Stockholm University is a public university in Stockholm, founded as a college in 1878, with university status since 1960. Stockholm University has two scientific fields: the natural sciences and the humanities/social sciences. With over 34,000 students at four different faculties: law, social sciences, natural sciences, it is one of the largest universities in Scandinavia; the institution is regarded as one of the top 100 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Stockholm University was granted university status in 1960, making it the fourth oldest Swedish university; as with other public universities in Sweden, Stockholm University's mission includes teaching and research anchored in society at large. The initiative for the formation of Stockholm University was taken by the Stockholm City Council; the process was completed after a decision in December 1865 regarding the establishment of a fund and a committee to "establish a higher education institution in the capital".
The nine members of the Committee were respected and prominent citizens whose work have helped the evolution of science and society. The next important step was taken in October 1869, when the Stockholm University College Association was established. Several members of the committee became members of the association - including Professor Pehr Henrik Malmsten; the association's mission was to establish a university in Stockholm and would "not be dissolved until college came into being and its future could be secured." The memorandum of the Stockholm University College were adopted in May 1877, in the autumn semester of the following year, actual operations began. In 1878, the university college Stockholms högskola started its operations with a series of lectures on natural sciences, open to curious citizens. Notable in the university's early history is the appointment of Sofia Kovalevskaya to hold a chair in mathematics department in 1889, making her the third female professor in Europe. In 1904 the college became an official degree granting institution.
In 1960, the college was granted university status. The university premises were situated in central Stockholm at Observatorielunden but increased enrollment resulted in a lack of space, which required the university campus to be shifted to a bigger facility. Since 1970 most of the university operations are pursued at the main campus at Frescati north of the city center, the former Experimentalfältet used by the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry. Stockholm University is a state agency and is governed by the decisions coming from the government and parliament; the University has the right, within the limits the government provides, to decide on many issues such as their internal organization, admission of students and other administrative functions of the university. The University Board is the University's highest governing body; the board is responsible for the University as a government agency's mission and for following the requirements of laws and regulations. The board reports to the government.
It consists of eight external members, four business representatives from the university with two group alternates and three student representatives with an alternate. The University board is above the principal, the head of the authority and have operational responsibility for all operations; the principal has a vice president to replace him/her. At the university, there are two area councils, Area board of science and Area board of humanities and social sciences, they are headed by a vice principal. The area boards are responsible for strategic planning of education and research, coordination of faculty teaching and internal and external collaboration. After the district councils, the faculty boards are the highest decision-making bodies at the faculty level; the faculty boards consists of the dean, the assistant dean, other business representatives and student representatives. The deans are appointed by the president after proposal by choice within the faculty. After faculties, decisions are taken on the institutional level, where each department has a department head who manage and make decisions together with the institutional board.
The University administration is the preparation and service organization for the University board and other decision-making bodies, it is led by the executive director. The University administration has a number of administrative units in charge of different parts of the university administration, for example, finance department, IT department, HR department and the student section. There are three staff units: The strategy and communication unit that will help the university management with decision making; the Permanent Secretary is the most senior official at Stockholm University and decide on including university administration's organization and finances. The permanent secretary is titulated University Director. Education and research at Stockholm University is carried out within the natural sciences and the humanities/social sciences. Within these fields, there are four faculties with 65 departments and centers within the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. Research and training takes place at a number of centers and institutes with a separate governing board, but that organisationally belong to a department.
