Technicolor is the name applied to a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating from 1916, and followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the major color process, after Britains Kinemacolor. As the technology matured it was used for less spectacular dramas. Occasionally, even a film noir—such as Leave Her to Heaven or Niagara —was filmed in Technicolor, Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color motion picture processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, now a division of the French company Technicolor SA. The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston in 1914 by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, the Tech in the companys name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where both Kalmus and Comstock received their undergraduate degrees and were instructors. Technicolor, Inc. was chartered in Delaware in 1921, most of Technicolors early patents were taken out by Comstock and Wescott, while Kalmus served primarily as the companys president and chief executive officer.
The term Technicolor historically has been used to describe at least five concepts, Technicolor process or format, several custom image origination systems used in film production, culminating in the three-strip process in 1932. Technicolor IB printing, a process for making color motion picture prints that allows the use of dyes which are more stable, originally used for printing from color separation negatives photographed on black-and-white film in a special Technicolor camera. This meaning of the name applies to nearly all Wikipedia articles about films made from 1954 onward in which Technicolor is named in the credits, Technicolor originally existed in a two-color system. Because two frames were being exposed at the time, the film had to be photographed and projected at twice the normal speed. Exhibition required a special projector with two apertures, two lenses, and a prism that aligned the two images on the screen. The results were first demonstrated to members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in New York on February 21,1917, the near-constant need for a technician to adjust the projection alignment doomed this additive color process.
Only a few frames of The Gulf Between, showing star Grace Darmond, are known to exist today, convinced that there was no future in additive color processes, Comstock and Kalmus focused their attention on subtractive color processes. This culminated in what would eventually be known as Process 2, the difference was that the two-component negative was now used to produce a subtractive color print. Because the colors were present in the print, no special projection equipment was required. The frames exposed behind the filter were printed on one strip of black-and-white film. After development, each print was toned to a color nearly complementary to that of the filter, orange-red for the green-filtered images, the two prints, made on film stock half the thickness of regular film, were cemented together back to back to create a projection print. The Toll of the Sea, which debuted on November 26,1922, the second all-color feature in Process 2 Technicolor, Wanderer of the Wasteland, was released in 1924
SBS Broadcasting Group
SBS has broadcasting services in Scandinavia, Bulgaria, Hungary, The Netherlands, and Romania. By July 1994, the time of the CC/ABC-Disney merger, Capital Cities/ABC owned 23% of SBS, SBS was controlled by funds advised by two private equity firms and Kohlberg Kravis Roberts. Telegraaf Media Groep N. V. of the Netherlands was a shareholder in SBS, in 2005, SBS was bought by the equity firms Permira and Kohlberg Kravis Roberts. ProSiebenSat.1 Media became the second largest broadcaster of Europe with 48 TV stations, on 14 December 2012 Discovery Communications bought the Nordic portion of SBS for $1.7 billion. SBS was founded by Harry E. Sloan who bought a stake in the Danish station Kanal 2, in 1991, Sloan bought the Swedish Nordic Channel, which was soon renamed Kanal 5 and became the third largest commercial broadcaster in the country. The company was known as TV1, but was renamed Scandinavian Broadcasting Systems in 1991. After expanding into Benelux and Eastern Europe, the name was changed again, in the end of 2011 ProSiebenSat.1 Group has sold its Bulgarian radio stations as well as the music channel the Voice TV to A. E.
The transaction was closed on November 10,2011, television operations started in 1989 in Scandinavia. In March 2005 SBS acquired C More Entertainment, a Nordic pay tv provider operating under the Canal+ brand, C More provides premium sports and movie channels in Denmark, Norway and Finland under the Canal+ and the now defunct C More brand. The Dutch channels have been bought by De Vijver, VIER VIJF The Voice The general entertainment network TV Danmark was launched in 1997. It was renamed TV Danmark 2 when the sister channel TV Danmark 1 was launched, when TV Danmark 1 was renamed Kanal 5, the first channel reverted to its old name before becoming Kanal 4 in 2006. On January 1,2007, the terrestrial Kanal 4 signals were replaced by a new channel called SBS NET, while Kanal 4 continued broadcasting by satellite, starting January 1,2009, SBS NET will be re-branded as 6eren. The Voice TV Denmark was partially re-branded 7eren from January 1,2012, Kanal 4 Kanal 5 The Voice TV Denmark 6eren TV2 is owned jointly by SBS and MTM.
