Kumaragupta III was a Gupta Emperor. He succeeded his father Narasimhagupta in about 530 CE, his silver-copper seal was discovered in Bhitari in 1889, which mentions the names of his father Narasimhagupta and grandfather Purugupta. A clay sealing of him was discovered from Nalanda, which mentioned about his father and grandfather. Nalanda clay seal of Kumaragupta III mentions Purugupta as Kumaragupta I's son from his queen Anantadevi; the Gupta Empire declined during his rule and the kings. He was succeeded by his son Vishnugupta. Http://www.gloriousindia.com/profiles/Kumaragupta_III
Yijing romanized as I-ching or I-tsing, was a Tang-era Chinese Buddhist monk famed as a traveller and translator. His account of his travels is an important source for the history of the medieval kingdoms along the sea route between China and India Srivijaya in Indonesia. A student of the Buddhist university at Nālandā, he was responsible for the translation of a large number of Buddhist texts from Sanskrit and Pali into Chinese. Yijing was born Zhang Wenming, he became a monk at age 14 and was an admirer of Faxian and Xuanzang, both famed monks of his childhood. Provided funding by an otherwise unknown benefactor named Fong, he decided to visit the renowned Buddhist university of Nālandā, in Bihar, India, to further study Buddhism. Traveling by a Persian boat out of Guangzhou, he arrived in Srivijaya after 22 days, where he spent the next six months learning Sanskrit grammar and the Malay language, he went on to record visits to the nations of Malayu and Kiteh, in 673 after ten days of additional travel reached the "naked kingdom".
Yijing recorded his impression of the "Kunlun peoples", using an ancient Chinese word for Malay peoples. "Kunlun people have curly hair, dark bodies, bare feet and wear sarongs." He arrived at the East coast of India, where he met a senior monk and stayed a year to study Sanskrit. Both followed a group of merchants and visited 30 other principalities. Halfway to Nālandā, Yijing was unable to walk, he walked to Nālandā. In 687, Yijing stopped in the kingdom of Srivijaya on his way back to Tang China. At that time, Palembang was a centre of Buddhism where foreign scholars gathered, Yijing stayed there for two years to translate original Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. In the year 689 he returned to Guangzhou to obtain ink and papers and returned again to Srivijaya the same year. In 695, he completed all translation works and returned to China at Luoyang, received a grand welcome back by Empress Wu Zetian, his total journey took 25 years. He brought back some 400 Buddhist texts translated into Chinese.
Account of Buddhism sent from the South Seas and Buddhist Monk's Pilgrimage of the Tang Dynasty are two of Yijing's best travel diaries, describing his adventurous journey to Srivijaya and India, reporting on the society of India, the lifestyles of various local peoples, more. In the great majority of areas in India, Yijing writes that there were followers of both "vehicles", with some Buddhists practicing according to the "Hinayana" and others practicing according to the Mahayana. However, he describes Northern India and most of the islands of the South Seas as principally "Hīnayāna." In contrast, the Buddhists in China and Malayu are described as principally following the Mahāyāna. Yijing wrote about relationship between the various "vehicles" and the early Buddhist schools in India, he wrote, "There exist in the West numerous subdivisions of the schools which have different origins, but there are only four principal schools of continuous tradition." These schools are namely the Mahāsāṃghika, Mulasarvastivada, Saṃmitīya nikāyas.
Explaining their doctrinal affiliations, he writes, "Which of the four schools should be grouped with the Mahāyāna or with the Hīnayāna is not determined." That is to say, there was no simple correspondence between a monastic sect and whether its members learned "Hīnayāna" or "Mahāyāna" teachings. Yijing praised the high level of Buddhist scholarship in Srivijaya and advised Chinese monks to study there prior to making the journey to Nalanda in India. In the fortified city of Bhoga, Buddhist priests number more than 1,000, whose minds are bent on learning and good practice, they study all the subjects that exist just as in India. If a Chinese priest wishes to go to the West in order to hear and read the original scriptures, he had better stay here one or two years and practice the proper rules.... Yijing's visits to Srivijaya gave him the opportunity to meet with others who had come from other neighboring islands. According to him, the Javanese kingdom of Ho-ling was due east of the city of Bhoga at a distance that could be spanned by a four or five days' journey by sea.
