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Guntur

Guntur. Situated 40 miles to the north of the Bay of Bengal, on the Eastern Coastal Plains; the city forms a part of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region, administered by APCRDA. It is a municipal corporation and the headquarters of Guntur East and Guntur West mandals in Guntur revenue division; as of 2011 census of India the city is the third most populous in the state with a population of 743,354. Guntur is classified as a Y-grade city as per the Seventh Central Pay Commission, it forms a part of Visakhapatnam-Guntur Industrial Region, a major industrial corridor in the country. The city is known for its chilli and tobacco exports and has the largest chilli market yard in Asia; the earliest reference to the present name of the city can be dated back to the period of Ammaraja–I, the Vengi Eastern Chalukyan King. It has its appearance in another two inscriptions dated 1147 AD and 1158 AD. In Sanskrit, Guntur was referred to as Garthapuri. "Garthapuri" or "Guntlapuri" translates to "a place surrounded by water ponds".

The settlement might have been near a "gunta" in Telugu. Another source refers to "kunta" which may have transformed to "kunta uru" and to "Guntur"; the earliest recorded reference of Guntur comes from the Idern plates of Ammaraja I, the Vengi Chalukyan king. The inscriptions stones in the Agastyeshwara temple in'Naga Lipi' dates back to about 1100 CE, it is considered one of the most famous temples in the city. It is said that Agastya built the temple in the last Treta Yuga around the swayambhu linga and hence it has this name. The'Nagas' were said to have ruled the region at that time. R. Agraharam and Old Guntur areas are considered to be the older parts of the city; the region has been known for Buddhism and the first Kalachakra ceremony performed by Gautama Buddha himself. The place of Sitanagaram and the Guttikonda caves are referred in the ancient texts going back to the Treta Yuga and Dwapara Yuga. Old inscriptions of Satavahana period are found in Chebrolu area south of the city. With the arrival of the Europeans in the late sixteenth century the city attained national and international significance.

The French shifted their headquarters from Kondavid Fort to here in 1752 because of the ample availability of water due to the two large tanks. This settlement formed the nucleus of the modern city; the Nizams of Hyderabad and Hyder Ali ruled the city until it came under British rule in 1788. French astronomer, Pierre Janssen observed the solar eclipse of 18 August 1868 and discovered helium, from Guntur in Madras State, British India, it was made the headquarters of a district named after it, abolished in 1859, only to be reconstituted in 1904. The city became a major market for agricultural produce from the surrounding countryside due to the opening of the railway link in 1890; the expansion continued post independence as well and was concentrated in what is now called "New Guntur", with many urban areas such as Brodipet and suburban areas like Pattabhipuram, Chandramouli Nagar, Sita Rama nagar, Brindavan Gardens, etc. In 2012, the city limits were expanded with the merger of surrounding ten villages, namely Nallapadu, Ankireddipalem, Adavitakkellapadu, Pothuru, Etukuru and Reddypalem.

Guntur is located at 16.29°N 80.43°E / 16.29. It is situated on the plains. There are few hills in the surrounding suburban areas and Perecherla Reserve Forest on the north west; the city is around 40 miles to the west of the Bay of Bengal on the east coast of India. The Krishna delta lies in the Guntur district. There are other smaller rivers and channels in the region such as Guntur Channel, Naagileru, Guntur Branch Canal etc; as quoted in NASA's website "it is typical of the wider deltas along the southeast coast of India. The braided stream channels, broad floodplain, extensive sandbars suggest that this part of the Krishna River flows through flat terrain and carries a substantial amount of sediment during the monsoon season." As per Köppen-Geiger climate classification system the climate in Guntur is tropical. The average temperature is warm to hot year-round; the summer season has the highest temperatures, but these are followed by monsoon rains. The winter season is the most enjoyable with a pleasant climate.

Winter months are dry, with little to no rainfall. The wettest month is July; the average annual temperature is. Rain storms and cyclones are common in the region during the rainy season, which starts with the monsoons in early June. Cyclones may occur any time of the year, but occur more between May and November. In the 1981 census, Guntur had a population of 367,699 with a growth rate of 36.19. As of 2011 census, the city had a population of 670,073, it increased to 743,354 post merger of surrounding villages, which constitute 371,727 males and 371,612 females —a sex ratio of 1004 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 females per 1000 males. The 2018 estimate of the city population is estimated to be 8–9 lakh. Telugu is the spoken language with a total of 545,928 native speakers, followed by 109,574 Urdu speakers. A significant minority speak Hindi and Tamil; the religious population constitute 522,030 Hindus, 120,974 M

Hector Abdelnour

Héctor Antonio Abdelnour Mussa was a Venezuelan military officer of the Navy, who participated in the overthrow of President Marcos Pérez Jiménez and in the shipment of aid and weapons to the Cuban revolution in 1958. Son of Lebanese immigrants, Abdelnour was born in Pilar and began his military career in 1939 at the Naval School of Venezuela, graduating in 1943 as an Officer of the Navy. During his career he was appointed to different destinations and in 1956 he was promoted to Corvette Captain. At the beginning of 1958 he participated in the actions carried out by the Armed Forces that culminated in the overthrow of Marcos Pérez Jimenez, he was named Assistant of the Military House by the provisional government, which in the same year carried out a collection among the people of Venezuela, known as un bolivar para la sierra, destined to send aid and weapons to Cuban revolutionaries. Abdelnour was in charge of purchasing the plane to send the aid and participated in that transfer, which took place on December, bound for Sierra Maestra.

