Sagas of Icelanders
Not to be confused with The saga of Icelanders, based on historical events from the 13th century. The Sagas of Icelanders known as family sagas, are prose narratives based on historical events that took place in Iceland in the 9th, 10th, early 11th centuries, during the so-called Saga Age, they are the best-known specimens of Icelandic literature. They are focused on history genealogical and family history, they reflect the struggle and conflict that arose within the societies of the early generations of Icelandic settlers. Many of these Icelandic sagas were recorded in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The'authors', or rather recorders of these sagas are unknown. One saga, Egils saga, is believed by some scholars to have been written by Snorri Sturluson, a descendant of the saga's hero, but this remains uncertain; the standard modern edition of Icelandic sagas is known as Íslenzk fornrit. Among the several literary reviews of the sagas is that by Sigurður Nordal's Sagalitteraturen, which divides the sagas into five chronological groups distinguished by the state of literary development: 1200 to 1230 – Sagas that deal with skalds 1230 to 1280 – Family sagas 1280 to 1300 – Works that focus more on style and storytelling than just writing down history Early 14th century – Historical tradition 14th century – Fiction Atla saga Ótryggssonar Bandamanna saga – Bandamanna saga Bárðar saga Snæfellsáss Bjarnar saga Hítdœlakappa Droplaugarsona saga Egils saga Skalla-Grímssonar – Egil's Saga Eiríks saga rauða – Saga of Erik the Red Eyrbyggja saga Færeyinga saga Finnboga saga ramma Fljótsdæla saga Flóamanna saga Fóstbrœðra saga Gísla saga Súrssonar, of an outlaw poet – Gísla saga Grettis saga - Saga of Grettir the Strong Grœnlendinga saga – Greenland saga Gull-Þóris saga Gunnars saga Keldugnúpsfífls Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu Hallfreðar saga Harðar saga ok Hólmverja Hávarðar saga Ísfirðings – The saga of Hávarður of Ísafjörður Heiðarvíga saga Hrafnkels saga Hrana saga hrings Hænsna-Þóris saga Kjalnesinga saga Kormáks saga Króka-Refs saga Laurentius Saga Laxdæla saga Ljósvetninga saga Njáls saga Reykdœla saga ok Víga-Skútu Skáld-Helga saga Svarfdœla saga Valla-Ljóts saga Vatnsdœla saga Víga-Glúms saga Víglundar saga Vápnfirðinga saga Þorsteins saga hvíta Þorsteins saga Síðu-Hallssonar Þórðar saga hreðu Ölkofra saga The Saga of Gaukur á Stöng is believed to have existed but is now considered lost.
The saga – set in the anthology of sagas known as Möðruvallabók between Njáls saga and Egils saga Skalla-Grímssonar – tells of a man named Gaukur Trandilsson who lived in the 10th century. Gaukur is mentioned in chapter 26 of Njáls saga. Icelandic professor and poet Jón Helgason managed to decipher a line that read "Let Trandilsson's story be written here. I am told that Grim knows it." However, the story was never put to paper. The Grim mentioned in the manuscript is believed to have been Grímur Þorsteinsson and governor. Gaukur is reported to have been an exceptionally gentle man, he was the foster brother of Ásgrimur. However, it is said that he had a falling out with his foster brother, who killed him. Gaukur must have been a well-known figure in Icelandic folklore as he is mentioned in not only Njáls Saga but the Íslendigadrápa, a poem about the Icelandic heroes, he is mentioned on a tomb in the Orkney Islands, where a runic inscription translates to "These runes were carved by the man, the most knowledgeable of runes in the west of the sea, using the axe that belonged to Gaukur Trandilsson in the south of the land".
The south of the land refers to Iceland. Icelanders produced a high volume of literature relative to the size of the population. Historians have proposed various theories for the high volume of saga writing: The unique nature of the political system of the Icelandic Commonwealth created incentives for aristocrats to produce literature; because new principalities lacked internal cohesion, a leader produced Sagas "to create or enhance amongst his subjects or followers a feeling of solidarity and common identity by emphasizing their common history and legends". Leaders from old and established principalities did not produce any Sagas, as they were cohesive political units; the production of literature was a way for chieftains to create and maintain social differentiation between them and the rest of the population. Saga-writing was motivated by the desire of the Icelandic aristocracy to maintain or reconnect links with the Nordic countries by tracing the ancestry of Icelandic aristocrats to well-known kings and heroes to which the contemporary Nordic kings could trace their origins.
