click links in text for more info

Gunnison County, Colorado

Gunnison County is the fifth-most extensive of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,324; the county seat is Gunnison. The county was named for John W. Gunnison, a United States Army officer and captain in the Army Topographical Engineers, who surveyed for the transcontinental railroad in 1853. Archeological studies have dated the Ute people's appearance in the Uncompahgre region of Colorado as early as 1150 A. D. Possibilities exist that they are descendants of an earlier people living in the area as far back as 1500 B. C, they were a nomadic race of dark skin moving about the Western Slope of Colorado in the various parts of the year. In the early to mid-1600s the Spaniards of New Mexico introduced the horse which changed their patterns of hunting taking them across the divide to the eastern slopes and into conflict with the Plains Indians which soon became their bitter enemies; the first recorded expedition of Western Colorado wilderness was led by Don Juan Rivera in 1765.

In 1776, two Spanish priests, Fathers Escalante and Domínguez, led a party into the area around Montrose and Paonia. The 1830s brought the mountainmen into the area to trap beaver. An old cabin located on Cochetopa Creek discovered by Sidney Jocknick was most built between 1830 and 1840 and a rude fort was discovered on a tributary of Tomichi Creek bore signs of a conflict. In 1853, Capt. John W. Gunnison surveyed the area for the transcontinental railroad route. In 1858 gold was discovered near Denver bringing the white man across the divide into the western slope in search of the precious metal. In 1859 a party settled on Texas Gulch in Union Park. Placer gold was found at Washington Gulch in 1861 as part of the Colorado Gold Rush. In 1861 the Territory of Colorado was organized; the territorial governor was made ex officio Superintentant of Indian Affairs. A conference on October 1, 1863 established a boundary line for a reservation; this treaty averted a possible dangerous situation by giving the Utes some cattle and sheep, a blacksmith and 20,000 dollars a year in goods and provisions.

The government failed to fulfill any these obligations straining the relations further. The treaty of 1868 recognized Chief Ouray as the sole spokesman for seven tribes of the Ute People, he held this power over his people through understanding. The Los Pinos Agency was developed through the Treaties of 1868 and 1873; the first agent was 2nd Lieutenant Calvin T. Speer. In 1871 a cow camp was started near the present site of Gunnison with James P. Kelley in charge. In this year, Jabez Nelson Trask, a Harvard grad, relieved Speer as agent upon orders from Governor Edward M. McCook. In 1872 Trask was replaced by Charles Adams. In 1875 orders from Washington to move the agency to the Uncomphgre Valley were completed in November. In 1876 Colorado entered the Gunnison County was formed. 1879 was a year of expansion due to the miners and adventurers seeking wealth. The cattle industry was established by 1880; the short growing season was not conducive to farming and the ranchers had to level fields and construct irrigation ditches to water the fields for hay.

According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,260 square miles, of which 3,239 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county by area in Colorado. The county seat is Gunnison, Colorado, located in a wide valley at the confluence of Tomichi Creek and Gunnison River; the county rests in the Gunnison Basin formed by the Continental Divide to the east, Collegiate Peaks Wilderness rises in the northeast, Maroon Bells–Snowmass Wilderness and the White River National Forest to the north, the West Elk Wilderness rises in the west of the county with Delta and Montrose Counties on its western slopes. The Uncompahgre Wilderness rises in the southwest of the county and the Powderhorn Wilderness east of there and Saquache County being south of Gunnison county eastward over to Marshall Pass southeast of the county. Taylor Park Reservoir is a man-made lake created by the Taylor Dam constructed in 1934 with appropriations of 2,725,000 dollars; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,956 people, 5,649 households, 2,965 families residing in the county.

The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 9,135 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.08% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 0.70% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.44% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. 5.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,649 households out of which 24.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.20% were married couples living together, 5.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.50% were non-families. 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.84. In the county, the population was spread out with 17.90% under the age of 18, 21.10% from 18 to 24, 32.90% from 25 to 44, 21.20% from 45 to 64, 6.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years.

