A march, as a musical genre, is a piece of music with a strong regular rhythm which in origin was expressly written for marching to and most performed by a military band. In mood, marches range from the moving death march in Wagner's Götterdämmerung to the brisk military marches of John Philip Sousa and the martial hymns of the late 19th century. Examples of the varied use of the march can be found in Beethoven's Eroica Symphony, in the Marches Militaires of Franz Schubert, in the Marche funèbre in Chopin's Sonata in B flat minor, in the Dead March in Handel's Saul. Marches can be written in any time signature, but the most common time signatures are 44, 22, or 68. However, some modern marches are being written in 24 time; the modern march tempo is around 120 beats per minute. Many funeral marches conform to the Roman standard of 60 beats per minute; the tempo matches the pace of soldiers walking in step. Both tempos achieve the standard rate of 120 steps per minute; each section of a march consists of 16 or 32 measures, which may repeat.
Most a march consists of a strong and steady percussive beat reminiscent of military field drums. A military music event where various marching bands and units perform is called tattoo. Marches change keys once, modulating to the subdominant key, returning to the original tonic key. If it begins in a minor key, it modulates to the relative major. Marches have counter-melodies introduced during the repeat of a main melody. Marches have a penultimate dogfight strain in which two groups of instruments alternate in a statement/response format. In most traditional American marches, there are three strains; the third strain is referred to as the "trio". The march tempo of 120 beats or steps per minute was adapted by Napoleon Bonaparte so that his army could move faster. Since he planned to occupy the territory he conquered, instead of his soldiers carrying all of their provisions with them, they would live off the land and march faster; the French march tempo is faster than the traditional tempo of British marches.
Traditional American marches use the quick march tempo. There are two reason for this: First, U. S. military bands adopted the march tempos of France and other continental European nations that aided the U. S. during its early wars with Great Britain. Second, the composer of the greatest American marches, John Philip Sousa, was of Portuguese and German descent. Portugal used the French tempo exclusively—the standard Sousa learned during his musical education. A military band playing or marching at the traditional British march tempo would seem unusually slow in the United States. March music originates from the military, marches are played by a marching band; the most important instruments are various drums, fife or woodwind instruments and brass instruments. Marches and marching bands have today a strong connection to military, both to drill and parades. Marches, which are played at paces with multiples of normal heartbeat, can have a hypnotic effect on the marching soldiers, rendering them into a trance, This effect was known in the 16th century, was employed to lead the soldiers in closed ranks against the enemy fire in the 16th and 17th century wars.
March music is important for ceremonial occasions. Processional or coronation marches, such as the popular coronation march from Le prophète by Giacomo Meyerbeer and the many examples of coronation marches written for British monarchs by English composers, such as Edward Elgar, Edward German, William Walton, are all in traditional British tempos. Marches weren't notated until the late 16th century. With the extensive development of brass instruments in the 19th century, marches became popular and were elaborately orchestrated. Composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Gustav Mahler wrote marches incorporating them into their operas, sonatas, or symphonies; the popularity of John Philip Sousa's band marches was unmatched. The style of the traditional symphony march can be traced back to symphonic pieces from renaissance era, such as pieces written for nobility. Many European countries and cultures developed characteristic styles of marches. British marches move at a more stately pace, have intricate countermelodies, have a wide range of dynamics, use full-value stingers at the ends of phrases.
The final strain of a British march has a broad lyrical quality to it. Archetypical British marches include "The British Grenadiers" and those of Kenneth Alford, such as the well-known "Colonel Bogey March" and "The Great Little Army". Scottish bagpipe music makes extensive use of marches played at a pace of 90 beats per minute. Many popular marches are traditional and of unknown origin. Notable examples include Highland Laddie, Bonnie Dundee and Cock of the North. Retreat marches are set in 3/4 time, such as The Green Hills of Tyrol; the bagpipe make use of slow marches such as the Skye Boat Song and the Cradle Song. These are set in 6/8 time and are played at around 60 beats per minute. German marches move at a strict tempo of 110 beats per minute, have a strong oom-pah polka-like/folk-like quality resulting f
A lingua franca known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect when it is a third language, distinct from both of the speakers' native languages. Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons but for cultural, religious and administrative convenience, as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities; the term is taken from the medieval Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a Romance-based pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century. A world language – a language spoken internationally and learned and spoken by a large number of people – is a language that may function as a global lingua franca. Lingua Franca refers to any language used for communication between people who do not share a native language.
