Guru Maneyo Granth
"Guru Maneyo Granth" refers to the historic statement of the 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, shortly before his demise, on affirming the sacred scripture Adi Granth as his successor, thus terminating the line of human Gurus. Installed as the Guru Granth Sahib, it is now the central holy scripture of Sikhism, the eternal living Guru of all Sikhs, it is central to Sikh worship as it is said to imbibe the one light of the creator manifested in the Ten Sikh Gurus - one spirit in ten forms. The event in 1708 at Nanded, when Guru Gobind Singh installed Adi Granth as the Guru of Sikhism, was recorded in a Bhatt Vahi by an eyewitness, Narbud Singh, is now celebrated as Gurgaddi, statement is part of the central chant, Sabh Sikhan ko Hukam Hai, Guru Maneyo Granth. October 2008 marked the Tercentenary year of Guruship of Guru Granth Sahib and was marked by major celebrations by Sikhs worldwide, at Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Nanded saw year-long celebrations; the composition of the sacred Granth contains renderings of the Hymns of 5 Sikh Gurus of the Sikh faith along with 15 Bhagats, 11 Bhatts and 3 Gursikhs.
It was composed in this form in the year 1604 with the addition of Guru Tegh Bahadur's Bani. Its blessings are sought by the true seeker with a devout heart; the Sikh religion sincerely believes that in each of the succeeding Gurus the spirit, the light of God which manifested in Guru Nanak Dev was operating and passed onto the next Sikh Guru. Guru Ram Das says in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib: Waho Waho Satgur Nirankar Hai, Jis Ant Na Paravar - The Lord descends in this world in the form of The Satguru, but only some rare soul/devotee is able to recognise him; the sacred Granth is installed in all Sikh holy places of worship and treated as the presiding presence of the Guru, an embodiment of Divine Truth. The devotees of the Sangat or congregation gather in solemn assembly to pray and seek the blessings of the Supreme; this comes through in the mystical wisdom contained within the words of Gurbani and it stands for realization of the Truth. The Gurus' word, known as'shabad' is taken as the mystic experience of the Guru.
In the words of Bhai Gurdas, a great scholar of the Guru's time, "In the word is the Guru, the Guru is in the word. In other words, the human body was not the Guru, but the light of the word within the heart was their real personality." When the human mind dives deeper and deeper into the Guru's word, all mental impurities depart and the wisdom of the Guru permeates the human soul. Thereby the devotee attains the divine light and wisdom which leads him to contemplate and meditate on God's name. In the light of the above realities, the Sikh religion makes the holy Granth the living master of the Sikh Panth. Before Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru left his human body, he conferred the Guruship to the, he delivered a self-composed hymn: Agya bhai Akal ki tabhi chalayo Panth. Sabh Sikhan ko hukam hai Guru manyo Granth. Guru Granth Ji manyo pargat Guran ki deh. Jo Prabhu ko milo chahe khoj shabad mein le. Raj karega Khalsa aqi rahei na koe, Khwar hoe sabh milange bache sharan jo hoe." Translation:"Under orders of the Immortal Being, the Panth was created.
All Sikhs are enjoined to accept the Granth as their Guru. Consider the Guru Granth as an embodiment of the Gurus; those who want to meet God, can find Him in its hymns. The pure Khalsa shall rule, the impures will be left no more, Those separated will unite and all the devotees of the Guru shall be saved." He offered his obeisance to the sacred Granth thus conveying his Light to it. This historic development took place in Oct. 1708 which ensured that the order of the Khalsa brotherhood always remained an abiding force for Sikh Panth unity. The Guru Granth Sahib begins with the Mul Mantar, an iconic verse created by Nanak: Punjabi: ੴਸਤਿਨਾਮੁਕਰਤਾਪੁਰਖੁਨਿਰਭਉਨਿਰਵੈਰੁਅਕਾਲਮੂਰਤਿਅਜੂਨੀਸੈਭੰਗੁਰਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ॥ ISO 15919 transliteration: Ika ōaṅkāra sati nāmu karatā purakhu nirabha'u niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibhaṅ gura prasādi jap ade sache jugade sache, haibhi sach, Nanake hosee bhee sache' Simplified transliteration: Ik ōaṅkār sat nām kartā purkh nirbha'u nirvair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhaṅ gur prasād jap, aad sach, jugad sach, hai bhee sach, Nanak hosi bhee sach.