Stockholm University offers courses at both advanced level. There are 200 Bachelor's programmes, 75 master's programmes taught in English, 1,900 courses to choose from within science, hu
The Race Question
The Race Question is the first of four UNESCO statements about issues of race. It was issued on 18 July 1950 following World War II and Nazi racism to clarify what was scientifically known about race, as a moral condemnation of racism, it was criticized on several grounds and revised versions were publicized in 1951, 1967, 1978. The statements were signed by some of the leading researchers of the time, in the field of sociology, biology, cultural anthropology and ethnology; the original statement was drafted by Ernest Beaglehole. The text was revised by Ashley Montagu following criticisms submitted by Hadley Cantril. Dunn; the introduction states that it was inevitable that UNESCO should take a position in the controversy. The preamble to the UNESCO constitution states; the constitution itself stated that "The great and terrible war that has now ended was a war made possible by the denial of the democratic principles of the dignity and mutual respect of men, by the propagation, in their place, through ignorance and prejudice, of the doctrine of the inequality of men and races."A 1948 UN Social and Economic Council resolution called upon UNESCO to consider the timeliness "of proposing and recommending the general adoption of a programme of dissemination of scientific facts designed to bring about the disappearance of that, called race prejudice."
In 1949, the UNESCO adopted three resolutions which committed it to "study and collect scientific materials concerning questions of race", "to give wide diffusion to the scientific material collected", "to prepare an education campaign based on this information." Before undertaking this campaign, the scientific position had to be clarified. Furthermore, in doing this UNESCO took up again, after a lapse of fifteen years, a project which the International Institute for Intellectual Co-operation has wished to carry through but which it had to abandon in deference to the appeasement policy of the pre-war period; the race question had become one of the pivots of Nazi policy. Masaryk and Beneš took the initiative of calling for a conference to re-establish in the minds and consciences of men everywhere the truth about race...... But they were not given such an opportunity. Nazi propaganda was able to continue its baleful work unopposed by the authority of an international organisation; the introduction stated "Knowledge of the truth does not always help change emotional attitudes that draw their real strength from the subconscious or from factors beside the real issue."
But it could "however, prevent rationalizations of reprehensive acts or behaviour prompted by feelings that men will not avow openly." UNESCO made a moral statement: Concern for human dignity demands that all citizens be equal before the law, that they share in the advantages assured them by the law, no matter what their physical or intellectual differences may be. The law sees in each person only a human being who has the right to the same consideration and to equal respect; the conscience of all mankind demand. It matters little, whether the diversity of men's gift be the result of biological or cultural factors. UNESCO would start a campaign to spread the results of the report to a "vast public" such as by publishing pamphlets, it described Brazil as having an "exemplary situation" regarding race relations and that research should be undertaken in order to understand the causes of this "harmony". Despite the introduction stating that "The competence and objectivity of the scientists who signed the document in its final form cannot be questioned", the first version of the statement was criticized.
A revised edition in 1951 explained the controversy as "At the first discussion on the problem of race, it was chiefly sociologists who gave their opinions and framed the ‘Statement on Race’. That statement had a good effect, but it did not carry the authority of just those groups within whose special province fall the biological problems of race, namely the physical anthropologists and geneticists. Secondly, the first statement did not, in all its details, carry conviction of these groups and, because of this, it was not supported by many authorities in these two fields. In general, the chief conclusions of the first statement were sustained, but with differences in emphasis and with some important omissions." Some examples of differences include that the first version argued that there was no evidence for intellectual or personality differences. The revised version stated that "When intelligence tests non-verbal, are made on a group of non-literate people, their scores are lower than those of more civilised people" but concluded that "Available scientific knowledge provides no basis for believing that the groups of mankind differ in their innate capacity for i
Politics refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community a state. The academic study focusing on just politics, therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology. In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas, they agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is a competition between different parties; some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress in South Africa, the Conservative in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India. Politics is a multifaceted word, it has a set of specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental, but does colloquially carry a negative connotation.
The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics", the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level. A political system is a framework; the history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics derives; the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques". The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus, the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός, meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state", in turn from πολίτης, "citizen" and that from πόλις, "city".
Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is important. Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals; this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another. Informal Politics is understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere"; the history of politics is reflected in the origin and economics of the institutions of government.
The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings"; the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy; the king even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government; the greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the council.