He wrote that Buddhism was flourishing throughout the islands of Southeast Asia. "Many of the kings and chieftains in the islands of the Southern Sea admire and believe in Buddhism, their hearts are set on accumulating good actions." Yijing translated more than 60 texts into Chinese, including: Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya Golden Light Sutra in 703 Diamond Sutra in 703 Sūtra of the Original Vows of the Medicine Buddha of Lapis Lazuli Radiance and the Seven Past Buddhas, in 707 Avadanas in 710 Chinese Buddhism Vikramashila Dutt S, Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India, with the translation of passages from Yijing's book: Buddhist Pilgrim Monks of Tang Dynasty as an appendix. London, 1952 I-Tsing, A Record of the Buddhist Religion: As Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago, Translated by J. Takakusu, Clarendon press 1896. Reprint. New Delhi, AES, 2005, ISBN 81-206-1622-7. Internet Archive I-Tsing, Chinese Monks in India, Biography of Eminent Monks Who Went to the Western World in Search of the Law During the Great tang Dynasty, Translated by Latika Lahiri, etc.: Motilal Banarsidass, 1986 Sen, T..
The Travel Records of Chinese Pilgrims Faxian and Yijing, Education About Asia 11
Chandragupta I was a king of the Gupta dynasty, who ruled in northern India. His title Maharajadhiraja suggests, it is not certain how he turned his small ancestral kingdom into an empire, although a widely-accepted theory among modern historians is that his marriage to the Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi helped him extend his political power. Their son Samudragupta further expanded the Gupta empire. Chandragupta was a son of the Gupta king Ghatotkacha, a grandson of the dynasty's founder Gupta, both of whom are called Maharaja in the Allahabad Pillar inscription. Chandragupta assumed the title Maharajadhiraja and issued gold coins, which suggests that he was the first imperial ruler of the dynasty. Chandragupta reigned in the first quarter of the 4th century CE, but the exact period of his reign is uncertain, his assumption of the title Maharajadhiraja has led to suggestions that he founded the Gupta calendar era, that the epoch of this era marks his coronation. Based on this argument, several historians, including V. A. Smith and P. L. Gupta, date Chandragupta's ascension to 319-320 CE, which they believe to be the beginning of the Gupta era.
However, this is an assumption, the identity of the founder of the Gupta era is not certain. Some historians, such as D. C. Sircar and R. C. Majumdar, theorize. S. R. Goyal theorizes that the era was started by the king Chandragupta II, but its beginning was dated to Samudragupta's ascension. Chandragupta I had a long reign, as the Allahabad Pillar inscription suggests that he appointed his son as his successor after reaching an old age. However, the exact period of his reign is debated. Various estimates for Chandragupta's reign include: A. S. Altekar: 305-325 CE S. R. Goyal: 319-350 CE Tej Ram Sharma: 319-353 CE Upinder Singh: 319-335 CE or 319-350 CE Chandragupta married the Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi. Lichchhavi is the name of an ancient clan, headquartered at Vaishali in present-day Bihar during the time of Gautama Buddha. A Lichchhavi kingdom existed in the present-day Nepal in the first millennium CE. However, the identity of Kumaradevi's Lichchhavi kingdom is not certain. An 8th century inscription of the Lichchhavi dynasty of Nepal claims that their legendary ancestor Supushpa was born in the royal family of Pushpapura, that is, Pataliputra in Magadha.
According to some historians, such as V. A. Smith, the Lichchhavis ruled at Pataliputra during Samudragupta's time. However, this inscription states that Supushpa ruled 38 generations before the 5th century king Manadeva, that is, centuries before Chandragupta's period. Therefore, the claim made in this inscription if true, cannot be taken as concrete evidence of the Lichchhavi rule at Pataliputra during Chandragupta's time; the Lichchhavi kingdom of Kumaradevi is unlikely to have been located in present-day Nepal, because Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar inscription mentions Nepala as a distinct, subordinate kingdom. Given lack of any other evidence, historian R. C. Majumdar assumed that during Chandragupta's time, the Lichchhavis ruled at Vaishali, the only other base of the clan known from the historical records; the gold coins attributed to Chandragupta bear portraits of Chandragupta and Kumaradevi, the legend Lichchhavayah. Their son Samudragupta is described as Lichchhavi-dauhitra in the Gupta inscriptions.
Except Kumaradevi, these inscriptions do not mention the paternal family of the dynasty's queens, which suggests that the Gupta family considered Kumaradevi's marriage to Chandragupta an important event. Numismatist John Allan theorized that Chandragupta defeated a Lichchhavi kingdom headquartered at Vaishali, that Kumaradevi's marriage to him happened as part of a peace treaty, he suggested that the Guptas considered this marriage a prestigious one because of the ancient lineage of the Lichchhavis. However, the ancient text Manusamhita regards the Lichchhavis as "unorthodox and impure". Therefore, it is unlikely that the Guptas proudly mentioned Samudragupta's Lichchhavi ancestry to increase their social prestige, it is unlikely that the Guptas allowed the name of the Lichchhavis to appear on the dynasty's coins after defeating them. It is more that the marriage helped Chandragupta extend his political power and dominions, enabling him to adopt the title Maharajadhiraja; the appearance of the Lichchhavis' name on the coins is symbolic of their contribution to the expansion of the Gupta power.