Historical events have brought out that when Guru Nanak Dev appeared before the Supreme Lord, he himself presented to him a cup of God's name, known as Amrita to propagate in his subjects. Guru Nanak Dev received the Mul Mantar in his divine consciousness which defines the fundamental directive spiritual philosophy of Sikhism, it appears in the beginning of Sri Granth Sahib, ahead of Japji. It is composed of two elements – the figure ek and logo or symbol'onkar'; the term'ekonkar' in full form was meant to describe transcendent formless god as creator and dissoluter. The symbol'onkar' gives mystical interpretation of immanent spirit of god and his becoming aspect which created the universe, it is a well-known fact that this universe was created through a primordial sound, known as first wisdom of god. It acts as an intermediary between his creation. God is spirit and pure light. In Sikh mysticism, while meditating on Mul Mantar and its repetition believed to lead the soul to absorption in the absolute.
The Mul Mantar and the Gurmantra Waheguru - the Name of god in Sikhism, repeated induce a high spiritual state. The Gurmantra Waheguru - Naam unites the individual soul with the God; the Mul Mantar invokes all qualities of
Khalsa refers to both a special group of initiated Sikhs, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith. The Khalsa tradition was initiated in 1699 by the last living Guru of Guru Gobind Singh, its formation was a key event in the history of Sikhism. The founding of Khalsa is celebrated by Sikhs during the festival of Vaisakhi. Guru Gobind Singh started the Khalsa tradition after his father had been beheaded for resisting the religious persecution of non-Muslims during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Guru Gobind Singh created and initiated the Khalsa as a warrior with a duty to protect the innocent from any form of religious persecution; the Khalsa redefined the Sikh tradition from the start. It rules of conduct for the Khalsa warriors, it created a new institution for the temporal leadership of the Sikhs, replacing the masands system maintained by the earlier Gurus of Sikhism. Additionally, the Khalsa provided a religious vision for the Sikh community. Upon initiation, a Khalsa Sikh was given the titles of Kaur.
The rules of life, included behavioral code, a dress code. In contrast to the Khalsa Sikh, a Sahajdhari Sikh is one who reveres the teachings of the Sikh gurus, but has not undergone the initiation. Sahajdhari Sikhs do not accept some or all elements of the dress and behavioral codes of the Khalsa Sikhs; the Khalsa has been predominantly a male institution in Sikh history, with Khalsa authority with the male leaders. In the contemporary era, it has become open to women but its authority remains with Sikh men. "Khalsa", according to McLeod, is derived from the Arabic or Persian word "Khalisa" which means "to be pure, to be clear, to be free from". Sikhism emerged in the northwestern part of Indian subcontinent. During the Mughal Empire rule, according to professor Eleanor Nesbitt, khalsa meant the land, possessed directly by the emperor, different from jagir land granted to lords in exchange for a promise of loyalty and annual tribute to the emperor. Prior to Guru Gobind Singh, the religious organization was organized through the agents.
The masands would collect revenue from rural regions for the Sikh cause, much like jagirs would for the Islamic emperor. The khalsa, in Sikhism, came to mean pure loyalty to the Guru, not to the intermediary masands who were becoming corrupt, states Nesbitt; the Sikhs faced religious persecution during the Mughal Empire rule. Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth Guru, was arrested and executed by Emperor Jahangir in 1606; the following Guru, Guru Hargobind formally militarised the Sikhs and emphasised the complementary nature of the temporal power and spiritual power. In 1675, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of the Sikhs and the father of Guru Gobind Singh was executed by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb for resisting religious persecution of non-Muslims, for refusing to convert to Islam. In 1699, the tenth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh asked Sikhs to gather at Anandpur Sahib on 30 March 1699, the day of Vaisakhi. Guru Gobind Singh addressed the congregation from the entryway of a tent pitched on a hill.