It can refer to hybrid languages such as pidgins and creoles used for communication between language groups. It can refer to languages which are native to one nation but used as a second language for communication between groups. Lingua Franca is a functional term, independent of any linguistic language structure. Whereas a vernacular language is the native language of a specific geographical community, a lingua franca is used beyond the boundaries of its original community, for trade, political or academic reasons. For example, English is a vernacular in the United Kingdom but is used as a lingua franca in the Philippines. Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, Portuguese and Russian, serve a similar purpose as industrial/educational lingua francas, across regional and national boundaries. International auxiliary languages created with the purpose of being lingua francas such as Esperanto and Lingua Franca Nova have not had a great degree of adoption globally so they cannot be described as global lingua francas.
The term lingua franca derives from Mediterranean Lingua Franca, the language that people around the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean Sea used as the main language of commerce and diplomacy from late medieval times during the Renaissance era, to the 18th century. At that time, Italian-speakers dominated seaborne commerce in the port cities of the Ottoman Empire and a simplified version of Italian, including many loan words from Greek, Old French, Portuguese and Spanish as well as Arabic and Turkish came to be used as the "lingua franca" of the region. In Lingua Franca, lingua means a language, as in Portuguese and Italian, franca is related to phrankoi in Greek and faranji in Arabic as well as the equivalent Italian. In all three cases, the literal sense is "Frankish", but the name applied to all Western Europeans during the late Byzantine Empire; the Douglas Harper Etymology Dictionary states that the term Lingua Franca was first recorded in English during the 1670s, although an earlier example of the use of Lingua Franca in English is attested from 1632, where it is referred to as "Bastard Spanish".
As as the late 20th century, some restricted the use of the generic term to mean only hybrid languages that are used as vehicular languages, its original meaning, but it now refers to any vehicular language. The term is well established in its naturalization to English, why major dictionaries do not italicize it as a "foreign" term, its plurals in English are lingua francas and linguae francae, with the first of those being first-listed or only-listed in major dictionaries. The use of lingua francas has existed since antiquity. Latin and Koine Greek were the lingua francas of the Hellenistic culture. Akkadian and Aramaic remained the common languages of a large part of Western Asia from several earlier empires. In certain countries, the lingua franca is the national language. Indonesian – which originated from a Malay language variant spoken in Riau – has the same function in Indonesia, although Javanese has more native speakers. Still, Indonesian is spoken throughout the country. Persian is both the lingua franca of Iran and its national language.
The Hindustani language is the lingua franca of Northern India. Many Indian states have adopted the Three-language formula in which students in Hindi speaking states are taught: " Hindi; the order in non-Hindi speaking states is: " the regional language. Hindi has emerged as a lingua franca for the locals of Arunachal Pradesh, a linguistically diverse state in Northeast India, it is estimated. The only documented sign language used as a lingua franca is Plains Indian Sign Language, used across much of North America, it was used as a second language across many indigenous peoples. Alongside or a derivation of Plains Indian Sign Language was Plateau Sign Language, now extinct. Inuit Sign Language could be a similar case in the Arctic among the Inuit for communication across oral language boundaries, but little research
Errol John was a Trinidadian actor and playwright who emigrated to the UK in 1951. Born in Port of Spain, John was home-schooled began his career as an artist and journalist. Deciding to pursue a career in acting, he joined the Whitehall Theatre Group in Trinidad. Following the Second World War, John moved to Britain in 1951 and continued to work in the theatre, appearing on the London stage in productions including Salome, Carson McCullers' play The Member of the Wedding at the Royal Court Theatre, The Merchant of Venice, Measure for Measure and Othello, he had several small roles in films such as The African Queen, The Heart of the Matter, The Emperor Jones, The Nun's Story and Guns at Batasi. He gained a major role in the BBC's A Man from the Sun, alongside Cy Grant, Nadia Cattouse and Colin Douglas, had a significant role in the television series No Hiding Place and in the five-part series Rainbow City, written for him by John Elliott. John's first script written for a play was The Tout in 1957 his Moon on a Rainbow Shawl won The Observer's Play of the Year award.