For every 100 females there were 118.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,916, the median income for a family was $51,950. Males had a median income of $30,885 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,407. About 6.00% of families and 15.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.40% of those under age 18 and 7.20% of those age 65 or over. Total population for Gunnison Count

Society for Educational Visits and Exchanges in Canada

SEVEC is a national charitable organization which facilitates youth exchanges, educational visits, roundtables. SEVEC has existed since 1936. However, prior to 1981, it was 2 distinct organizations: Visites Interprovinciales and Bilingual Exchange Secretariat. SEVEC publicly goes by its acronym rather than the longer version of its name, "The Society for Educational Visits and Exchanges in Canada" or "Société éducative de visites et d'échanges au Canada" in French; the programs they offer are for young Canadians between the ages of 12 and 17 and include: Group Youth Exchanges, where groups of students are twinned with other students from a different part of the country for the exchange, which lasts for 1 week although month-long summer language programs for groups are possible. The students' travel costs are subsidized by the Department of Canadian Heritage; each year just under their chaperones travel through the program. The many exchange possibilities include: School Year and Summer Group Exchanges Aboriginal Exchanges Volunteer Youth Exchanges Youth Educational Roundtables and ForumsSEVEC offers two awards to recognize the volunteer contributions and program excellence of the educators and youth group leaders who coordinate youth exchanges.

The SEVEC Ambassador Award honours one organizer each year for their exemplary leadership and ability to inspire others to organize and lead youth exchanges. The SEVEC History Award is a special Award presented annually in partnership with Canada's History as part of the Governor General's Awards to a group organizer for excellence in developing a trip program that highlights Canada's history and heritage for participants. SEVEC web site Government of Canada, Canadian Heritage: "SEVEC Youth Exchanges Canada" Girl Guides Partnership with SEVEC Governor General's History AwardsGovernor General's Awards

Desmond Norman

Nigel Desmond Norman, CBE, was an aircraft designer and aviation pioneer. Born in London on 13 August 1929, Norman co-founded Britten-Norman in 1954 was appointed a CBE in 1970, was chairman and managing director of AeroNorTec. With his longtime friend and business partner John Britten, he designed and sailed racing yachts, as well as a series of air cushion vehicles and crop spraying equipment, he died of a heart attack at Basingstoke railway station, in Hampshire on 13 November 2002. Norman's grandfather was Sir Henry Norman, 1st Baronet, a Liberal politician, his family held title in the title in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom; the son of Sir Nigel Norman, he attended Twyford School in Winchester, before being evacuated to the United States during the Second World War. There, he had a fight with the young Ted Kennedy. Returning to England, he was sent to Eton in 1945. At Eton, he was given to riding it in school clothes, he was outstanding at sport on the rugby field and in the Eton eight, which he stroked at Henley in 1946.

His independent spirit meant that rather than go to Cambridge University like his father and his brother Torquil Norman he went straight from Eton into a two-year engineering apprenticeship at the de Havilland Technical School. Here he met John Britten; the two young men shared a passion for sailing and one of their first joint commissions was to take an old 80 ft ketch across the Atlantic to the Bahamas. As a national serviceman, he won the Sword of Honour during training, before spending two years in the Royal Air Force as a fighter pilot, he joined the Royal Auxiliary Air Force No. 601 Squadron RAF. Desmond Norman's older brother Mark Annesley Norman worked for Bristol Siddeley Engines and for Britten-Norman as sales manager. Norman was a member of the Royal Yacht Squadron raced his own designs and designed and built Wavewalker, a 2 masted gaff rigged 70 ft schooner, for his family. In early 1953 John Britten and Desmond Norman designed and had built a 21 ft. Junior Offshore Group sailing boat.

Prior to turning the Britten-Norman partnership into an incorporated company Norman spent 2 years as an export assistant with the Society of British Aerospace Companies. In 1954, Desmond started Britten-Norman with co-founder John Britten a fellow de Havilland graduate. Norman discovered in John Britten a partner, keen to make a career out of aircraft design; the two men built their first aircraft at Britten's home on the Isle of Wight. The BN1F, a 36 hp ultra-light aircraft. A commercial failure, but with a third partner, Jim McMahon, they formed a crop-spraying company, Crop Culture Ltd, it was to be Norman's first big success. The reason was a revolutionary rotary atomiser, whose potential in aerial work Norman had recognised and set about developing. Desmond Norman, recalled that Britten-Norman came about as an aircraft manufacturer because of his and John Britten's experiences as agricultural operators; the partnership began by converting Tiger Moths for export to New Zealand and moved on to develop spraying equipment.