In 1959 Abdelnour was promoted to Frigate Captain and continued his military career until 1970. 1958 - Order of Francisco de Miranda 1959 - Croce Eracliana di Seconda Classe 1959 - Medal of the Eloy Alfaro Foundation, Panama Official website The legacy of my father: based on the life of Captain Hector Abdelnour

Jerry (St Leger winner)

Jerry was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire best known for winning the classic St Leger Stakes in 1824. In a racing career which lasted from 1824 until 1827 he won five races. Unraced as a two-year-old, he was beaten on his first appearance in 1824 but won the York St Leger and the XYZ Stakes at Newcastle before defeating twenty-two opponents in the St Leger at Doncaster. Jerry missed the entire 1825 season and showed little form in 1826, but won twice as a six-year-old in 1827, he was retired to stud. Jerry was a black horse bred in Yorkshire by his owner Richard Gascoigne. According to a description written in 1827, he stood 15.3 hands high and possessed "immense muscular power". Jerry was one of two classic winners sired by the 1813 Epsom Derby winner Smolensko, the other being the Oaks winner Gulnare. Jerry was the third of fifteen foals produced by Gascoigne's mare Louisa between 1819 and 1837, her dam Thomasina was a half-sister of the classic winners Theophania. Gascoigne sent his colt into training with James Croft at East Wilton near Middleham.

Jerry did not run as a two-year-old and began his racing career on 22 April 1824 at Catterick Bridge Racecourse in Yorkshire. He started at odds of 2/1 for the two mile race and finished second of the five runners behind Lord Sligo's colt Canteen. Jerry next appeared at York Racecourse on 24 May when he contested a "St Leger Stakes"; the success of the St Leger at Doncaster had led other major courses, including York and Newmarket to use the name for their own long distance races for three-year-olds. Ridden by H. Edwards, he mas made the 5/2 second favourite and recorded his first win by beating Major Cunninghame's Outcry colt and five others, including the favourite Streatham. In July, Jerry was sent north to compete at Newcastle Racecourse in Northumberland and won the two mile XYZ Stakes from a single opponent. Nineteen colts and four fillies were attracted to Doncaster Racecourse on 20 September for the forty-ninth running of the Great St Leger. Jerry started the 9/1 third favourite behind Streatham and Brutandorf.

Jerry won the race from Canteen. Shortly after his win in the St Leger, Jerry was sold for 2,000 guineas to Lord Kelburne. Jerry missed the entire 1825 season as a result of health problems and failed to reproduce his best form as a five-year-old, he did not reappear in public until 16 May 1826 when he finished unplaced behind the mare Fleur-de-Lis in the two mile York Gold Cup. Two years after his St Leger win, Jerry returned to Doncaster in autumn and produced a "very bad" performance to be last of the five runners behind Fleur-de-Lis in the Doncaster Cup. Jerry's third and final run of the year came on 4 October, when he finished second to Lord Kennedy's horse Bedlamite in the Richmond Gold Cup. Three years after his debut, Jerry returned to Catterick Bridge Racecourse for the ten furlong Craven Stakes in April 1827. Ridden by Edwards, he started at odds of 9/2 against eight opponents and recorded his first success in thirty months as he won from the Duke of Leeds' colt Sirius. On 23 May at York he ran second to Fleur-de-Lis in the Constitution Stakes, finishing ahead of Humphrey Clinker and Sirius.

Jerry next appeared at York in August when he was required to concede eleven pounds to the 1826 St Leger winner Tarrare in a two mile sweepstakes. Jerry, who started at odds of 7/2, took an early lead and set a strong pace, he was challenged and overtaken by Tarrare in the straight but rallied to defeat the younger horse by half a length after a "very severe race" and end his racing career with a win. Jerry began his stud career at Boroughbridge in Yorkshire at a covering fee of 10 sovereigns. For the 1831 season, Lord Kelburne moved his stallion to Scotland where he stood at Hawkhead near Paisley at a increased fee of 11 sovereigns, but a year Jerry was back in Yorkshire and standing at 20 sovereigns. By 1838 he was at Mr Edwards' stud at Newmarket and it was reported that his stock were selling for high prices. Three years he had been moved to the Duke of Grafton's stud at Euston Hall, near Thetford and was standing at a reduced fee of 12 guineas. Jerry died on 14 May 1851 at Middleham under the ownership of the Earl of Glasgow.

Jerry's only classic winner was Clearwell, a grey colt who won the 2000 Guineas in 1833. Jerry had some success as a sire of sires: his son Tomboy sired the St Leger winner Nutwith and was the damsire of the 1000 Guineas winner Manganese a successful broodmare. Another of Jerry's sons was Jericho, a successful racehorse who sired the 2000 Guineas winner The Promised Land. Jerry's last notable offspring were foaled in 1845