TV2 Sitel Sitel 2 Sitel 3 Kanal 5 Kanal 5 plus The Dutch channels have been bought by Sanoma, SBS6 Net 5 Veronica - Young Entertainment Kijk. SBS runs it and TV2 brings the news from TV2 NEWS, TV2 Radio - SBS bought it, after TV2 sold it out. Now, it is a joint venture between TV2 and SBS Radio A/S, lampsi 92.3 FM Radio 1 The Voice Radio Norge The Romanian stations have been bought by Antenna Group Kiss FM Magic FM One FM Rock FM SBS has several local commercial radio licenses. The main network is called Mix Megapol and has several stations around the country, Mix Megapol - Mix of hits and oldies - National network Rockklassiker - - National network The Voice - Hit music targeting young people in Stockholm. Radio 107.5 - Dance from the 1990s and 2000s for Stockholm Vinyl 107 - Music from the 60s, 70s and 80s on FM in Stockholm Veronica SBS Broadcasting Group SBS Radio Denmark Norway Sweden Greece
Richmond is a suburban town in southwest London,8.2 miles west-southwest of Charing Cross. The town is on a meander of the River Thames, with a number of parks and open spaces, including Richmond Park, and many protected conservation areas. A specific Act of Parliament protects the scenic view of the River Thames from Richmond, Richmond was founded following Henry VIIs building of Richmond Palace in the 16th century, from which the town derives its name. During this era the town and palace were particularly associated with Elizabeth I, during the 18th century Richmond Bridge was completed and many Georgian terraces were built, particularly around Richmond Green and on Richmond Hill. These remain well preserved and many have listed building architectural or heritage status, the opening of the railway station in 1846 was a significant event in the absorption of the town into a rapidly expanding London. Richmond was formerly part of the ancient parish of Kingston upon Thames in the county of Surrey, in 1890 the town became a municipal borough, which was extended to include Kew, Ham and part of Mortlake.
The municipal borough was abolished in 1965 when, as a result of boundary changes, Richmond is now part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, and has a population of 21,469. It has a significant commercial and retail centre with a developed day, the area now known as Richmond was formerly part of Shene. Shene was not listed in Domesday Book, although it is depicted on the maps as Sceon. Henry VII had a palace there and in 1501 he named it Richmond Palace in recognition of his earldom. The town that developed nearby took the name as the palace. Henry I lived briefly in the Kings house in Sheanes, Edward II, following his defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, founded a monastery for Carmelites at Sheen. When the boy-king Edward III came to the throne in 1327 he gave the manor to his mother Isabella, Edward spent over two thousand pounds on improvements, but in the middle of the work Edward himself died at the manor, in 1377. Richard II was the first English king to make Sheen his main residence and it was rebuilt between 1414 and 1422, but destroyed by fire 1497.
Following that fire Henry VII built a new residence at Sheen, there are unconfirmed beliefs that Shakespeare may have performed some plays there. Once Elizabeth I became queen she spent much of her time at Richmond and she died there on 24 March 1603. The palace was no longer in use after 1649, but in 1688 James II ordered partial reconstruction of the palace. The bulk of the palace had decayed by 1779, but surviving structures include the Wardrobe, Trumpeters House, and this has five bedrooms and was made available on a 65-year lease by the Crown Estate Commissioners in 1986
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS. The president of CBS News is David Rhodes, CBS News broadcasts include the CBS Evening News, CBS This Morning, news magazine programs CBS Sunday Morning,60 Minutes and 48 Hours, and Sunday morning political affairs program Face the Nation. CBS operates a 24-hour news network called CBSN, the first live anchored 24-hour streaming news network that is exclusively online, in December 1930 CBS chief William S. Paley hired journalist Paul W. White away from United Press as CBSs news editor. Paley put the networks news operation at the same level as entertainment. Along with other networks, CBS chafed at the breaking news embargo imposed upon radio by the wire services, CBS disregarded an embargo when it broke the story of the Lindbergh kidnapping in 1932, using live on-the-air reporting. Radio networks scooped print outlets with news of the 1932 presidential election, in March 1933 White was named vice president and general manager in charge of news at CBS.