Edward Bals designed the first Micronair rotary atomiser suitable for mounting on an aircraft but, rather than get involved with aircraft, he encouraged Britten-Norman Limited and Jim McMahon to set up Micronair Limited. At one time Britten-Norman operated 80 agricultural aircraft and the need to consider replacement equipment led to an association with Leyland Snow of Texas; the company acquired a one-third share in the Snow Aeronautical Corp. equity and a lot of the Snow Commander's development had taken place before the whole enterprise was sold to North American Rockwell. The aircraft became the Rockwell Thrush Commander; the success of the crop spraying operations funded the realisation of Britten and Norman's dream: to design and build an aeroplane. At the time, there was no other aircraft that filled its remit, Norman foresaw the market potential of an island-hopping passenger plane. In 1963 Norman and Britten sold their share of Crop Culture to other members of the Board to concentrate their efforts on production of the Britten-Norman Islander.

A prototype, G-ATCT, was completed within nine months and made its maiden flight in June 1965. Production was centred at Isle of Wight, United Kingdom. In 1960 Britten-Norman developed the early Cushioncraft with support from Elders and Fyffes Ltd. to look at methods of transporting banana crop from plantations in Southern Cameroons. Cushioncraft Ltd was formed out of the hovercraft division of Britten-Norman, in 1966 the British Hovercraft Corporation Ltd took a 20% shareholding. Britten-Norman Ltd had a shareholding in Hovertravel Ltd of which Norman was a director since its inception in 1965. In 1968 he was voted off the Board whilst John Britten remained on the Board. Hoverwork Ltd a subsidiary of Hovertravel occupies the former Cushioncraft facilities at Woodnutts yard, Bembridge. In 1971 Britten-Norman went into liquidation and was purchased by the Fairey Aviation group in 1972, Norman stayed on as managing director until 1976. Clark-Norman Aircraft Ltd; this company was formed in 1995 to develop the Triloader turbo-prop powered 19.000 lb.

Cargo Aircraft. Design offices were based on the Isle of Wight with production to be undertaken by Triloader Aircraft of Belgium. Norman's co-designer on this aircraft was Alec N. Clark of Hawker Siddeley. Following the failure to secure long term funding for the Triloader, Clark transformed Triloader Aircraft corp into Wolfsberg Aircraf

Stanislava Součková

Stanislava Součková was a Czech operatic soprano and the sister of baritone Jaroslav Souček. Between 1951 and 1961 she was a member of the principal artists at the Hudební divadlo Karlín where she appeared in leading roles in operettas. In 1961 she joined the Jihočeské divadlo in České Budějovice where she remained until her retirement in 1974, she was a frequent guest artist at the National Theatre in Prague. After her retirement, she embarked on a second career as a voice teacher on the faculty of the University of South Bohemia in the Czech Budejovice. Ludwig van BeethovenFidelio Georges Bizet – Carmen Gaetano DonizettiDon Pasquale Antonín DvořákRusalka, The Jacobin George GershwinPorgy and Bess Leoš JanáčekKáťa Kabanová Bohuslav Martinů – Miracle of Our Lady W. A. MozartThe Magic Flute, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan tutte, Die Entführung aus dem Serail Giacomo PucciniMadama Butterfly Nikolai Rimsky-KorsakovThe Golden Cockerel Gioacchino RossiniThe Barber of Seville Bedřich Smetana – The Kiss, The Bartered Bride, Libuše, The Two Widows Eugen SuchoňKrútňava Giuseppe VerdiLa traviata, Rigoletto, Il trovatore, Don Carlos, Un ballo in maschera Dagmar Blümlová: Stanislava Součková – život operní pěvkyně“

Avenida Corrientes

Avenida Corrientes is one of the principal thoroughfares of the Argentine capital of Buenos Aires. The street is intimately tied to the porteño sense of identity. Like the parallel avenues Santa Fe, Córdoba, San Juan, it takes its name from one of the Provinces of Argentina, it extends 69 blocks from Eduardo Madero Avenue in the eastern Puerto Madero neighborhood to the West and to the Northwest, ends at Federico Lacroze Avenue in the Chacarita neighborhood. Automobile traffic runs from west to east. Line B of the Buenos Aires Metro runs most of its length underneath the street; the Asociación Amigos de la Calle Corrientes is a group that collaborates on the urban planning of the street. They have placed commemorative plaques on 40 street corners bearing the distinguished figures from the history of the tango, it was named Del Sol during the 17th century, San Nicolás from 1738 to 1808, De Incháurregui from 1808 until 1822, when it received its current name. Never more than a street of average width during the nineteenth century, traffic swelled after the city began its rapid westward expansion, around 1880.