A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers. There are many forms of political organization, including states, non-government organizations and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power. According
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Economics is the social science that studies the production and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents. Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, firms and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources, economic growth, the public policies that address these issues. See glossary of economics. Other broad distinctions within economics include those between positive economics, describing "what is", normative economics, advocating "what ought to be". Economic analysis can be applied throughout society, in business, health care, government. Economic analysis is sometimes applied to such diverse subjects as crime, the family, politics, social institutions, war and the environment; the discipline was renamed in the late 19th century due to Alfred Marshall, from "political economy" to "economics" as a shorter term for "economic science".
At that time, it became more open to rigorous thinking and made increased use of mathematics, which helped support efforts to have it accepted as a science and as a separate discipline outside of political science and other social sciences. There are a variety of modern definitions of economics. Scottish philosopher Adam Smith defined what was called political economy as "an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations", in particular as: a branch of the science of a statesman or legislator a plentiful revenue or subsistence for the people... to supply the state or commonwealth with a revenue for the publick services. Jean-Baptiste Say, distinguishing the subject from its public-policy uses, defines it as the science of production and consumption of wealth. On the satirical side, Thomas Carlyle coined "the dismal science" as an epithet for classical economics, in this context linked to the pessimistic analysis of Malthus. John Stuart Mill defines the subject in a social context as: The science which traces the laws of such of the phenomena of society as arise from the combined operations of mankind for the production of wealth, in so far as those phenomena are not modified by the pursuit of any other object.
Alfred Marshall provides a still cited definition in his textbook Principles of Economics that extends analysis beyond wealth and from the societal to the microeconomic level: Economics is a study of man in the ordinary business of life. It enquires how he uses it. Thus, it is on the one side, the study of wealth and on the other and more important side, a part of the study of man. Lionel Robbins developed implications of what has been termed "erhaps the most accepted current definition of the subject": Economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. Robbins describes the definition as not classificatory in "pick out certain kinds of behaviour" but rather analytical in "focus attention on a particular aspect of behaviour, the form imposed by the influence of scarcity." He affirmed that previous economists have centred their studies on the analysis of wealth: how wealth is created and consumed. But he said that economics can be used to study other things, such as war, that are outside its usual focus.
This is because war has as the goal winning it, generates both cost and benefits. If the war is not winnable or if the expected costs outweigh the benefits, the deciding actors may never go to war but rather explore other alternatives. We cannot define economics as the science that studies wealth, crime and any other field economic analysis can be applied to; some subsequent comments criticized the definition as overly broad in failing to limit its subject matter to analysis of markets. From the 1960s, such comments abated as the economic theory of maximizing behaviour and rational-choice modelling expanded the domain of the subject to areas treated in other fields. There are other criticisms as well, such as in scarcity not accounting for the macroeconomics of high unemployment. Gary Becker, a contributor to the expansion of economics into new areas, describes the approach he favours as "combin assumptions of maximizing behaviour, stable preferences, market equilibrium, used relentlessly and unflinchingly."
One commentary characterizes the remark as making economics an approach rather than a subject matter but with great specificity as to the "choice process and the type of social interaction that analysis involves." The same source reviews a range of definitions included in principles of economics textbooks and concludes that the lack of agreement need not affect the subject-matter that the texts treat. A
Johan Gustaf Knut Wicksell was a leading Swedish economist of the Stockholm school. His economic contributions would influence both the Keynesian and Austrian schools of economic thought, he was married to the noted feminist Anna Bugge. Wicksell was born in Stockholm on December 20, 1851, his father was a successful businessman and real estate broker. He lost both his parents at a early age, his mother died when he was only six, his father died when he was fifteen. His father's considerable estate allowed him to enroll at the University of Uppsala in 1869 to study mathematics and physics, he received his first degree in two years, he engaged in graduate studies until 1885, when he received his doctorate in mathematics. In 1887, Wicksell received a scholarship to study on the Continent, where he heard lectures by the economist Carl Menger in Vienna. In the following years, his interests began to shift toward the social sciences economics; as a lecturer at Uppsala, Wicksell attracted attention because of his opinions about labour.
