Gunpowder Plot

The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries called the Gunpowder Treason Plot or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby. The plan was to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament on 5 November 1605, as the prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands during which James's nine-year-old daughter, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state. Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed, his fellow plotters were John and Christopher Wright and Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. Fawkes, who had 10 years of military experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in the failed suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives.

The plot was revealed to the authorities in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on 26 October 1605. During a search of the House of Lords in the evening on 4 November 1605, Fawkes was discovered guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder—enough to reduce the House of Lords to rubble—and arrested. Most of the conspirators fled from London as they learned of the plot's discovery, trying to enlist support along the way. Several made a stand against the pursuing Sheriff of his men at Holbeche House. At their trial on 27 January 1606, eight of the survivors, including Fawkes, were convicted and sentenced to be hanged and quartered. Details of the assassination attempt were known by the principal Jesuit of England, Father Henry Garnet. Although he was convicted of treason and sentenced to death, doubt has been cast on how much he knew of the plot; as its existence was revealed to him through confession, Garnet was prevented from informing the authorities by the absolute confidentiality of the confessional.

Although anti-Catholic legislation was introduced soon after the plot's discovery, many important and loyal Catholics retained high office during King James's reign. The thwarting of the Gunpowder Plot was commemorated for many years afterwards by special sermons and other public events such as the ringing of church bells, which have evolved into the Bonfire Night of today. Between 1533 and 1540, King Henry VIII took control of the English Church from Rome, the start of several decades of religious tension in England. English Catholics struggled in a society dominated by the newly separate and Protestant Church of England. Henry's daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, responded to the growing religious divide by introducing the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which required anyone appointed to a public or church office to swear allegiance to the monarch as head of the Church and state; the penalties for refusal were severe. Catholicism became marginalised, but despite the threat of torture or execution, priests continued to practise their faith in secret.

Queen Elizabeth and childless, steadfastly refused to name an heir. Many Catholics believed that her Catholic cousin, Queen of Scots, was the legitimate heir to the English throne, but she was executed for treason in 1587; the English Secretary of State, Robert Cecil, negotiated secretly with Mary's son and successor, King James VI of Scotland. In the months before Elizabeth's death on 24 March 1603, Cecil prepared the way for James to succeed her; some exiled Catholics favoured Philip II of Isabella, as Elizabeth's successor. More moderate Catholics looked to James's and Elizabeth's cousin Arbella Stuart, a woman thought to have Catholic sympathies; as Elizabeth's health deteriorated, the government detained those they considered to be the "principal papists", the Privy Council grew so worried that Arbella Stuart was moved closer to London to prevent her from being kidnapped by papists. Despite competing claims to the English throne, the transition of power following Elizabeth's death went smoothly.

James's succession was announced by a proclamation from Cecil on 24 March, celebrated. Leading papists, rather than causing trouble as anticipated, reacted to the news by offering their enthusiastic support for the new monarch. Jesuit priests, whose presence in England was punishable by death demonstrated their support for James, believed to embody "the natural order of things". James ordered a ceasefire in the conflict with Spain, though the two countries were still technically at war, King Philip III sent his envoy, Don Juan de Tassis, to congratulate James on his accession. In the following year both countries signed the Treaty of London. For decades, the English had lived under a monarch who refused to provide an heir, but James arrived with a family and a clear line of succession, his wife, Anne of Denmark, was the daughter of a king. Their eldest child, the nine-year-old Henry, was considered a handsome and confident boy, their two younger children and Charles, were proof that James was able to provide heirs to continue the Protestant monarchy.

James's attitude towards Catholics was more moderate than that of his predecessor even tolerant. He promised that he would not "persecute any that will be quiet and give an outward obedience to the law", believed that exile was a better solution than capital punishment: "I would be glad to have both their heads and their bodies separated from this whole island and transported beyond seas." Some Catholics believed that the martyrdom of James's mot