It was produced at the Royal Court in 1958, in 1962 in New York City. Over the half-century since the play has achieved iconic status as a classic of Caribbean theatre staged internationally, in countries as diverse as Iceland and Argentina. In the UK there have been notable productions at the Almeida Theatre, at Stratford East, most at the Cottesloe Theatre, Royal National Theatre in an acclaimed production directed by Michael Buffong; the Observer′s reviewer wrote: "It is marvellous to report that, 55 years on, this play, in its original version, holds its own and seems fresh as the day it was written." On 27 May 1958, a version of the play that John had adapted for radio and entitled Small Island Moon was broadcast on the BBC's Third Programme. Errol John's other writing included Force Majeure, The Dispossessed and Hasta Luego: Three Screenplays. For television he wrote Teleclub and Dawn, was the author of The Exiles, part of the BBC Wednesday Play series, he attempted to work in the American film industry, but was limited to minor roles in Assault on a Queen and Buck and the Preacher.
John died in Camden, North London, at the age of 63. He was posthumously awarded the Trinidad & Tobago Chaconia Medal, for Drama, in 1988. Errol John on IMDb John, Errol at the BFI's Screenonline
Military courtesy is one of the defining features of a professional military force. The courtesies sometimes elaborate code of conduct. Military courtesy is an extension and a formalization of courtesies practiced in a culture's everyday life, it is intended to reinforce discipline and the chain of command by defining how soldiers will treat their superiors and vice versa. They are thought to enhance esprit de corps; some military courtesies include proper forms of address. Specifics can vary depending on an individual's rank and circumstances. A military funeral, for example, requires stricter etiquette than on a normal day. Courtesies are sometimes relaxed under battlefield conditions. Indeed in the United States of America as well as some Commonwealth nations, it is forbidden to salute both indoors and in "the field," snipers are to pick out officer targets watching for salutes. There are military customs. In the United States Navy, "bracing" is the practice of bracing one's self against the bulkhead at the position of attention as a superior officer walks by.
The practice arose because of the narrow passageways on ships. Since officers may need to move about the ship, sailors would get out of the officer's way by bracing; the tradition has extended to include the corridors and hallways of buildings, it is an obeisance, but it still serves a useful purpose aboard ships. According to Field Manual 7-21.13 4-4, "Courtesy among members of the Armed Forces is vital to maintain military discipline. Military courtesy means good politeness in dealing with other people. Courteous behavior provides a basis for developing good human relations; the distinction between civilian and military courtesy is that military courtesy was developed in a military atmosphere and has become an integral part of serving in uniform.". Military courtesy has been established, over the years, to establish and maintain order and structure, the backbone of the military. Military courtesies may be adopted by paramilitary organizations. G. Kurt Piehler. "Military courtesy". Encyclopedia of Military Science.
SAGE Publications. Pp. 863–864. ISBN 978-1-5063-1081-7. Oretha D. Swartz. Service Etiquette. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-620-6
Sergeant is a rank in many uniformed organisations, principally military and policing forces. The alternate spelling, "serjeant", is used in The Rifles and other units that draw their heritage from the British Light Infantry, its origin is the Latin "serviens", "one who serves", through the French term "sergent". The term "sergeant" refers to a non-commissioned officer placed above the rank of a corporal and a police officer below a lieutenant or, in the UK, below an inspector. In most armies the rank of sergeant corresponds to command of a squad. In Commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank, corresponding to a platoon second-in-command. In the United States Army, sergeant is a more junior rank corresponding to a four-soldier fireteam leader. More senior non-commissioned ranks are variations on sergeant, for example staff sergeant, first sergeant and sergeant major. Many countries use sergeant rank, whether in English or using a cognate with the same origin in another language; the equivalent rank in Arab armies is "raqeeb", meaning "overseer" or "watcher".