Horse-drawn tramways first ran on the avenue in 1887. The plan called for the massive razing of most of the avenue's north-side real estate and, so, met with strenuous opposition from affected landlords, retailers, as well as intellectuals like Roberto Arlt. A coup d'ètat in 1930, made way for the plan's implementation, carried out relentlessly until its completion, in 1936. Today, when referring to Corrientes prior to the term "Narrow Corrientes" is used; the newly inaugurated avenue coincided with the construction of the Buenos Aires Obelisk, since one of the city's most recognizable landmarks, visible for several blocks of the avenue´s downtown stretch. The opening of the Obelisk and surrounding Plaza de la República in 1936 created a roundabout at the 9th of July Avenue intersection. Corrientes, like most major city avenues, was made a one-way thoroughfare by a 1967 municipal ordinance. Growing traffic demands led to the opening of the avenue through the plaza, around the Obelisk, in 1971.

The name "Corrientes Street" is still preferred over "Corrientes Avenue" specially on the famous centrical stretch. With that name it appears famously in several tango lyrics; the first few blocks encompass Buenos Aires financial district forming its Northern boundary, are bustling with activity during banking hours – traversed after several blocks by pedestrian Florida Street. Further down, for some blocks from 9 de Julio Avenue to Uruguay St. the avenue forms the Southern border of the lawyers' district surrounding the nearby Plaza Lavalle and the Supreme Court. For most of the 20th century Calle Corrientes was a symbol of night life in Buenos Aires, traditionally nicknamed "the street that never sleeps", In the 10 blocks West of downtown from Maipu St to Callao Avenue it held the largest concentration of theatres and cinemas, making it the center of commercial theatre in the city.. The corridor includes some outstanding examples of Art Deco cinema architecture of the'30s and'40s such as Teatro Gran Rex, Teatro Opera and Teatro Premier.

With the largest concentration of bookshops Corrientes was during the day a favourite haunt for intellectuals during the'50s,'60s and'70s while its famous pizza parlours and restaurants attracted city crowds on Fridays or Saturdays evenings – a night out of "pizza and cinema" on Corrientes and neighbouring Calle Lavalle being the standard form of urban weekend entertainment for generations of porteños. The Revista porteña or Teatro de revistas with its glittering vedettes and racy capo-cómicos is still centered around this stretch of Corrientes – the lure of red carpet opening nights where celebrities can be glimpsed adding to the folklore. At the farther end – the Luna Park is still synonymous with mass sports and entertainment events such as box matches or concerts. Throughout the decades the street has seen its own fauna of urban stereotypes, from the "innocent barrio girl" corrupted by the "bright city lights" of many a tango lyric in the cabarets and nightclubs of the 1920s and'30s to the valijero lone salesmen or office workers on lunch breaks, who sneaked to watch X-rated European movies when they appeared in the'60s and'70s to the "psico-bolche" – artsy students and intellectuals who peopled its bookstores and cafes after the return of democracy in the early'80s.

The emergence of video, the Internet and shopping malls reduced much of the allure of Corrientes, saw the closing of several famous cinemas and theatres. Yet sidewalks were widened and beautified in 2005 to facilitate retail activity along the avenue, which had declined since the 1970s, and today Corrientes is once again thriving at night - specially among theatre g

Bradshaw's Guide

Bradshaw's was a series of railway timetables and travel guide books published by W. J. Adams of London. George Bradshaw initiated the series in 1839. Bradshaw's name was known as the publisher of Bradshaw's Maps of Inland Navigation, which detailed the canals of Lancashire and Yorkshire, when, on 19 October 1839, soon after the introduction of railways, his Manchester company published the world's first compilation of railway timetables; the cloth-bound book was entitled Bradshaw's Railway Time Tables and Assistant to Railway Travelling and cost sixpence. In 1840 the title was changed to Bradshaw's Railway Companion, the price raised to one shilling. A new volume was issued at occasional intervals and from time to time a supplement kept this up to date; the original Bradshaw publications were published before the limited introduction of standardised Railway time in November 1840, its subsequent development into standard time. The accompanying map of all lines in operation in England and Wales, is cited as being the world's first national railway map.