After the marriage, Chandragupta became the ruler of the Lichchhavi territories. Alternatively, it is possible that the Gupta and the Lichchhavi states formed a union, with Chandragupta and Kumaradevi being regarded as the sovereign rulers of their respective states, until the reign of their son Samudragupta, who became the sole ruler of the united kingdom. Little is known about Chandragupta other than his ancestry, his marriage, his expansion of the Gupta power, as evident from his title Maharajadhiraja; the territorial extent of Chandragupta's kingdom is not known, but it must have been larger than that of the earlier Gupta kings, as Chandragupta bore the title Maharajadhiraja. Modern historians have attempted to determine the extent of his kingdom based on the information from the Puranas and the Allahabad Pillar inscription issued by his son Samudragupta; the Allahabad Pillar inscription names several kings subjugated by Samudragupta. Based on the identity of these kings, several modern historians have tried to determine the extent of the territory that he must have inherited from
International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan, William Jones, Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, formalised by the Transliteration Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894. IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously as if it were in the original Indic script, it is this faithfulness to the original scripts that accounts for its continuing popularity amongst scholars. University scholars use IAST in publications that cite textual material in Sanskrit, Pāḷi and other classical Indian languages. IAST is used for major e-text repositories such as SARIT, Muktabodha, GRETIL, sanskritdocuments.org. The IAST scheme represents more than a century of scholarly usage in books and journals on classical Indian studies.
By contrast, the ISO 15919 standard for transliterating Indic scripts emerged in 2001 from the standards and library worlds. For the most part, ISO 15919 follows the IAST scheme, departing from it only in minor ways —see comparison below; the Indian National Library at Kolkata romanization, intended for the romanization of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST. The IAST letters are listed with their Devanāgarī equivalents and phonetic values in IPA, valid for Sanskrit and other modern languages that use Devanagari script, but some phonological changes have occurred: The highlighted letters are those modified with diacritics: long vowels are marked with an overline, vocalic consonants and retroflexes have an underdot. Unlike ASCII-only romanizations such as ITRANS or Harvard-Kyoto, the diacritics used for IAST allow capitalization of proper names; the capital variants of letters never occurring word-initially are useful only when writing in all-caps and in Pāṇini contexts for which the convention is to typeset the IT sounds as capital letters.
For the most part, IAST is a subset of ISO 15919 that merges: the retroflex liquids with the vocalic ones. The following seven exceptions are from the ISO standard accommodating an extended repertoire of symbols to allow transliteration of Devanāgarī and other Indic scripts, as used for languages other than Sanskrit; the most convenient method of inputting romanized Sanskrit is by setting up an alternative keyboard layout. This allows one to hold a modifier key to type letters with diacritical marks. For example, alt+a = ā. How this is set up varies by operating system. Linux Modern Linux systems allow one to set up custom keyboard layouts and switch them by clicking a flag icon in the menu bar. MacOS One can use the pre-installed US International keyboard, or install Toshiya Unebe's Easy Unicode keyboard layout. A revision of this is Shreevatsa R's EasyIAST. Microsoft Windows Windows allows one to change keyboard layouts and set up additional custom keyboard mappings for IAST. Many systems provide a way to select Unicode characters visually.
ISO/IEC 14755 refers to this as a screen-selection entry method. Microsoft Windows has provided a Unicode version of the Character Map program since version NT 4.0 – appearing in the consumer edition since XP. This is limited to characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane. Characters are searchable by Unicode character name, the table can be limited to a particular code block. More advanced third-party tools of the same type are available. MacOS provides a "character palette" with much the same functionality, along with searching by related characters, glyph tables in a font, etc, it can be enabled in the input menu in the menu bar under System Preferences → International → Input Menu or can be viewed under Edit → Emoji & Symbols in many programs. Equivalent tools – such as gucharmap or kcharselect – exist on most Linux desktop environments. Users of SCIM on Linux based platforms can have the opportunity to install and use the sa-itrans-iast input handler which provides complete support for the ISO 15919 standard for the romanization of Indic languages as part of the m17n library.
Only certain fonts support all Latin Unicode characters for the transliteration of Indic scripts according to the ISO 15919 standard. For example, Tahoma supports all the characters needed. Arial and Times New Roman font packages that come with Microsoft Office 2007 and also support most Latin Extended Additional characters like ḍ, ḥ, ḷ, ḻ, ṁ, ṅ, ṇ, ṛ, ṣ and ṭ. However, the growing trend amongst academics working in the area of Sanskrit studies is towards using Gentium font which has complete support for all the conjoined diacritics used in the IAST character set. Reddy, Shashir. "Shashir's Notes: Modern Transcription of Sanskrit". Retrieved 2016-12-02. Stone, Anthony. "Transliteration of Indic Scripts: How to use ISO 15919". Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Wujastyk, Dominik. "Transliteration of Devanagari". INDOLOGY. Retrieved 2016-12-02. Typing a macron - page from Penn State University about typing with accents International Phonetic Alphabet chart with pronunciation guide A visual chart which shows 1.