In medieval European usage, a sergeant was any attendant or officer with a protective duty. Any medieval knight or military order of knighthood might have "sergeants-at-arms", meaning servants able to fight if needed; the etymology of the term is from Anglo-French sergant, serjant "servant, court official, soldier", from Middle Latin servientem "servant, soldier". A "soldier sergeant" was a man of what would now be thought of as the "middle class", fulfilling a junior role to the knight in the medieval hierarchy. Sergeants could fight either as heavy to light cavalry, or as well trained professional infantry, either spearmen or crossbowmen. Most notable medieval mercenaries fell into the "sergeant" class, such as Flemish crossbowmen and spearmen, who were seen as reliable quality troops; the sergeant class was deemed to be'worth half of a knight' in military value. A specific kind of military sergeant was the serjeant-at-arms, one of a body of armed men retained by English lords and monarchs.
The title is now given to an officer in modern legislative bodies, charged with keeping order during meetings and, if necessary, forcibly removing disruptive members. The term had civilian applications quite distinct and different from the military sergeant, though sharing the etymological origin - for example the serjeant-at-law an important and prestigious order of English lawyers. "Sergeant" is the lowest rank of sergeant, with individual military entities choosing some additional words to signify higher ranking individuals. What terms are used, what seniority they signify, is to a great extent dependent on the individual armed service; the term "sergeant" is used in many appointment titles. In most non-naval military or paramilitary organizations, the various grades of sergeant are non-commissioned officers ranking above privates and corporals, below warrant officers and commissioned officers; the responsibilities of a sergeant differ from army to army. There are several ranks of sergeant, each corresponding to greater experience and responsibility for the daily lives of the soldiers of larger units.
Sergeants are team leaders in charge of an entire team of constables to senior constables at large stations, to being in charge of sectors involving several police stations. In country areas, sergeants are in charge of an entire station and its constabulary. Senior sergeants are in specialist areas and are in charge of sergeants and thus act as middle management. Sergeant is a rank in both the Royal Australian Air Force; the ranks are equivalent to the Royal Australian Navy rank of petty officer. Although the rank insignia of the RAAF rank of flight sergeant and the Australian Army rank of staff sergeant are identical, flight sergeant in fact outranks the rank of staff sergeant in the classification of rank equivalencies; the Australian Army rank of staff sergeant is now redundant and is no longer awarded, due to being outside the rank equivalencies and the next promotional rank is warrant officer class two. Chief petty officers and flight sergeants are not required to call a warrant officer class two "sir" in accordance with Australian Defence Force Regulations 1952.
The rank of sergeant exists in all Australian police forces and is of higher ranking than a constable or senior constable, but lower than an inspector. The sergeant structure varies among state police forces two sergeant ranks are classed as non-commissioned officers: Sergeant. A brevet sergeant is less senior than a sergeant. New South Wales Police Force has the additional rank of incremental sergeant; this is an incremental progression, following appointment as a sergeant for seven years. An incremental sergeant rank is less senior than a senior sergeant but is more senior than a sergeant. Upon appointment as a sergeant or senior sergeant, the sergeant is given: A warrant of appointment under the commissioner's hand and seal. A navy blue backing A navy blue nameplate A silver chinstrap positioned above his peaked cap on his headdress, replacing a black chinstrap. Within the New South Wales Police Force, sergeant is a team leader or supervisory rank
A non-commissioned officer is a military officer who has not earned a commission. Non-commissioned officers obtain their position of authority by promotion through the enlisted ranks. In contrast, commissioned officers hold higher ranks than NCOs, have more legal responsibilities, are paid more, have more non-military training such as a university diploma. Commissioned officers earn their commissions without having risen through the enlisted ranks; the NCO corps includes all grades of corporal and sergeant. The naval equivalent includes all grades of petty officer. There are different classes of non-commissioned officer, including junior non-commissioned officers and senior non-commissioned officers; the non-commissioned officer corps is referred to as "the backbone" of the armed services, as they are the primary and most visible leaders for most military personnel. Additionally, they are the leaders responsible for executing a military organization's mission and for training military personnel so they are prepared to execute their missions.