In December 1841, acting on a suggestion made by his London agent, William Jones Adams, Bradshaw reduced the price to the original sixpence, began to issue the guides monthly under the title Bradshaw's Monthly Railway Guide. Many railway companies were unhappy with Bradshaw's timetable, but Bradshaw was able to circumvent this by becoming a railway shareholder and by putting his case at company AGMs. Soon the book, in the familiar yellow wrapper, became synonymous with its publisher: for Victorians and Edwardians alike, a railway timetable was "a Bradshaw", no matter by which railway company it had been issued, or whether Bradshaw had been responsible for its production or not; the eight-page edition of 1841 had grown to 32 pages by 1845 and to 946 pages by 1898 and now included maps and descriptions of the main features and historic buildings of the towns served by the railways. In April 1845, the issue number jumped from 40 to 141: the publisher claimed this was an innocent mistake, although it has been speculated as a commercial ploy, where more advertising revenue could be generated by making it look longer-established than it was.

Whatever the reason for the change, the numbering continued from 141. When in 1865 Punch praised Bradshaw's publications, it stated that "seldom has the gigantic intellect of man been employed upon a work of greater utility." At last, some order had been imposed on the chaos, created by some 150 rail companies whose tracks criss-crossed the country and whose uncoordinated network was expanding. Bradshaw minutely recorded all changes and became the standard manual for rail travel well into the 20th century. By 1918 Bradshaw's guide had risen in price by 1937 to half a crown. Although historic money values are difficult to calculate, this would have been equivalent to £6.00 at 2009 values. Bradshaw's timetables became less necessary from 1923, when more than 100 surviving companies were "grouped" into the Big Four; this change reduced the range and number of individual timetables produced by the companies themselves. They now published a much smaller number of substantial compilations which between them covered the country.

Between 1923 and 1939 three of the Big Four transferred their timetable production to Bradshaw's publisher Henry Blacklock & Co. and most of the official company timetables therefore became reprints of the relevant pages from Bradshaw. Only the Great Western Railway retained its own format. Between the two world wars, the verb'to Bradshaw' was a derogatory term used in the Royal Air Force to refer to pilots who could not navigate well related to a perceived lack of ability shown by those who navigated by following railway lines; when the railways were nationalised in 1948, five of the six British Railways Regions followed the companies' example by using Blacklock to produce their timetable books, but production was moved to other publishers. This change must have reduced Blacklock's revenue substantially. Parts of Bradshaw's guide began to be reset in the newer British Railways style from 1955, but modernisation of the whole volume was never completed. By 1961 Bradshaw cost 12s 6d, a complete set of BR Regional timetables could be bought for 6s.

The conclusion was inevitable, the last edition, No. 1521, was dated May 1961. The Railway Magazine of that month printed a valedictory article by Charles E. Lee. Reprints of various Bradshaw's guides have been produced. 19th-century and early 20th-century novelists make frequent references to a character's "Bradshaw". Dickens refers it in his short story The Portrait-Painter's Story. In Around the World in 80 Days, Phileas Fogg carries a Bradshaw. In W. Somerset Maugham's "The Book Bag" the narrator states "I would sooner read the catalogue of the Army and Navy Stores or Bradshaw's Guide than nothing at all, indeed have spent many delightful hours over both these works" Crime writers were fascinated with trains and timetables as a new source of alibis. Examples are Ronald Knox's novels by Freeman Wills Crofts. One mention is by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in the Sherlock Holmes story The Valley of Fear: "the vocabulary of Bradshaw is nervous and terse, but limited." Other references include The Adventure of the Copper Beeches.

In the 1866 comic opera Cox and Box, the following exchange takes place