Joe Halderman

Robert Joel "Joe" Halderman is an American television news writer, producer for CBS News, convicted of attempted extortion of talk show host David Letterman. Born in Dayton, Halderman began his journalistic career in 1980 at CNN in New York City, he was hired as a sound man and became a cameraman, a writer and an assignment editor. In 1982, he went to work for CBS News, first on the national assignment desk and as a producer on the CBS Morning Show with Diane Sawyer and Bill Kurtis. In 1986, he produced 48 Hours on Crack Street, he became a foreign reporter who travelled to more than 70 countries, was responsible for war reportage from nations such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Bosnia. He was stationed in London for 12 years, throughout the 1990s, from where he reported on events in the Soviet Union and Russia. In 1992, he wrote and produced the CBS special Somalia: A Country Is Dying. Halderman worked for CBS Sports during the Winter Olympic Games in Albertville'92, Lillehammer'94 and Nagano'98. During the 2000s, Halderman worked on domestic shows for CBS, He produced the show Flashpoint in 2007, from 2005 to 2009, he was a producer of the CBS true crime journalism series 48 Hours, including episodes such as Out of the Shadows, about the serial killer Dennis Rader known as the BTK Killer, Virginia Tech: Anatomy of a Rampage, about the school shooting and mass murder known as the Virginia Tech massacre which took place at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Halderman produced more than 50 episodes of 48 Hours during his tenure there. In September 2006 he produced Five Years Later: How Safe Are We?, a look at US security since the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon. Halderman's work at CBS News won an Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Award for broadcast journalism and eight Emmy Awards. He received an Academy Award nomination for the 2006 film Beslan: Three Days in September, narrated by Julia Roberts; the film aired on Showtime. The film about the Beslan school siege, which Halderman wrote and produced, combined guerilla footage and interviews with family members, local politicians, school officials, survivors to describe the hostage-taking and massacre of hundreds of people at a children's school by Chechen rebels in North Ossetia, Russia. In July 2010, when he was serving his sentence at Rikers Island, Halderman was nominated for an Emmy as a producer of a 48 Hours Mystery segment regarding Amanda Knox; the Emmy was won instead by a 60 Minutes segment on the war in Pakistan.

Halderman was the Senior Producer for On the Case with Paula Zahn from 2011 to 2013. As of November 2017, he is associated with the Project Veritas organization. Halderman married Patty Montet in 1990 and the couple had two children, they divorced in 2004. According to CBS News and Stephanie Birkitt lived together in Halderman's Norwalk, Connecticut home until August 2009, when she moved out, she was romantically linked to David Letterman during the same time. In October, 2009, Halderman was accused of attempting to blackmail David Letterman for $2 million. According to Letterman, who described the incident on his television show on October 1, 2009, someone had threatened to expose Letterman's sexual affairs with female staff employees in the form of a screenplay and a book if he was not paid off. Halderman was arrested when he attempted to cash a phony $2 million check given to him by Letterman's lawyer. At the time of his arrest, Halderman was a producer of the CBS true crime journalism series 48 Hours.

Halderman was indicted by a Manhattan grand jury and he pleaded not guilty to a charge of attempted grand larceny in criminal court on October 2, 2009. If convicted, Halderman faced punishment of five to 15 years. Bail was set at $200,000. Halderman had at one time lived with one of Stephanie Birkitt. Halderman read Birkitt's diaries without her permission, learning of her affair with the TV host that ended in 2003; as a member of the CBS page program, Birkitt worked for both Letterman's show and for 48 Hours before becoming a staff employee for Letterman. On March 9, 2010, Halderman pleaded guilty to attempted grand larceny in the second degree and received a six-month jail sentence, to be followed by five years' probation and 1,000 hours of community service. Halderman was released from Rikers Island on September 2, 2010, after serving four months of his six-month sentence. Joe Halderman on IMDb

Savannah Fire & Emergency Services

Savannah Fire & Emergency Services provides fire protection to the city of Savannah, United States. The professional fire department is active 24/7 and 365 days a year, has about 325 paid employees, they received an ISO Class 1 rating in November 2014, CFAI accreditation in 2016. Fire protection in Savannah was first organized in the British-administered Province of Georgia in 1759 with a volunteer force of firefighters. On March 11, 1825, the Savannah Fire Company was formed. On February 1, 1867, the Savannah Volunteer Fire Department was established, on February 1, 1890, the Savannah Fire Department was established as a paid firefighting force of 47 men. In 1911, the Savannah Fire Department became the first motorized fire department in the United States. City officials announced the closure of the Downtown company in November 2018, due to budgetary reasons. Both Engine 16, Marine One would be placed on a minimal maintenance schedule, with the 15 firefighters assigned to the station dispersed to other stations.

Savannah Fire and Emergency Services is divided into 6 divisions of operation: Operations, Logistics, Special Operations and the Fire Marshal's Division. The Savannah fire department operates out of 15 fire stations located throughout the city; the SFES operates a fire apparatus fleet of 15 engine companies, 5 ladder companies, 2 rescue companies, 4 hazardous materials units, 1 haz-mat./decontamination trailer, 2 marine units, 1 rehabilitation unit, 2 brush units 1 Georgia Search and Rescue trailer, numerous special and reserve units. The following is a current and complete listing of fire stations and company locations within the city limits of Savannah