He drew his sword, according to the Sikh tradition, asked for a volunteer from those who gathered, someone willing to sacrifice his head. One came forward; the Guru with a bloody sword. He asked for another volunteer, repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru returned with all five volunteers, all safe, he called them the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition. These five volunteers were: Daya Ram, Dharam Das, Himmat Rai, Mohkam Chand, Sahib Chand. Guru Gobind Singh mixed water and sugar into an iron bowl, stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit, he administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul of a Khalsa – a warrior community. The Guru gave them a new surname "Singh". After the first five Khalsa had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa.
This made the Guru the sixth Khalsa, his name changed from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh. He introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. For example, Aurangzeb had imposed taxes on non-Muslims that were collected from the Sikhs as well, for example the jizya, pilgrim tax and Bhaddar tax – the last being a tax to be paid by anyone following the Hindu ritual of shaving the head after the death of a loved one and cremation. Guru Gobind Singh declared that Khalsa do not need to continue this practice, because Bhaddar is not dharam, but a bharam. Not shaving the head meant not having to pay the taxes by Sikhs who lived in Delhi and other parts of the Mughal Empire. However, the new code of conduct led to internal disagreements between Sikhs in the 18th century between the Nanakpanthi and the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh had deep respect for the Khalsa, stated that there is no difference between the True Guru and the sangat. Before his founding of the Khalsa, the Sikh movement had used the Sanskrit word Sisya, but the favored term thereaft
Guru Nanak was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day in the month of Katak, October–November. Guru Nanak travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth, he set up a unique spiritual and political platform based on equality, fraternal love and virtue. Guru Nanak's words are registered in the form of 974 poetic hymns in the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, with some of the major prayers being the Japji Sahib, the Asa di Var and the Sidh-Ghost, it is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak's sanctity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them. Guru Nanak was born on 29 November 1469 at Rāi Bhoi Kī Talvaṇḍī near Lahore, his parents were Kalyan Chand Das Bedi, popularly shortened to Mehta Kalu, Mata Tripta.
His father was the local patwari for crop revenue in the village of Talwandi. His parents were both Hindu employed as merchants, he had one sister, Bebe Nanaki, five years older than he was. In 1475 she moved to Sultanpur. Guru Nanak was attached to his sister and followed her to Sultanpur to live with her and her husband, Jai Ram. At the age of around 16 years, Nanak started working under Daulat Khan Lodi, employer of Nanaki's husband; this was a formative time for Nanak, as the Puratan Janam Sakhi suggests, in his numerous allusions to governmental structure in his hymns, most gained at this time. According to Sikh traditions, the birth and early years of Guru Nanak's life were marked with many events that demonstrated that Nanak had been marked by divine grace. Commentaries on his life give details of his blossoming awareness from a young age. At the age of five, Nanak is said to have voiced interest in divine subjects. At age seven, his father enrolled him at the village school. Notable lore recounts that as a child Nanak astonished his teacher by describing the implicit symbolism of the first letter of the alphabet, resembling the mathematical version of one, as denoting the unity or oneness of God.
Other childhood accounts refer to strange and miraculous events about Nanak, such as one witnessed by Rai Bular, in which the sleeping child's head was shaded from the harsh sunlight, in one account, by the stationary shadow of a tree or, in another, by a venomous cobra. On 24 September 1487 Nanak married Mata Sulakkhani, daughter of Mūl Chand and Chando Rāṇī, in the town of Batala; the couple had Sri Chand and Lakhmi Chand. Sri Chand received enlightenment from Guru Nanak's teachings and went on to become the founder of the Udasi sect; the earliest biographical sources on Nanak's life recognised today are the Janamsākhīs. Bhai Gurdas, a scribe of the Gurū Granth Sahib wrote about Nanak's life in his vārs. Although these too were compiled some time after Nanak's time, they are less detailed than the Janamsākhīs; the Janamsākhīs recount in minute detail the circumstances of the birth of the guru. Gyan-ratanavali is attributed to Bhai Mani Singh who wrote it with the express intention of correcting heretical accounts of Guru Nanak.
Bhai Mani Singh was a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh, approached by some Sikhs with a request that he should prepare an authentic account of Guru Nanak’s life. One popular Janamsākhī was written by a close companion of the Guru, Bhai Bala. However, the writing style and language employed have left scholars, such as Max Arthur Macauliffe, certain that they were composed after his death. According to the scholars, there are good reasons to doubt the claim that the author was a close companion of Guru Nanak and accompanied him on many of his travels. Nanak was a Guru, founded Sikhism during the 15th century; the fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. The Guru Granth Sahib is worshipped as the Supreme Authority of Sikhism and is considered the eleventh and final guru of Sikhism.