NCO training and education includes leadership and management as well as service-specific and combat training. Senior NCOs are considered the primary link between enlisted personnel and the commissioned officers in a military organization, their advice and guidance are important for junior officers and in many cases to officers of all senior ranks, who begin their careers in a position of authority without practical knowledge and experience. In the Australian Army, lance corporals and corporals are classified as junior NCOs, while sergeants and warrant officers are classified as senior NCOs. In the New South Wales Police Force, NCOs perform supervisory and coordination roles; the ranks of probationary constable through to leading senior constable are referred to as "constables". All NCOs within the NSW Police are given a warrant of appointment under the Commissioner's hand and seal. All officers within the Australian Defence Force Cadets are non-commissioned. ADFC officers are appointed by the Director-General of their respective branch.
In the Canadian Forces, the Queen's Regulations and Orders formally defined a non-commissioned officer as "A Canadian Forces member holding the rank of Sergeant or Corporal." In the 1990s, the term "non-commissioned member" was introduced to indicate all ranks in the Canadian Forces from recruit to chief warrant officer. By definition, with the unification of the CF into one service, the rank of sergeant included the naval rank of petty officer 2nd class, corporal includes the naval rank of leading seaman. NCOs are divided into two categories: junior non-commissioned officers, consisting of corporals/leading seamen and master corporals/master seamen. In the Royal Canadian Navy, the accepted definition of "NCO" reflects the international use of the term. Junior non-commissioned officers billet with privates and seamen. Conversely, senior non-commissioned officers billet with warrant officers; as a group, NCOs rank below warrant officers. The term "non-commissioned members" includes these ranks.
In the Finnish Defence Force, NCO's includes all ranks from corporal to sergeant major. Ranks of lance corporal and leading seaman are considered not to be NCO ranks; this ruling applies to all branches of service and to the troops of the Border Guard. In France and most former French colonies, the term sous-officier is a class of ranks between the rank-and-file and commissioned officers. Corporals belong to the rank-and-file. Sous-officiers include two subclasses: "subalternes" and "supérieurs". "Sous-officiers supérieurs" can perform various functions within a regiment or battalion, including commanding a platoon or section. In Germany and German-speaking countries like Austria, the term Unteroffizier describes a class of ranks between normal enlisted personnel and officers. In this group of ranks there are, in Germany, two other classes: Unteroffiziere mit Portepee and Unteroffiziere ohne Portepee, both containing several ranks, which in Austria would be Unteroffiziere and Höhere Unteroffiziere.
In the New Zealand Defence Force, a non-commissioned officer is defined as: " In relation to the Navy, a rating of warrant officer, chief petty officer, petty officer, or leading rank.
Ralph Douglas V Slocombe OBE, BSC, ASC was a British cinematographer known for his work at Ealing Studios in the 1940s and 1950s, as well as three Indiana Jones films. He won BAFTA Awards in 1964, 1975, 1979, was nominated for an Academy Award on three occasions. Slocombe was born in the son of Marie and journalist George Slocombe, his mother was Russian. His father was the Paris correspondent for the Daily Herald, so Slocombe spent part of his upbringing in France, returning to the United Kingdom in around 1933, he graduated with a degree in Mathematics from the Sorbonne. Slocombe intended to become a photojournalist, as a young photographer, Slocombe witnessed the early events leading up to the outbreak of World War II. Visiting Danzig in 1939, he photographed the growing anti-Jewish sentiment. In consequence, he was commissioned by American film-maker Herbert Kline to film events for a documentary called Lights Out, covering a Goebbels rally and the burning of a synagogue, for which he was arrested.