It has been proposed that the Icelandic settlers were so prolific at writing in order to capture their settler history. Historian Gunnar Karlsson does not find that explanation reasonable though, given that other settler communities have not been as prolific as the early Icelanders were. Early nationalist historians emphasized how the ethnic characteristics of the Icelanders were conducive to a literary culture, but these types of explanations have fallen out of favor with academics in modern times, it has been argued that a combination of available parchment and long winters encouraged Icelanders to take up writing. Historian Gunnar Karlsson has proposed the theory that Iceland's peripheral location put it out of reach of the continental kings of Europe and that those kings could therefore not ban subversive forms of literature
Sir John Laurence "Jack" Longland was an educator, mountain climber, broadcaster. After a brilliant student career Longland became a don at Durham University in the 1930s, he formed a lifelong concern for the welfare of unemployed people, after a time working in community service he moved to become an educational administrator, retiring in 1970. Among his achievements was the establishment of White Hall in Derbyshire, the country's first local authority Outdoor Pursuits Centre for young people; as a young man Longland was prominent among British rock-climbers, taking a distinguished part in the 1933 British Mount Everest expedition. In life he was active in the affairs of the British Mountaineering Council. Longland was a familiar broadcaster on BBC Radio, appearing from the late 1940s until the 1970s in the long-running Round Britain Quiz, Any Questions?, the panel game My Word!, which he chaired for twenty years from 1957. Longland was the eldest son of the Rev E. H. Longland and his wife, elder daughter of Sir James Crockett.
Longland was educated at the King's School and Jesus College, where he was Rustat Exhibitioner and Scholar, won a Blue for pole-vaulting, gained a first in Part I of the Historical Tripos in 1926, first class honours with distinction in the English Tripos in 1927. After graduating, Longland was elected Charles Kingley bye-fellow of Magdalene College for two years, spent a year in Germany as Austausch-student at Königsberg University, where he witnessed the early rise of Adolf Hitler. While still in his twenties Longland established a reputation as a mountaineer, he liked to say that he started out "with a clothes line and a pair of old army boots", but in the words of an obituarist, "as a rock-climber he was brilliant. He will always be remembered for'Longland's Climb', on Clogwyn du'r Arddu, in Snowdonia, the first route right up that formidable crag, it gave him enormous pleasure to climb that route again with his son over 40 years later." He was a member of two major British expeditions -- in 1933 in 1935 to East Greenland.
In the words of The Times, "His place in Everest legend remains secure, if only for his 1933 feat in bringing down eight sherpas from Camp Six to Base Camp after a blizzard had produced whiteout conditions obliterating all traces of their upward route." He was invited to go on the 1938 Everest expedition, but declined, being by heavily involved with public service work in England. Longland's first full-time academic post was as lecturer in English at Durham University from 1930 to 1936. In 1934 he married Margaret Lowrey Harrison in a ceremony conducted by the Bishop of Durham assisted by Longland senior and two other clergymen. There were two sons of the marriage. During his time at Durham, Longland became concerned at the social problems caused by the Great Depression and unemployment in the Durham coalfields, became an active member of the Labour Party, he said later: I came into educational administration at the end of the squalid and hungry thirties after some years working with unemployed Durham miners and their families.
I think that those underfed children, their fathers on the scrapheap, the mean rows of houses under the tip, all the casual product of a selfishly irresponsible society, have coloured my thinking since. He left the university to become deputy director of Durham's Community Service Council, taking over as director a year later. From 1940 until his retirement in 1970 he worked in the management of education, as deputy education officer for Hertfordshire, director of education for Dorset and for Derbyshire. In tandem with his main official duties he was Regional Officer of the National Council of Social Service, 1939–40, president of the Association of Education Officers, 1960–61, chairman of the Mountain Leadership Training Board, 1964–80, he was a member of eighteen national commissions and advisory bodies.. In his Derbyshire post in 1950 he set up the first local authority Outdoor Pursuits Centre; as a member of the Countryside Commission from 1969 to 1974 he played an important part in bringing increased protection for the countryside responsible, writing the Commission's report that persuaded the government to strengthen the powers of National Park committees.