As the first guru of Sikhism, Guru Nanak contributed a total of 974 hymns to the book. Nanak’s teachings can be found in the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib, as a collection of verses recorded in Gurmukhi. There are two competing theories on Guru Nanak's teachings. One, according to Cole and Sambhi, is based on hagiographical Janamsakhis, states that Nanak's teachings and Sikhism were a revelation from God, not a social protest movement nor any attempt to reconcile Hinduism and Islam in the 15th century; the other states, Nanak was a Guru. According to Singha, "Sikhism does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood, but it has a pivotal concept of Guru. He is not an incarnation of God, not a prophet, he is an illumined soul."The hagiographical Janamsakhis were not written by Nanak, but by followers without regard for historical accuracy, contain numerous legends and myths created to show respect for Nanak. The term revelation, clarify Cole and Sambhi, in Sikhism is not limited to the teachings of Nanak, they include all Sikh Gurus, as well as the words of past and future men and women, who possess divine knowledge intuitively through meditation.
Kirtan or Kirtana is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, telling, describing" of an idea or story. It refers to a genre of religious performance arts, connoting a musical form of narration or shared recitation of spiritual or religious ideas. With roots in the Vedic anukirtana tradition, a kirtan is a call-and-response style song or chant, set to music, wherein multiple singers recite or describe a legend, or express loving devotion to a deity, or discuss spiritual ideas, it may include dancing or direct expression of bhavas by the singer. Many kirtan performances are structured to engage the audience where they either repeat the chant, or reply to the call of the singer. A person performing kirtan is known as a kirtankara. A Kirtan performance includes an accompaniment of regionally popular musical instruments, such as the harmonium, the veena or ektara, the tabla, the mrdanga or pakhawaj and karatalas or talas, it is a major practice in Hinduism, Vaisnava devotionalism, the Sant traditions and some forms of Buddhism, as well as other religious groups.
Kirtan is sometimes accompanied by acting. Texts cover religious, mythological or social subjects. Kirtan has Vedic roots and it means "telling, describing, reporting"; the term is found as Anukirtan in the context of Yajna, wherein team recitations of dialogue-style and question-answer riddle hymns were part of the ritual or celebratory dramatic performance. The Sanskrit verses in chapter 13.2 of Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, are written in the form of a riddle play between two actors. The Vedic sacrifice is presented as a kind of drama, with its actors, its dialogues, its portion to be set to music, its interludes, its climaxes; the root of kirtan is kirt. The root is found in the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and other Vedic literature, as well as the Vedanga and Sutras literature. Kirt, according to Monier-Williams contextually means, "to mention, make mention of, name, recite, relate, communicate, celebrate, glorify".kirtan, sometimes referred to as sankirtana, is a call-and-response chanting or musical conversation, a genre of religious performance arts that developed during India's bhakti devotional traditions.
However, it is a heterogeneous practice that varies regionally according to Christian Novetzke, includes varying mixture of different musical instruments, oration, audience participation and moral narration. In Maharashtra for example, states Novetzke, a kirtan is a call-and-response style performance, ranging from devotional dancing and singing by a lead singer and audience, to an "intricate scholarly treatise, a social commentary or a philosophical/linguistic exposition", that includes narration, humor and entertainment – all an aesthetic part of ranga of the kirtana. Kirtan is locally known as Abhang, Samaj Gayan, Haveli Sangeet, Harikatha; the Vaishnava temples and monasteries of Hinduism in Assam and northeastern, called Satra, have a large worship hall named Kirtan ghar – a name derived from their being used for congregational singing and performance arts. In regional languages, Kirtana is scripted as Bengali: কীর্তন. Musical recitation of hymns and the praise of deities has ancient roots in Hinduism, as evidenced by the Samaveda and other Vedic literature.
