes of Gwalior. Management of Chhatari is under control of a registered trust. Ban Ganga Dham Mohineshwar Dham Chintaharan Mandir Shiv Temple Shri Shantinath Digambar Jain Atishaya Kshetra Bilaeya Mahadev mandir sirsod In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Shivpuri one of the country's 250 most backward districts.
It is one of the 24 districts in Madhya Pradesh receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. According to the 2011 census Shivpuri district has a population of 1,725,818 equal to the nation of The Gambia or the US state of Nebraska; this gives it a ranking of 280th in India. The district has a population density of 168 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 22.74%. Shivpuri has a sex ratio of 877 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 63.73%. Shivpuri District web site
Baran district is a district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The headquarters of the district are located at the city of Baran. Before Indian independence in 1947, most of present-day Baran District was part of the princely state of Kota, it was formed on 10 April 1991 by carving out Kota district. The 10th century Bhand Deva Temple in the style of Khajuraho Group of Monuments is situated on the banks of a pond in the centre of the 4 km wide Ramgarh crater about 40 km from the city of Baran, Rajasthan as well as 240 km from the Dhala crater. Baran is located at 25.1°N 76.52°E / 25.1. It has an average elevation of 262 metres. Located in the Kota Plateau of Vindhya range, district is the location of famour Ramgarh crater made from the meteorite strike. Rivers Kali Sindh, Parvati River, Parwan River, Ban-Ganga are the major rivers. Climate The City has a dry climate except in the monsoon seasons; the winter season runs from mid of November to February and summer season runs from March to mid of June.
The period from mid of June to September is the monsoon season followed by the months October to mid of November constitute the post monsoon or the retreating monsoon. The average rainfall in the district is 895.2mm. January is the coldest month with the average daily maximum temperature of 24.3'C and the average daily minimum temperature of 10.6'C. According to the 2011 census the Baran district had a population of 1,222,755, it equals to the nation of Trinidad and Tobago or the US state of New Hampshire. This gives it a ranking of 389th in India; the district has a population density of 175 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 19.8%. Baran has a sex ratio of 926 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 67.38%. The city is connected with major cities outside the state. National Highway No.76 passes through the district. National Highway No.76 is a part of East-West Corridor. The nearest major airports are located at Jaipur International Airport, Udaipur Airport, Jodhpur Airport.
These airports connect Rajasthan with the major cities of India such as Mumbai. There are two other airports in Kota and Jaisalmer, but are not open for commercial/civilian flights yet. Baran station is situated on Kota-Bina section of Western Central Railways, it is about 67 km from Kota Junction. Typical dishes include Dal Baati Churma, Roti
Rajgarh (Lok Sabha constituency)
Rajgarh Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 29 Lok Sabha constituencies in Madhya Pradesh state in central India. This constituency covers parts of Guna and Shajapur districts. Rajgarh Lok Sabha constituency presently comprises the following eight Vidhan Sabha segments: Madhya Bharat state: 1952: Two-MPs seat. Liladhar Joshi / Bhagu Nandu Malvia, both Indian National Congress 1957: Constituency did not existMadhya Pradesh state: 1962: Bhanuprakash Singh, Independent 1967: Rajni Devi, Indian National Congress 1971: Ummed Singh Rathia, Indian National Congress 1977: Narhari Prasad Sai, Janata Party 1977: Pandit Vasantkumar Ramkrishna, Bharatiya Lok Dal 1980: Pandit Vasantkumar Ramkrishna, Janta Party 1984: Digvijaya Singh, Indian National Congress 1989: Pyarelal Khandelwal, Bharatiya Janata Party 1991: Digvijaya Singh, Indian National Congress 1994: Lakshman Singh, Indian National Congress, 1996: Lakshman Singh, Indian National Congress 1998: Lakshman Singh, Indian National Congress 1999: Lakshman Singh, Indian National Congress 2004: Lakshman Singh, Bharatiya Janata Party, 2009: Narayan Singh Amlabe, Indian National Congress, 2014: Rodmal Nagar, Bharatiya Janata Party, Rajgarh district List of Constituencies of the Lok Sabha1947 shankarlal vijayvargiya savymbhu
Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin. Geologically, the Malwa Plateau refers to the volcanic upland north of the Vindhya Range. Politically and administratively, the historical Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan; the definition of Malwa is sometimes extended to include the Nimar region south of the Vindhyas. The Malwa region had been a separate political unit from the time of the ancient Malava Kingdom, it has been ruled by several kingdoms and dynasties, including the Avanti Kingdom, the Mauryans, the Malavas, the Guptas, the Paramaras, the Malwa sultans, the Mughals and the Marathas. Malwa continued to be an administrative division until 1947, when the Malwa Agency of British India was merged into Madhya Bharat state of independent India. Although its political borders have fluctuated throughout history, the region has developed its own distinct culture, influenced by the Rajasthani and Gujarati cultures.