In addition to his public service work, Longland was a frequent and popular broadcaster on BBC Radio. In the late 1940s and 1950s he was the chairman of the series Country Questions in which a team of experts answered listeners' questions about the countryside, he was in the chair for series for younger listeners, including The Younger Generation Question Time and Summer Parade. From August 1957 he succeeded John Arlott as chairman of the panel game My Word!, remained in the role until he retired in December 1977. He was described in The Times as "the perfect chairman, receptive, self-effacing and well liked by the team". In 1990 Longland gave an address at a gathering to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the birth of Sir George Everest, the surveyor-general of India, after whom the mountain was named; the Royal Geographical Society hosted a gathering of climbers who had made or attempted the ascent of Everest. Among them were Lord Hunt, leader of the first successful British expedition in 1953, Sir Edmund Hillary, who first climbed the mountain with Tenzing Norgay.
Chris Bonington, Doug Scott, Stephen Venables and Ha
The Norse people or Norsemen were a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between c. 800 and 1300 AD. The language belongs to the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages and is the predecessor of the modern Germanic languages of Scandinavia. In the late eighth century Norsemen embarked on a massive expansion in all directions; this was the start of the Viking Age. In English-language scholarship since the nineteenth century, the Viking Age Norsemen, seafaring traders and warriors have been referred to as Vikings; the Norse Scandinavians established polities and settlements in what are now England, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Russia, Greenland, Belgium, Finland, Latvia, Germany and Canada as well as Sicily. The word Norseman first appears in English in the early nineteenth century: the earliest attestation given in the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary is from Walter Scott's 1817 Harold the Dauntless; the word was coined using the adjective norse, borrowed into English from Dutch in the 16th century with the sense'Norwegian', which by Scott's time had acquired the sense "of or relating to Scandinavia or its language, esp in ancient or medieval times".
Like the modern use of the word viking, the word norseman has no particular basis in medieval usage. The term Norseman does, echo terms meaning'Northman' applied to Norse-speakers by the peoples they encountered during the Middle Ages; the Old Frankish word Nortmann was Latinised as Normannus and was used in Latin texts. The Latin word Normannus entered Old French as Normands. From this word came the name of the Normans and of Normandy, settled by Norsemen in the tenth century; the same word entered Hispanic languages and local varieties of Latin with forms beginning not only in n-, but in l-, such as lordomanni. This form may in turn have been borrowed into Arabic: the prominent early Arabic source al-Mas‘ūdī identified the 844 raiders on Seville not only as Rūs but al-lawdh’āna. In modern scholarship, Vikings is a common term for attacking Norsemen in connection with raids and monastic plundering by Norsemen in the British Isles, but it was not used in this sense at the time. In Old Norse and Old English, the word meant'pirate'.
The Norse were known as Ascomanni, ashmen, by the Germans, Lochlanach by the Gaels and Dene by the Anglo-Saxons. The Gaelic terms Finn-Gall, Dubh-Gall and Gall Goidel were used for the people of Norse descent in Ireland and Scotland, who assimilated into the Gaelic culture. Dubliners called them Ostmen, or East-people, the name Oxmanstown comes from one of their settlements. In the 8th century the inrush of the Vikings in force began to be felt all over Pictland; these Vikings were savages of the most unrestrained and pitiless type. They were composed of Finn-Gall or Norwegians, of Dubh-Gall or Danes; the latter were a mixed breed, with a Hunnish strain in them. However, British conceptions of the Vikings' origins were not quite correct; those who plundered Britain lived in what is today Denmark, the western coast of Sweden and Norway and along the Swedish Baltic coast up to around the 60th latitude and Lake Mälaren. They came from the island of Gotland, Sweden; the border between the Norsemen and more southerly Germanic tribes, the Danevirke, today is located about 50 kilometres south of the Danish–German border.
The southernmost living Vikings lived no further north than Newcastle upon Tyne, travelled to Britain more from the east than from the north. The northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula was unpopulated by the Norse, because this ecology was inhabited by the Sami, the native people of northern Sweden and large areas of Norway and the Kola Peninsula in today's Russia; the Slavs, the Arabs and the Byzantines knew them as the Rus' or Rhōs derived from various uses of rōþs-, i.e. "related to rowing", or from the area of Roslagen in east-central Sweden, where most of the Vikings who visited the Slavic lands originated. Archaeologists and historians of today believe that these Scandinavian settlements in the Slavic lands formed the names of the countries of Russia and Belarus; the Slavs and the Byzantines called them Varangians, the Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard. In the Old Norse language, the term norrœnir menn, was used correspondingly to the modern English name Norsemen, referring to Swedes, Norwegians, Faroe Islanders, etc.