Kirtan were popularized by the Bhakti movement of medieval era Hinduism, starting with the South Indian Alvars and Nayanars around the 6th century, which spread in central, northern and eastern India after the 12th century, as a social and congregational response to Hindu-Muslim conflicts. The foundations of the Kirtan traditions are found in other Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad-gita where Krishna describes multiple paths to spiritual freedom, including karma marga, jnana marga and bhakti marga. Kirtan relates to the bhakti marga tradition of Hinduism. References to Kirtan as a musical recitation are found in the Bhagavata Purana, an important Vaishnava text. Kirtan is practiced as a kind of theatrical folk song with call-and-response chanting or antiphon; the ancient sage Narada revered as a musical genius, is called a kirtankar in the Padma Purana. The famous story of Prahlada in the Avatara Katha mentions kirtan as one of nine forms of worship, called the nava vidha bhakti along with shravanam, pada sevanam, vandanam, dasyam and atmanivedanam.
The so-called Naradiya Kirtan divides kirtan into five parts: naman, chanting, katha or akhyan and a final prayer for universal welfare. Kirtan as a genre of religious music has been a major part of the Vaishnavism tradition starting with the Alvars of Sri Vaishnavism sub-tradition between the 7th to 10th century CE. After the 13th-century, two subgenres of kirtan emerged in Vaishnavism, namely the Nama-kirtana wherein the different names or aspects of god are extolled, the Lila- kirtana wherein the deity's life and legends are narrated; the Marathi Varkari saint Namdev used the kirtan
Amrit Velā begins at the start of a new day, begins at 12:00 am and ends at 6:00 am, or before the dawning of the morning sun, used for daily meditation and recitation of Gurbani hymns. Sikhs start Amrit Vela at 2:00 am or earlier. Guru Nanak in the Japji Sahib says, "During the hours of Amrit velā, meditate on the grandeur of the one true Name." The importance of Amrit Vela is found throughout the Guru Granth Sahib. The Guru Granth Sahib states that "those who consider themselves a Sikh must wake up daily at Amrit Vela and be in tune with the Naam" In the Sikh Rehat Maryada, it is written to arise Amrit Velā, meditate on the divine Naam. Sikhs recite their morning Nitnem during Amrit Vela. Traditionally after Nitnem Sikhs meet with the Sangat to recite Asa di Var. Amrit Khalsa Meditation Nitnem Outline of Sikhism Sikh beliefs Sikhism Simran Singh, Puran; the Spirit Born People. Peshawar: Languages Department, Punjab. Singh, Raghbir. Bandginama. New Delhi: Atma Science Trust Singh, Randhir.'Autobiography of Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh.'Ludhiana: Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh Trust Definition of Amrit Vela Amritvela Cheat Sheet Q&A - Amrit Vela and Sadh Sangat #7 @ UCL Sikh Society Video Amrit Vela - Importance - Guru's Hukam Video Amrit Vela: Rise & Shine
Benis is a rural village in Guney-ye Sharqi Rural District, in the Central District of Shabestar County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. The layout of Benis is centralized; the aqueduct feeds greenery. There is public bath and various shops located around the village square. A main asphalt road leads out into the rest of Shabestar County. During the summer, the population of Benis increases significantly. Agriculture has been a local industry in Benis for many years, continues to grow. In the 19th century, most migrations from the village were to foreign cities such as Istanbul and Tbilisi. After the Russian Revolution, more immigration took place from Benis across the country and into cities such as Abadan and Tehran. Many workers are chiefly active in the businesses of confectionary production, the processing of urea and paper; as of the 2011 census, its population was 1,008, including 331 families. Place names considered unusual Penile, Louisville East Pen Island
The Dasam Patishah Ji Da Granth known as Dasam Granth, is a religious text containing many of the texts traditionally attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. It is written in Brij Bhasha, with Awadhi, Hindustani and Persian compositions written entirely in the Gurmukhi script except for the Fatehnama, Zafar Nama and Hikayat, which are in the Persian alphabet; the Dasam Granth is a separate religious text from the Guru Granth Sahib. Some compositions of the Dasam Granth such as Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye and Benti Chaupai are part of the Nitnem or daily prayers and part of the Amrit Sanchar or baptism ceremony. Although the compositions of the Dasam Granth are accepted to be penned by Guru Gobind Singh there are some that still question the authenticity of the Dasam Granth. There are three major views on the authorship of the Dasam Granth: The historical and traditional view is that the entire work was composed by Guru Gobind Singh himself; the entire collection was composed by the poets in the Guru's entourage.