Several prominent people in the history of India have lived in Malwa, including the poet and dramatist Kalidasa, the author Bhartrihari, the mathematicians and astronomers Varahamihira and Brahmagupta, the polymath king Bhoja. Ujjain had been the political and cultural capital of the region in ancient times, Indore is now the largest city and commercial centre. Overall, agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Malwa; the region has been one of the important producers of opium in the world. Wheat and soybeans are other important cash crops, textiles are a major industry. Several early stone age or Lower Paleolithic habitations have been excavated in eastern Malwa; the name Malwa is derived from the name of the ancient Indian tribe of Malavas. The name Malava is said to be derived from the Sanskrit term Malav, which means “part of the abode of Lakshmi”; the location of the Malwa or Moholo, mentioned by the 7th-century Chinese traveller Xuanzang, is plausibly identified with present-day Gujarat.
The region is cited as Malibah such as Kamilu-t Tawarikh by Ibn Asir. The Malwa Culture was a Chalcolithic archaeological culture which existed in the Malwa region, as well as nearby parts of Maharashtra to the south, during the 2nd millennium BCE. Ujjain known as Ujjaiyini and Avanti, emerged as the first major centre in the Malwa region during India's second wave of urbanisation in the 7th century BC. Around 600 BC an earthen rampart was built around Ujjain. Ujjain was the capital city of the Avanti kingdom, one of the prominent mahajanapadas of ancient India. In the post-Mahabharata period—around 500 BC—Avanti was an important kingdom in western India; the region was conquered by the Nanda Empire in the mid-4th century BC, subsequently became part of the Maurya Empire. Ashoka, a Mauryan emperor, was governor of Ujjain in his youth. After the death of Ashoka in 232 BC, the Maurya Empire began to collapse. Although evidence is sparse, Malwa was ruled by the Kushanas, the Shakas and the Satavahana dynasty during the 1st and 2nd century CE.
Ownership of the region was the subject of dispute between the Western Kshatrapas and the Satavahanas during the first three centuries AD. Ujjain emerged a major trading centre during the 1st century AD. Malwa became part of the Gupta Empire during the reign of Chandragupta II known as Vikramaditya, who conquered the region, driving out the Western Kshatrapas; the Gupta period is regarded as a golden age in the history of Malwa, when Ujjain served as the empire's western capital. Kalidasa and Varahamihira were all based in Ujjain, which emerged as a major centre of learning in astronomy and mathematics. Around 500, Malwa re-emerged from the dissolving Gupta Empire as a separate kingdom. During the seventh century, the region became part of Harsha's empire, who disputed the region with the Chalukya king Pulakesin II of Badami in the Deccan. In 756 AD Gurjara-Pratiharas advanced into Malwa. In 786 the region was captured by the Rashtrakuta kings of the Deccan, was disputed between the Rashtrakutas and the Gurjara Pratihara kings of Kannauj until the early part of the tenth century.
The Emperors of the Rashtrakuta dynasty appointed the Paramara rulers as governors of Malwa. From the mid-tenth century, Malwa was ruled by the Paramaras. King Bhoj, who ruled from about 1010 to 1060, was known as the great polymath philosopher-king of medieval India. Under his rule Malwa became an intellectual centre of India, his successors ruled until about 1305. Malwa was several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire. Dilawar Khan Malwa's governor under the rule of the Delhi sultanate, declared himself sultan of Malwa in 1401 after the Mughal conqueror Timur attacked Delhi, causing the break-up of the sultanate into smaller states. Khan started the Malwa Sultanate and established a capital at Mandu, high in the Vindhya Range overlooking the Narmada River valley, his son and successor, Hoshang Shah, developed Mandu as an important city. Hoshang Shah's son, Ghazni Khan, ruled for only a year and was succeeded by Mahmud Khalji, the first of the Khalji sultans of Malwa, who expanded the state to include parts of
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st