The modern Scandinavian languages have a common word for Norsemen: the word nordbo, is used for both ancient and modern people living in the Nordic countries and speaking one of the Scandinavian Germanic languages. The word Vikings: Vikinger in Danish and Norwegian Bokmål, Vikingar in Swedish and Norwegian Nynorsk is not used as a word for Norsemen by natives, as "Viking" is the name for a specific activity/occupation, not a demographic group; the Vikings were people partaking in the raid. On occasions Finland is mentioned as a "Scandinavian country". Th
Milne Land or Milneland is a large island in eastern Greenland. It is the third largest island of Greenland, after the main island of Disko Island, it is named after British admiral David Milne. This island is popular among climbers; the island is 113 km long from Moraene Point in the southwest to Bregne Point in the northeast, up to 45 km, 3,913 km2 in area. It is part of an archipelago, which includes Storo and Sorte Island in the Northwest, Denmark Island in the south, the Bjorne Islands in the northeast. Cape Leslie is Milneland's southeastern headland. Milne Land is separated from the Renland peninsula in the north by the 6 to 10 km wide Ofjord, from the Gaaseland peninsula in the south by the 4 to 6 km wide Fonfjord, from the mainland coast in the west by the 4 to 14 km wide Rode Fjord. Jameson Land, the large peninsula in the east with the settlement of Ittoqqortoormiit on its southern coast, is located more than 40 km away across the Scoresby Sound. List of islands of Greenland Constable Point, the nearest airport.
Liverpool Land Renland Scoresby Sound Peakbagger The spectacular east face of Grundtvigskirchen
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
Sermersooq is a municipality in Greenland, formed on 1 January 2009 from five earlier, smaller municipalities. Its administrative seat is the city of Nuuk, the capital of Greenland, it is the most populous municipality in the country, with 21,868 inhabitants as of January 2013; the municipality consists of former municipalities of eastern and southwestern Greenland, each named after the largest settlement at the time of formation: Ammassalik Municipality Ittoqqortoormiit Municipality Ivittuut Municipality Nuuk Municipality Paamiut Municipality Ammassalik area Tasiilaq Kuummiit Kulusuk Tiniteqilaaq Sermiligaaq Isortoq Ittoqqortoormiit area Ittoqqortoormiit Ivittuut area Kangilinnguit Nuuk area Nuuk Kapisillit Qeqertarsuatsiaat Paamiut area Paamiut Arsuk The municipality is located in south-central and eastern Greenland, with an area of 531,900 km2. It is the second largest municipality in the world by area, after the former Qaasuitsup. In the south, it is flanked by the Kujalleq municipality, with the border running alongside Alanngorsuaq Fjord.
The waters flowing around the western coastline of the municipality are that of Labrador Sea, which to the north narrows down to form Davis Strait separating the island of Greenland from Baffin Island. In the northwest, the municipality is bordered by the Qeqqata municipality, further north by the Qeqertalik and Avannaata municipalities; the latter two borders however run north-south through the center of the Greenland ice sheet − and as such are free of traffic. In the north the municipality is bordered by the Northeast Greenland National Park. In the east, near the settlement of Ittoqqortoormiit, the municipal shores straddle the Kangertittivaq fjord, which empties into the cold Greenland Sea; the southeastern shores are bordered by the Anorituup Kangerlua fjord of the Irminger Sea in the North Atlantic Ocean. Sermersooq is one of two municipalities straddling the western and eastern sides of the island, but is the only municipality where settlements on both coasts are connected via scheduled flights from Nuuk Airport to Kulusuk Airport and Nerlerit Inaat Airport and reverse, operated year-round by Air Greenland.
There are local flights between Nuuk and Paamiut Airport on the west coast. Kalaallisut, the West Greenlandic dialect is spoken in the towns and settlements of the western coast. Danish is in use in the bigger towns. Tunumiit oraasiat, the East Greenlandic dialect, is spoken on the eastern coast. KANUKOKA
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com