As the first head of CBS News, he began to build an organization that established a legendary reputation. In 1935 White hired Edward R. Murrow, and sent him to London in 1937 to run CBS Radios European operation, White led a staff that would come to include Charles Collingwood, William L. Shirer, Eric Sevareid, John Charles Daly, Joseph C. Harsch Cecil Brown, Elmer Davis, Quincy Howe, H. V. Kaltenborn, CBS was getting its ducks in a row for the biggest news story in history, World War II, wrote radio historian John Dunning. Upon becoming commercial station WCBW in 1941, the pioneer CBS television station in New York City broadcast two daily news programs, at 2,30 and 7,30 p. m. weekdays, anchored by Richard Hubbell. Most of the newscasts featured Hubbell reading a script with only occasional cutaways to a map or still photograph, when Pearl Harbor was bombed on December 7,1941, WCBW, took to the air at 8,45 p. m. with an extensive special report. The national emergency even broke down the wall between CBS radio and television.
The WCBW special report that night lasted less than 90 minutes, but that special broadcast pushed the limits of live television in 1941 and opened up new possibilities for future broadcasts. Additional newscasts were scheduled in the days of the war. In May 1944, as the war began to turn in favor of the Allies, WCBW reopened the studios and the newscasts returned, briefly anchored by Ned Calmer, and by Everett Holles. After the war, expanded news programs appeared on the WCBW schedule – whose call letters were changed to WCBS-TV in 1946 – first anchored by Milo Boulton, and by Douglas Edwards. On May 3,1948, Edwards began anchoring CBS Television News and it aired every weeknight at 7,30 p. m. and was the first regularly scheduled, network television news program featuring an anchor. NBCs offering at the time, NBC Television Newsreel, was simply film footage with voice narration, the broadcast was renamed the CBS Evening News when Walter Cronkite replaced Edwards in 1962
Qantas Airways is the flag carrier airline of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the third oldest airline in the world, after KLM and Avianca having been founded in November 1920, the Qantas name comes from QANTAS, an acronym for its original name and Northern Territory Aerial Services, and it is nicknamed The Flying Kangaroo. Qantas is a member of the Oneworld airline alliance. The airline is based in the Sydney suburb of Mascot with its hub at Sydney Airport. As of March 2014, Qantas had a 65% share of the Australian domestic market and carried 14. 9% of all passengers travelling in, various subsidiary airlines operate to regional centres and on some trunk routes within Australia under the QantasLink banner. Its subsidiary Jetconnect provides services between Australia and New Zealand, flying under the Qantas brand, Qantas was founded in Winton, Queensland on 16 November 1920 as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited.
The airlines first aircraft was an Avro 504K, in 1920 Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd had its headquarters in Winton before moving to Longreach, Queensland in 1921 and Brisbane in 1930. In 1934, QANTAS and Britains Imperial Airways formed a new company, the new airline commenced operations in December 1934, flying between Brisbane and Darwin. QEA flew internationally from May 1935, when the service from Darwin was extended to Singapore, after World War II began, enemy action and accidents destroyed half of the fleet of ten, when most of the fleet was taken over by the Australian government for war service. Flying boat services were resumed in 1943, with flights between Swan River and Koggala lake in Ceylon and this linked up with the British Overseas Airways Corporation service to London. Qantas kangaroo logo was first used on the Kangaroo Route, begun in 1944, from Sydney to Karachi, in 1947, QEA was nationalised by the Australian government led by Labor Prime Minister Ben Chifley.