At one lecture, he condemned drunkenness and prostitution as alienating and impoverishing. Although he was sometimes identified as a socialist, his solution to the problem was decidedly Malthusian in advocating birth control, which he would defend to the end of his life, his fiery ideas had attracted some attention, but his first work in economics, Value and Rent, went unnoticed. In 1896, he published Studies in the theory of Public Finance and applied the ideas of marginalism to progressive taxation, public goods and other aspects of public policy, attracting more interest. Wicksell married Anna Bugge in 1887. Economics in Sweden at the time was taught as part of the law school, Wicksell was unable to gain a chair until he was awarded a law degree. Accordingly, he returned to the University of Uppsala where he completed the usual four-year law degree course in two years, he became an associate professor at that university in 1899; the next year, he became a full professor at Lund University, where he would undertake his most influential work.
After giving a lecture in 1908 satirising the Virgin birth of Jesus, Wicksell was deemed guilty of blasphemy and imprisoned for two months. In 1916, he retired from his post at Lund and took a position at Stockholm advising the government on financial and banking issues. In Stockholm, Wicksell associated himself with other future great economists of the so-called "Stockholm School," such as Bertil Ohlin, Gunnar Myrdal and Erik Lindahl, he taught a young Dag Hammarskjöld, the future Secretary-General of the United Nations. Wicksell died in 1926. Elements of his public policy were taken to heart by the Swedish government, including his price-level targeting rule during the 1930s and his vision of a welfare state. Wicksell's contributions to economics have been described by some economists, including historian-of-economics Mark Blaug, as fundamental to modern macroeconomics. Michael Woodford has praised Wicksell's advocacy of using the interest rate to maintain price stability, noting that it was a remarkable insight when most monetary policy was based on the gold standard.
Woodford calls his own framework'neo-Wicksellian', he titled his textbook on monetary policy in homage to Wicksell's work. Wicksell was enamored with the theory of Léon Walras, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, David Ricardo, sought a synthesis of the three theoretical visions of the economy. Wicksell's work on creating a synthetic economic theory earned him a reputation as an "economist's economist." For instance, although the marginal productivity theory – the idea that payments to factors of production equilibrate to their marginal productivity – had been laid out by others such as John Bates Clark, Wicksell presented a far simpler and more robust demonstration of the principle, much of the present conception of that theory stems from Wicksell's model. Wicksell's theory of the "cumulative process" of inflation remains the first decisive swing at the idea of money as a "veil" as well as Say's Law. Extending from Ricardo's investigation of income distribution, Wicksell concluded that a unfettered economy was not destined to equalize wealth as a number of Wicksell's predecessors had predicted.
Instead, Wicksell posited, wealth created by growth would be distributed to those who had wealth in the first place. From this, from theories of marginalism, Wicksell defended a place for government intervention to improve national welfare. Wicksell influenced the field of constitutional political economy, his 1896 work on fiscal theory Finanztheoretische Untersuchungen called attention to the significance of the rules within which choices are made by political agents, he recognized that efforts at reform must be directed toward changes in the rules for making decisions rather than trying to influence the behaviour of the actors. Wicksell's most influential contribution was his theory of interest published in German language as Geldzins und Güterpreise, in 1898; the English translation Interest and Prices became available in 1936. Wicksell invented the key term natural rate of interest and defined it at that interest rate, compatible with a stable price level. If the interest rate falls short of the natural rate, inflation is to arise.
An interest rate that coincides with the natural rate ensures equilibrium in the commodity market
Friedrich August von Hayek referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Anglo-Austrian economist and philosopher best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Gunnar Myrdal for his "pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic and institutional phenomena". Hayek was a major social theorist and political philosopher of the 20th century and his account of how changing prices communicate information that helps individuals co-ordinate their plans is regarded as an important achievement in economics, leading to his Nobel Prize. Hayek served in World War I and said that his experience in the war and his desire to help avoid the mistakes that had led to the war drew him into economics. Hayek lived in Austria, Great Britain, the United States and Germany and became a British subject in 1938, he spent most of his academic life at the London School of Economics, the University of Chicago and the University of Freiburg.
