Gunslinger and gunfighter are words used to refer to men in the American Old West who had gained a reputation of being dangerous with a gun and had participated in gunfights and shootouts. Gunman was a more common term used for these individuals in the early 20th century. Today, the term "gunslinger" is more or less used to denote someone, quick on the draw with a pistol, but can refer to riflemen and shotgun messengers; the gunfighter is one of the most popular characters in the Western genre and has appeared in associated films, video games, literature. The gunfighter could be a lawman, cowboy, or shooting exhibitionist, but was more a hired gun who made a living with his weapons in the Old West; the term "gun slinger" was used in the Western film Drag Harlan. The word was soon adopted by other Western writers, such as Zane Grey, became common usage. In his introduction to The Shootist, author Glendon Swarthout says "gunslinger" and "gunfighter" are modern terms, the more authentic terms for the period would have been "gunman", "pistoleer", "shootist," or "bad man".
Swarthout seems to have been correct about "gunslinger", but the term "gunfighter" existed in several newspapers in the 1870s, as such the term existed in the 19th century. Bat Masterson used the term "gunfighter" in the newspaper articles which he wrote about the lawmen and outlaws whom he had known. However, Joseph Rosa noted that though Masterson used the term "gunfighter", he "preferred the term'mankiller'" when discussing these individuals. Clay Allison, a notorious New Mexico and Texas gunman and cattleman, originated the term "shootist"; the term has been applied to men who would hire out for contract killings or at a ranch embroiled in a range war where they would earn "fighting wages". Others, like Billy the Kid, were notorious bandits, still others were lawmen like Pat Garrett and Wyatt Earp. A gunfighter could be an outlaw—a robber or murderer who took advantage of the wilderness of the frontier to hide from genteel society and to make periodic raids on it; the gunfighter could be an agent of the state, archetypically a lone avenger, but more a sheriff, whose duty was to face the outlaw and bring him to justice or to administer it.
There were a few historical cowboys who were actual gunfighters, such as the outlaw cowboy gang who participated in the bloody Skeleton Canyon Massacre. Gunslingers appear as stock characters in Western movies and novels, along with cowboys; the hero of a Western meets his opposite "double", a mirror of his own evil side that he has to destroy. Western gunslinger heroes are portrayed as local lawmen or enforcement officers, army officers, territorial marshals, nomadic loners, or skilled fast-draw artists, they are masculine persons of integrity and principle – courageous, tough and self-sufficient, maverick characters, possessing an independent and honorable attitude. They are depicted as similar to a knight-errant, wandering from place to place with no particular direction facing curious and hostile enemies, while saving individuals or communities from those enemies in terms of chivalry; the Western hero stands alone and faces danger on his own against lawlessness, with an expert display of his physical skills.
In films, the gunslinger possesses a nearly superhuman speed and skill with the revolver. Twirling pistols, lightning draws, trick shots are standard fare for the gunmen of the big screen. In the real world, gunmen who relied on flashy tricks and theatrics died and most gunslingers took a much more practical approach to their weapons. Real gunslingers did not shoot to disarm or to impress. Another classic bit of cinema, a myth is the showdown at high noon, where two well-matched gunslingers agree to meet for a climactic formal duel; these duels did happen, as in the case of the Luke Short – Jim Courtright duel, but gunfights were more spontaneous, a fight that turned deadly when one side reached for a weapon, no one knew who won the fight for several minutes until the air cleared of smoke. Gunfights could be won by simple distraction, or pistols could be emptied as gunmen fought from behind cover without injury; when a gunman did square off, it was with another gunfighter. Gunslingers gave each other a wide berth, it was uncommon for two well-known gunslingers to face off.
The gunslinger's reputation was as valuable as any skills possessed. In Western films and books, young toughs challenge experienced gunmen with the hopes of building a reputation, but this happened in real life. A strong reputation was enough to keep others civil and would spare a gunfighter from conflict. Other gunslingers were to avoid any unnecessary confrontation. In the days of the Old West, tales tended to grow with repeated telling, a single fight might grow into a career-making reputation. For instance, the Gunfight at the O. K. Corral made legends of Wyatt Earp and the Outlaw Cowboy gang, but they were minor figures before that conflict; some gunslingers, such as Bat Masterson engaged in self-promotion. Johnny Ringo built a reputation as a gunslinger while never taking part in a gunfight or killing unarmed civilians. Most gunfights are portrayed in films or books as having two men square off, waiting for one to make the first move; this was the case. A gunfight was spur-of-the-moment, with one drawing his pistol, the oth
Events in the year 1969 in Norway. Monarch – Olav V Prime Minister – Per Borten 6 April – Railway accident occurs in Darbu, resulting in the deaths of 8 people. 8 September – The 1969 Parliamentary election takes place. 24 December – The oil company Phillips Petroleum made the first oil discovery in the Norwegian sector of North Sea. Olav Nordrå, writer, is awarded the Riksmål Society Literature Prize. 15 May – Carsten Thomassen, journalist killed in 2008 Kabul Serena Hotel attack 1 June – Siv Jensen, politician 18 June – Anne Marit Bjørnflaten, politician 24 June – Sissel Kyrkjebø, Soprano 11 August – Atle Antonsen, comedian 2 October – Trine Skei Grande, politician 4 November – Line Miriam Sandberg, politician. 27 November – Sidsel Dalen and crime fiction writer. 29 November – Anniken Huitfeldt and Minister Morten Øen, poet and author Gard Sveen, crime fiction writer. 9 January – Erling Kristvik, educator. 19 January – Lars Evensen, trade unionist and politician 22 January – Isak Larsson Flatabø, politician 12 February – Reidar Sørlie, discus thrower 16 February – Eivind Stenersen Engelstad and art historian 24 February – Johan Bernhard Hjort, judge 22 March – Alf Lie and Olympic gold medallist 8 May – Armand Carlsen, speed skater and world record holder 11 April – Ludvig Irgens-Jensen, composer 1 June – Ivar Ballangrud, speed skater and multiple Olympic gold medallist 2 June – Christen Christensen, pair skater 11 June – Knut Knutsson Steintjønndalen, Hardanger fiddle maker 21 June – Arne Rostad, politician 15 July – Sverre Gjørwad, politician 17 July – Thoralf Glad and Olympic gold medallist 4 August – Marie Hamsun and writer 18 August – Kristian Geelmuyden, politician 16 September – Tidemann Flaata Evensen, politician 12 October – Sonja Henie, figure skater, three time Olympic gold medallist, World Champion and actress 18 October – Theodor Platou, brewer.