QANTAS Limited was wound up, after nationalisation, Qantas remaining domestic network, in Queensland, was transferred to the nationally owned Trans Australian Airlines, leaving Qantas with a purely international network. Shortly after nationalisation, QEA began its first services outside the British Empire – to Tokyo, Services to Hong Kong began around the same time. In 1957 a head office, Qantas House, opened in Sydney, in June 1959 Qantas entered the jet age when the first Boeing 707-138 was delivered. On 14 September 1992, Qantas merged with nationally owned domestic airline, the airline started to be rebranded to Qantas in the following year. Qantas was gradually privatised between 1993 and 1997, under the legislation passed to allow the privatisation, Qantas must be at least 51% owned by Australian shareholders. In 1998, Qantas co-founded the oneworld alliance with American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, the main domestic competitor to Qantas, Ansett Australia, collapsed on 14 September 2001.
Market share for Qantas immediately neared 90%, but with the entry of new budget airline Virgin Blue into the domestic market, in 2004, the Qantas group expanded into the Asian budget airline market with Jetstar Asia Airways, in which Qantas owns a minority stake
London Fire Brigade
The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for London. It was formed by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act of 1865 under the leadership of superintendent Eyre Massey Shaw. Dany Cotton is the Commissioner for Fire and Emergency Planning, which includes the position of Chief Fire Officer, statutory responsibility for the running of the brigade lies with the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2013/14 the LFB handled 171,067999 emergency calls, of the calls it actually mobilised to,20,934 were fires, including 10,992 that were of a serious nature, making it one of the busiest fire brigades in the world. In the same 12-month period, it received 3,172 hoax calls, the highest number of any UK fire service, in 2015/16 the LFB received 171,488 emergency calls. These consisted of,20,773 fires,30,066 special service callouts and it conducts emergency planning and performs fire safety inspections and education. He introduced a uniform that, for the first time, included personal protection from the hazards of firefighting.
With 80 firefighters and 13 fire stations, the unit was still a private enterprise, funded by the insurance companies, in 1904 it was renamed as the London Fire Brigade. The LFB moved into a new headquarters built by Higgs and Hill on the Albert Embankment in Lambeth in 1937, during the Second World War the countrys brigades were amalgamated into a single National Fire Service. The separate London Fire Brigade for the County of London was re-established in 1948, in 1986 the Greater London Council was disbanded and a new statutory authority, the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority, was formed to take responsibility for the LFB. The LFCDA was replaced in 2000 by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, at the same time, the Greater London Authority was established to administer the LFEPA and coordinate emergency planning for London. Consisting of the Mayor of London and other elected members, the GLA takes responsibility for the Metropolitan Police Authority, Transport for London, in 2007 the LFB vacated its Lambeth headquarters and moved to a site in Union Street, Southwark.
In the same year, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that LFB Commissioner Ken Knight had been appointed as the first Chief Fire, Knight was succeeded as Commissioner at that time by Ron Dobson, who served for almost ten years. Dany Cotton took over in 2017, becoming the brigades first female commissioner, dany Cotton is the current commissioner, having taken up the role on 1 January 2017. She holds the Queens Fire Service Medal, frank Jackson, CBE1938 to 1941, Cdr. Sir Aylmer Firebrace, CBE1933 to 1938, Maj. Cyril Morris 1918 to 1933, Arthur Reginald Dyer 1909 to 1918, sir Sampson Sladen 1903 to 1909, RAdm. James de Courcy Hamilton 1896 to 1903, lionel de Latour Wells 1891 to 1896, James Sexton Simmonds 1861 to 1891, Capt. Both divisions were divided into three districts, each under a Superintendent with his headquarters at a superintendent station, the superintendent stations themselves were commanded by District Officers, with the other stations under Station Officers
The original purpose of medieval grammar schools was the teaching of Latin. Over time the curriculum was broadened, first to include Ancient Greek, and English and other European languages, natural sciences, history and other subjects. In the late Victorian era grammar schools were reorganised to provide secondary education throughout England and Wales, Grammar schools of these types were established in British territories overseas, where they have evolved in different ways. With the move to comprehensive schools in the 1960s and 1970s, some grammar schools became fully independent and charged fees. In both cases, many of these schools kept grammar school in their names, more recently, a number of state grammar schools still retaining their selective intake gained academy status, meaning that they are independent of the Local Education Authority. Some parts of England retain forms of the Tripartite System, some of the remaining grammar schools can trace their histories to before the 16th century.