Which part of the mouth for each sound 2. The 3 groups where the 12 diacritics appear. - from
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient, non-theistic, Indian religion. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of 24 victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 8th century BC and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology; the main religious premises of Jainism are anekāntavāda, aparigraha and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā, asteya and aparigraha; these principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles.
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most basic prayer in Jainism. Jainism has Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; the Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions except Kanji Panth sub-tradition, with laypersons supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources. Jainism has between five million followers, with most Jains residing in India. Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname and the United States. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, Diwali; the principle of ahimsa is a fundamental tenet of Jainism. It believes that one must abandon all violent activity, without such a commitment to non-violence all religious behavior is worthless. In Jain theology, it does not matter how correct or defensible the violence may be, one must not kill any being, "non-violence is one's highest religious duty".
Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable. Its theology teaches that one must neither kill another living being, nor cause another to kill, nor consent to any killing directly or indirectly. Furthermore, Jainism emphasizes non-violence against all beings not only in action but in speech and in thought, it states that instead of hate or violence against anyone, "all living creatures must help each other". Violence negatively affects and destroys one's soul when the violence is done with intent, hate or carelessness, or when one indirectly causes or consents to the killing of a human or non-human living being; the idea of reverence for non-violence is founded in Hindu and Buddhist canonical texts, it may have origins in more ancient Brahmanical Vedic thoughts. However, no other Indian religion has developed the non-violence doctrine and its implications on everyday life as has Jainism.
The theological basis of non-violence as the highest religious duty has been interpreted by some Jain scholars not to "be driven by merit from giving or compassion to other creatures, nor a duty to rescue all creatures", but resulting from "continual self-discipline", a cleansing of the soul that leads to one's own spiritual development which affects one's salvation and release from rebirths. Causing injury to any being in any form creates bad karma which affects one's rebirth, future well being and suffering. Late medieval Jain scholars re-examined the Ahiṃsā doctrine when one is faced with external threat or violence. For example, they justified violence by monks to protect nuns. According to Dundas, the Jain scholar Jinadatta Suri wrote during a time of Muslim destruction of temples and persecution that "anybody engaged in a religious activity, forced to fight and kill somebody would not lose any spiritual merit but instead attain deliverance". However, such examples in Jain texts that condone fighting and killing under certain circumstances are rare.
The second main principle of Jainism is anekāntavāda or anekantatva, a word derived from anekānta and vada. The anekāntavāda doctrine states that reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is Naya, explained as "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth. From Truth, according to Mahāvīra, language returns and not the other way round. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete". In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced. Since reality is many-sided the great error, according to Jainism, is ekānta where some relative truth is treated as an absolute truth to the exclusion of others.
The anekāntavāda premise of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññapha
Narasimhagupta Baladitya was an emperor of the Gupta Empire of North India. He was son of Purugupta and the successor of Budhagupta. Baladitya along with Yasodharman of Malwa is credited with driving the Alchon Huns from the plains of North India according to the Chinese monk Xuanzang. In a fanciful account, who wrote a century in 630 CE, reported that Mihirakula had conquered all India except for an island where the king of Magadha named Balditya took refuge, but that Mihirakula was captured by the Indian king, who spared his life. Mihirakula is said to have returned to Kashmir to retake the throne. Narasimhagupta's governor in Malwa, Bhanugupta may have been involved in this conflict; the Guptas were traditionally a Brahmanical dynasty. Narasimhagupta Baladitya however, according to contemporary writer Paramartha, was brought up under the influence of the Mahayanist philosopher, Vasubandhu, he built a sangharama at Nalanda and a 300 ft high vihara with a Buddha statue within which, according to Xuanzang, resembled the "great Vihara built under the Bodhi tree".
According to the Manjushrimulakalpa, king Narasimhsagupta became a Buddhist monk, left the world through meditation. The Chinese monk Xuanzang noted that Baladitya's son, who commissioned a sangharama as well, "possessed a heart firm in faith", his clay sealing has been found in Nalanda. The name of his queen mentioned in the Nalanda sealing is Shrimitradevi, he was succeeded by his son Kumaragupta III. Mookerji, Radhakumud; the Gupta Empire. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. P. 119. ISBN 9788120804401
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who