Slocombe was in Warsaw with a movie camera on 1 September 1939. Accompanied by Kline, he escaped. In 2014, he said of the experience that: I had no understanding of the concept of blitzkrieg. I had been expecting trouble but I thought it would be in trenches, like WW1; the Germans were coming over the border at a great pace... We were trundling through the countryside at night. We kept stopping for no apparent reason, but we came to a screeching halt because a German plane was bombing us. After its first pass we crawled under the carriage; the plane started machine-gunning. A young girl died in front of us. After escaping from the train and Kline bought a horse and cart from a Polish farm returning to London via Latvia and Stockholm. After returning to England, Slocombe became a cinematographer for the Ministry of Information, shooting footage of Atlantic convoys with the Fleet Air Arm, he developed a relationship with Ealing Studios, where filmmaker Alberto Cavalcanti, who helped him obtain his position, worked.
Some of his photography was used as second unit material for fiction films. Slocombe moved into photographing for feature films at Ealing Studios during the 1940s, after being hired on the strength of his documentary work. Slocombe described his early work on Champagne Charlie as amateurish, in one case resulting in a sequence having to be reshot. However, in his career, Slocombe worked on 84 feature films over a period of 47 years. Slocombe would speak approvingly of Ealing's culture of script development. However, he noted that its restrictive studio system headed by Michael Balcon, in which outside work was not permitted, made it impractical for him to attempt to begin a career as a director, something which he had considered, his early films as a cinematographer included such classic Ealing comedies, notably Kind Hearts and Coronets, The Man in the White Suit, The Lavender Hill Mob, The Titfield Thunderbolt. He was praised for his flexible, high-contrast cinematography for the horror film Dead of Night, for his bright, colourful West Country summer landscapes on The Titfield Thunderbolt.
Apart from filming, Slocombe worked on developing plans for shots, visiting prisoner-of-war camps in Germany as part of pre-production for The Captive Heart. For Saraband for Dead Lovers, shot in Technicolour, the production team settled on a muted, gloomy style unusual for the time, which Slocombe in 2015 considered as among his best work of the period; the style of the film, about a doomed extramarital affair in 17th-century Germany, was variously praised as unconventional and criticised for being excessively symbolic, while leaving exterior and interior shots poorly matched. A special effect shot he created was a scene in Kind Hearts and Coronets, in which Alec Guinness, playing eight different characters, appeared as six of them in the same frame. By masking the lens and locking the camera down in one place, the film was re-exposed several times with Guinness in different places on the set over several days. Slocombe recalled sleeping in the studio to make sure nobody touched the camera.
Slocombe regarded Basil Dearden as the "most competent" of the directors he worked with at Ealing. He found widescreen equipment sometimes restrictive, finding the Technirama camera system used on Davy "a block of flats" and difficult to compose shots with. Financial problems forced Ealing Studios to wind down from 1955 onwards, close in the decade. Slocombe said of the period in 2015 that "we had to get on with our careers – there was little time for sentiment."For The Italian Job, Slocombe was hired by producer Michael Deeley because "he tended to do moody work, he was efficient". Slocombe remembered shooting inside Kilmainham Gaol, a genuine closed prison, finding the experience unpleasant: "the real thing, there is something quite terrifying about it. One knows hundreds and hundreds of people have suffered here...although this was a comedy, all this was still in the back of one's mind". He won the British Society of Cinematographers Award five times, was awarded its Lifetime Achievement Award in 1996.
He won a special BAFTA award in 1993. Roger Ebert praised his work on Jesus Christ Superstar, writing that it "achieve a color range that glows with life and somehow doesn’t make the desert look barren." Not all reviews of his colour work were favourable: while his cinematography on Never Say Never Again has