The schools were attached to cathedrals and monasteries, teaching Latin – the language of the church – to future priests, other subjects required for religious work were occasionally added, including music and verse and mathematics and law. With the foundation of the ancient universities from the late 12th century, grammar schools became the point to a liberal arts education. Pupils were usually educated in schools up to the age of 14, after which they would look to universities. An example of a grammar school founded by a medieval borough corporation unconnected with church or university is Bridgnorth Grammar School. During the English Reformation in the 16th century, most cathedral schools were closed and replaced by new foundations funded from the dissolution of the monasteries. For example, the oldest extant schools in Wales – Christ College, with the increased emphasis on studying the scriptures after the Reformation, many schools added Greek and, in a few cases, Hebrew. The teaching of languages was hampered by a shortage of non-Latin type.
Many of these are commemorated in annual Founders Day services and ceremonies at surviving schools. The usual pattern was to create an endowment to pay the wages of a master to instruct boys in Latin. The school day ran from 6 a. m. to 5 p. m. with a two-hour break for lunch, in winter, school started at 7 a. m. Most of the day was spent in the learning of Latin. To encourage fluency, some schoolmasters recommended punishing any pupil who spoke in English, by the end of their studies at age 14, they would be quite familiar with the great Latin authors, and with Latin drama and rhetoric
A parish church in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish. The church building reflects this status, and there is variety in the size. Many villages in Europe have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, in England, it is the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. Nearly every part of England is in a parish, and most parishes have an Anglican parish church, in cities without a cathedral of a certain Christian denomination, the parish church may have administrative functions similar to that of a cathedral. However, the diocese will still have a cathedral, while smaller villages may only have a parish church, larger towns may have a parish church and also smaller churches in various districts which do not have the status of parish church. Often the parish church will be the one to have a full-time minister. One sign of this is that the church is the only one to have a baptismal font. The Church of Scotland, the established Presbyterian church, uses a system of parish churches, in Massachusetts, towns elected publicly funded parish churches from 1780 until 1834.
Toward the end of the 20th century, a new resurgence in interest in parish churches emerged across the United States and this has given rise to efforts like the Slow Church Movement and The Parish Collective which focus heavily on localized involvement across work and church life. Theologically, many Protestants have embraced the model as having roots in a Reformed view of eschatology. It’s a way of saying ‘I believe in the Incarnation, ’” says pastor Raymond F. Cannata, “Having an earthy eschatology is part of it. ”Roman Catholic parish church Church of England parish church Smith, C. Slow Church, Cultivating Community in the Patient Way of Jesus
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
The District line is a London Underground service that crosses Greater London from east to west. From Upminster, the terminus, the line runs through Central London to Earls Court before dividing into three western branches, to Ealing Broadway and Richmond. There is a branch that goes from Earls Court to Kensington. A branch runs north from Earls Court to Edgware Road via Paddington, the track and stations between Barking and Aldgate East are shared with the Hammersmith & City line, and between Tower Hill and Gloucester Road and on the Edgware Road branch with the Circle line. Some of the stations are shared with the Piccadilly line, unlike Londons deep-level tube railways, the railway tunnels are just below the surface, and the trains are of a similar size to those on British main lines. The District line is the busiest of the lines as well the fifth busiest line overall on the London Underground with over 208 million passengers in the year 2011/12. The original Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an inner circle connecting Londons main-line termini.