Hayek was appointed a Companion of Honour in 1984 for "services to the study of economics". He was the first recipient of the Hanns Martin Schleyer Prize in 1984, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991 from President George H. W. Bush. In 2011, his article "The Use of Knowledge in Society" was selected as one of the top 20 articles published in The American Economic Review during its first 100 years. Friedrich August von Hayek was born in Vienna to August von Felicitas Hayek, his father, from whom he received his middle name, was born in 1871 in Vienna. He was a medical doctor employed by the municipal ministry of health with a passion for botany, about which he wrote a number of monographs. August von Hayek was a part-time botany lecturer at the University of Vienna, his mother was born in 1875 to a wealthy land-owning family. As her mother died several years prior to Hayek's birth, Felicitas received a significant inheritance, which provided as much as half of her and her husband's income during the early years of their marriage.
Hayek was the oldest of three brothers and Erich, who were one-and-a-half and five years younger than him. His father's career as a university professor influenced Hayek's goals in life. Both of his grandfathers, who lived long enough for Hayek to know them, were scholars. Franz von Juraschek was a leading economist in Austria-Hungary and a close friend of Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, one of the founders of the Austrian School of Economics. Hayek's paternal grandfather, Gustav Edler von Hayek, taught natural sciences at the Imperial Realobergymnasium in Vienna, he wrote works in the field of biological systematics, some of which are well known. On his mother's side, Hayek was second cousin to the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, his mother played with Wittgenstein's sisters and had known him well. As a result of their family relationship, Hayek became one of the first to read Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus when the book was published in its original German edition in 1921. Although he met Wittgenstein on only a few occasions, Hayek said that Wittgenstein's philosophy and methods of analysis had a profound influence on his own life and thought.
In his years, Hayek recalled a discussion of philosophy with Wittgenstein when both were officers during World War I. After Wittgenstein's death, Hayek had intended to write a biography of Wittgenstein and worked on collecting family materials and assisted biographers of Wittgenstein, he was related to Wittgenstein on the non-Jewish side of the Wittgenstein family. Since his youth, Hayek socialized with Jewish intellectuals and he mentions that people speculated whether he was of Jewish ancestry; that made him curious, so he spent some time researching his ancestors and found out that he has Jewish ancestors which date back five generations. Surname Hayek is German spelling of Czech surname Hájek. Hayek displayed an intellectual and academic bent from a young age, he read fluently and before going to school. At his father's suggestion, as a teenager he read the genetic and evolutionary works of Hugo de Vries and August Weismann and the philosophical works of Ludwig Feuerbach. In school, Hayek was much taken by one instructor's lectures on Aristotle's ethics.
In his unpublished autobiographical notes, Hayek recalled a division between him and his younger brothers who were only a few years younger than him, but he believed that they were somehow of a different generation. He preferred to associate with adults. In 1917, Hayek joined an artillery regiment in the Austro-Hungarian Army and fought on the Italian front. Much of Hayek's combat experience was spent as a spotter in an aeroplane. Hayek was decorated for bravery. During this time, Hayek survived the 1918 flu pandemic. Hayek decided to pursue an academic career, determined to help avoid the mistakes that had led to the war. Hayek said of his experience: "The decisive influence was World War I. It's bound to draw your attention to the problems of political organization", he vowed to work for a better world. At the University of Vienna, Hayek earned doctorates in law and political science in 1921 and 1923 and studied philosophy and economics. For a short time, when the University of Vienna closed he studied in Constantin von Monakow's Institute of Brain Anatomy, where Hayek spent much of his time staining brain cells.
Hayek's time in Monakow's lab and his deep interest in the work of Ernst Mach