12 November – Ragnhild Larsen, diver 25 November – Peder P. Næsheim, politician 8 December – Ole Singstad, civil engineer in America 11 December – Jens Gunderssen, songwriter, stage producer and theatre director 12 December – Sigurd Høgaas, politician 12 December – Bjarne Kjørberg, politician 15 December – Willy Røgeberg, rifle shooter and Olympic gold medallist Friedrich Georg Nissen, civil servant
Rose City Antifa is an antifa group founded 2007 in Portland, United States. It has been called the oldest active antifa group in the nation. Rose City Antifa clashed with law enforcement officials and supporters of the Donald Trump presidency following the 2016 presidential election. Prior to a Patriot Prayer rally, the group released a statement saying they would be "unapologetic" over the use of "physical militancy"; the group has organized opposition to Patriot Prayer rallies in Portland. According to one of its leaders, the group concentrates on "outing" people whom they believe to be neo-Nazis. According to Alexander Reid Ross, the author of the book Against the Fascist Creep, RCA grew out of the group Anti-Racist Action, which first appeared in 1987, through RCA "the European and American models were sort of synthesized and the current model of Antifa in the US was developed"
The Tulipa cypria or Cyprus tulip is a tulip, an erect perennial bulbous herb, 15–40 cm high, with glabrous, glaucous leaves. The four leaves are alternate, entire, the two lower ones larger, laceolate, 10-20 x 2–6 cm, with conspicuously undulate margins, the two higher much smaller, nearly linear. One terminal showy flower, perianth cup shaped, of six free, petaloid segments, 2.5-9 x 1-3.5 cm, with dark blood-red colour, internally with a black blotch bordered by a yellow zone. It flowers March–April; the fruit is a capsule. The Cyprian tulip grows in juniperus phoenicea maquis pastures and cereal fields, on limestone at altitudes of 100–300 m above sea level; the plant is endemic to Cyprus, on Akamas and some areas of the Pentadaktylos range. It is rare and protected. "Cyprus tulip photo - Tulipa cypria - G134689 | ARKive". Arkive.org. Archived from the original on 2014-09-04. Retrieved 2014-09-04. "Endangered Plants - Tulipa cypria". Mnh.si.edu. Retrieved 2014-09-04. "Tulipa Cypria". Kykpee.org. Retrieved 2014-09-04.
"Pacific Bulb Society | Tulipa Species One". Pacificbulbsociety.org. Retrieved 2014-09-04. "KARPAZ MEDOS LALESI FESTIVAL, KARPAZ PENINSULA - NORTH CYPRUS Photo Gallery by Omer Yagiz at pbase.com". Pbase.com. Retrieved 2014-09-04. "Tulipa cypria - Cyprus Endemic - YouTube". Youtube.com. Retrieved 2014-09-04
NGC 1052 is an elliptical galaxy in the constellation Cetus. NGC 1052 is located at a distance of around 63 million light years from the Milky Way, has a LINER-type active galactic nucleus which signals the intense starburst activity in the galaxy's center that were confirmed with observations with better resolution showing a number of star-forming regions and young star clusters. NGC 1052 shows two small jets emerging from its nucleus as well as a extended disc of neutral hydrogen, far larger than the galaxy itself, all these features suggesting a gas-rich galaxy collided and merged with it 1 billion years ago producing all the above features. A scale image of NGC 1052 and its satellite galaxies is available at the reference. NGC 1052 hosts a rotating supermassive black hole with a mass of 154 million M☉ with a large magnetic field of between 0.02 and 8.3 Tesla, according to PhD student Anne-Kathrin Baczko, the leader of the team that made this discovery, provides enough magnetic energy to power the mentioned twin relativistic jets.
The location of this black hole is the most known in the universe, with the exception of Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole found at the heart of our own galaxy. NGC 1052-DF2, a galaxy assumed to be associated with NGC 1052, which appears to have little or no dark matterNGC 1052-DF4, another galaxy assumed to be associated with NGC 1052, which appears to have little or no dark matter Media related to NGC 1052 at Wikimedia Commons
Danuta Perka is a Polish female former track and field hurdler who specialised in the 100 metres hurdles. She was a two-time national champion in the 60 metres hurdles, taking the Polish title in 1977 and 1983. From Korsze, she was a ranked athlete during her career, placing within the season's top ten hurdlers on time between 1977 and 1981, her personal best of 12.65 seconds came in Mexico City in 1979. She was a member of Gwardia Warsaw during her career. Perka changed her competitive name after marrying fellow athlete Wlodzimierz Perka. Perka competed at a time; as of 2017, her time of 12.66 remains the fastest non-winning time at the competition and the fourth fastest of any finalist, after Langer, Monique Éwanjé-Épée and Vashti Thomas. She was the B Final winner of the hurdles at the 1981 European Cup. Polish Indoor Athletics Championships 60 m hurdles: 1977, 1983 List of European Athletics Indoor Championships medalists Danuta Perka at World Athletics