Only a part of the work was composed by the Guru. In his religious court at Anandpur Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh had employed 52 poets, who translated several classical texts into Braj Bhasha. Most of the writing compiled at Anandpur Sahib was lost while the Guru's camp was crossing the Sirsa river before the Battle of Chamkaur. There were copiers available at the Guru's place. Bhai Mani Singh compiled all the available works under the title Dasam Granth; the traditional scholars claim that all the works in Dasam Granth were composed by the Guru himself, on the basis of Bhai Mani Singh's letter. But the veracity of the letter has been found to be unreliable. Any one moderately acquainted with Hindi can tell from the internal evidence of style that Chandi Charitar and Bhagauti ki War are translations by different hands; some others dispute the claim of the authorship, saying that some of the compositions included in Dasam Granth are "out of tune" with other Sikh scriptures, must have been composed by other poets.
The names of poets Raam and Kaal appear in the granth. References to Kavi Shyam can be seen in Mahan Kosh of Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha, under the entry'Bawanja Kavi' and in Kavi Santokh Singh's magnum opus Suraj Prakash Granth; the following are historical books after the demise of Guru Gobind Singh which mention that the compositions in the present Dasam Granth was written by Guru Gobind Singh: Rehitnama Bhai Nand Lal mentioned Jaap Sahib is an important Bani for a Sikh. Rehitnama Chaupa Singh Chibber quotes various lines from Bachitar Natak, 33 Swiayey, Chopai Sahib, Jaap Sahib. In 1711, Sri Gur Sobha was written by the poet Senapat and mentioned a conversation of Guru Gobind Singh and Akal Purakh, written three of its Adhyay on base of Bachitar Natak. In 1741, Parchian Srvadas Kian quoted lines from Rama Avtar, 33 Swaiyey and mentioned Zafarnama with Hikayats. in 1751, Gurbilas Patshahi 10 – Koyar Singh Kalal, mentioned Guru Gobind Singh composed Bachitar Natak, Krisna Avtar, Bisan Avtar, Akal Ustat, Jaap Sahib, Hikayats etc.
This is first Granth mentioned Guruship of Guru Granth Shahib. In 1766, Kesar Singh Chibber mentioned history of compilation of Dasam Granth by Bhai Mani Singh Khalsa on directions of Mata Sundri, as he was first who wrote history after death of Guru Gobind Singh. In 1766, Sri Guru Mahima Parkash – Sarup Chand Bhalla, mentioned about various Banis of Guru Gobind Singh and compilation of Dasam Granth In 1790, Guru Kian Sakhian – Svarup Singh Kashish, mentioned Guru Gobind Singh composed, bachitar Natak, Krishna Avtar, Shastarnaam Mala, 33 Swaiyey etc. In 1797, Gurbilas Patshahi 10 – Sukkha Singh, mentioned compositions of Guru Gobind Singh. In 1812, J. B. Malcolm, in SKetch of Sikhs mentioned about Dasam Granth as Bani of Guru Gobind Singh; the length of the printed version of Dasam Granth is 1428 pages. It contains the Jaap Sahib, the Akal Ustat or praise of the Creator and the Bachittar Natak, which gives an account of the Guru's parentage, his divine mission and the battles in which he had been engaged.
Next come three abridged compositions of the wars of Durga, called Chandi, with demons. Following this is the Gyan Parbodh, or awakening of knowledge; these are the compositions included in Dasam Granth: Some birs include the following compositions: Ugardanti Malkauns Ki Vaar Asfotak Kabits The compositions within Dasam Granth play a huge role in Sikh liturgy, prescribed by Sikh Rehat Maryada: Jaap Sahib is part of Nitnem, which Sikh recites daily in morning. Tav-Prasad Savaiye, again a bani of Nitnem, is part of Akal Ustat composition, recited daily in morning along with above. Benti Chaupai, is part of Sri Charitropakhyan, recited in morning as well as evening prayers. Jaap, Tav Prasad Savaiye and Chaupai are read while preparing Khande Batey Ki Pahul; the first stanza of the Sikh ardās, an invocation to God and the nine Gurus preceding Gobind Singh, is from Chandi di Var. As per Sikh Rehat Maryada, a stanza of Chau