Services were operated at first using wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives, electrification was financed by the American Charles Yerkes, and electric services began in 1905. In 1933 the railway was absorbed by the London Passenger Transport Board, in the first half of the 1930s the Piccadilly line took over the Uxbridge and Hounslow branches, although a peak-hour District line service ran on the Hounslow branch until 1964. Kensington has been served by the District line since 1946, the trains carried guards until one-person operation was introduced in 1985. The signalling system is being upgraded, and the current D Stock trains are to be replaced by new 7-car S Stock trains by spring 2017, the Metropolitan District Railway was formed to build and operate part an underground inner circle connecting Londons railway termini. The first line opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster, by 1871 when the District began operating its own trains, the railway had extended to West Brompton and a terminus at Mansion House.
Hammersmith was reached from Earls Court, services were extended to Richmond over the tracks of the London and South Western Railway and branches reached Ealing Broadway, Hounslow, as part of the project that completed the Circle line in October 1884, the District began to serve Whitechapel. Services began running to Upminster in 1902, after a link to the London, electric multiple-units were introduced on other services in 1905, and East Ham became the eastern terminus. Hounslow and Uxbridge were served by 2 or 3-car shuttles from Mill Hill Park, some served South Acton. Services were extended again to Barking in 1908 and Upminster in 1932, in 1933 Piccadilly trains reached to Hounslow West, the District continuing to run services with an off-peak shuttle from South Acton to Hounslow. Most of the cars on the District line were the 1904–05 B Stock type with wooden bodies. The off-peak District line services on the Hounslow branch were withdrawn on 29 April 1935, following bombing of the West London Line in 1940 the LMS and the Metropolitan line services over the West London Line were both suspended
London Borough of Ealing
The London Borough of Ealing /ˈiːlɪŋ/ is a London Borough in west London and forms part of Outer London. It is the 3rd largest London Borough in population, and 11th largest in size, covering part of west London and its administrative centre is Ealing Broadway. Other major centres include Acton and Southall, the local authority is Ealing London Borough Council. The London borough was formed in 1965 by the merging the area of the Municipal Borough of Ealing, the Municipal Borough of Southall and the Municipal Borough of Acton. Along with Brentford, the London Borough of Ealing is the setting for much of the action in Robert Rankins series of novels, The Brentford Trilogy. Ealing is the setting for The Sarah Jane Adventures. Within the borough are two garden suburbs, Brentham Garden Suburb and Bedford Park,330 hectares within the borough are designated as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. Ealing Central and Acton Ealing North Ealing Southall There are four stations within the London Borough of Ealing.
Southall and Northolt have similar-sized station grounds and both house two pumping appliances, Southall attended some 700 incidents more than their Northolt counterparts in 2006/07. Ealing, with two pumping appliances, and Acton, one pump and two fire investigation units, are the other two appliances in the area, the ward of Northfield had over forty malicious calls made from it, more than twice as any other ward within Ealing. Ealing has a total of 91 state-run schools and nurseries, There are 13 high schools under the domain of the local education authority,12 of which are either comprehensive, foundation or voluntary-aided, and one city academy. The King Fahd Academy is an independent Saudi funded school within the borough, the Japanese School in London is a Japanese international school in Acton. The borough of Ealing is ethnically diverse, in 2011, 49% gave their ethnicity as white, 30% as Asian, 15% as Black and 4. 5% as of mixed or multiple ethnicity, the remander identifying as Arab or other ethnicity.
The main religions of the population in 2011 were Christianity and Sikhism, 15% stated they had no religion. The borough has a long-standing Irish community which is visible through the number of established Irish pubs in the borough. Country flags for example can be flown on the outside or hung inside of various pubs in the area. St Benedicts School has had a long affiliation with the Irish community in Ealing. Many Irish members of the Ealing borough attend Ealing Abbey which is linked to St Benedicts School, the Irish population is mostly concentrated within Hanwell
Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide