Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
An arcade is a succession of contiguous arches, with each arch supported by columns, piers. Exterior arcades are designed to provide a sheltered walkway for pedestrians; the walkway may be lined with retail stores. An arcade may feature arches on both sides of the walkway. Alternatively, a blind arcade superimposes arcading against a solid wall. Blind arcades are a feature of Romanesque architecture. In the Gothic architectural tradition, the arcade can be located in the interior, in the lowest part of the wall of the nave, supporting the triforium and the clerestory in a cathedral, or on the exterior, in which they are part of the walkways that surround the courtyard and cloisters. Many medieval arcades housed shops or stalls, either in the arcaded space itself, or set into the main wall behind. From this, "arcade" has become a general word for a group of shops in a single building, regardless of the architectural form; the word "arcade" comes from French arcade from Provençal arcada or Italian arcata, based on Latin arcus, ‘bow’.
Arcades go back to at least the Ancient Greek architecture of the Hellenistic period, were much used by the Romans, for example at the base of the Colosseum. Church cloisters often use arcading. Islamic architecture often uses arcades in and outside mosques in particular. In Renaissance architecture elegant arcading was used as a prominent feature of facades, for example in the Ospedale degli Innocenti or the courtyard of the Palazzo Bardi, both by Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence; the French architect, Bertrand Lemoine, described the period, 1786 to 1935, as l’Ère des passages couverts. He was referring to the grand shopping "arcades". A shopping arcade refers to a multiple-vendor space; the roof was constructed of glass to allow for natural light and to reduce the need for candles or electric lighting. The 18th and 19th century arcades were designed to attract the genteel middle classes. In time, these arcades became to be the place to be seen. Arcades offered shoppers the promise of an enclosed space away from the chaos that characterised the noisy, dirty streets.
As thousands of glass covered arcades spread across Europe, they became grander and more ornately decorated. By the mid-nineteenth century, they had become prominent centres of fashion and social life. Promenading in these arcades became a popular nineteenth-century pastime for the emerging middle classes; the inspiration for the grand shopping arcades may have derived from the fashionable open loggias of Florence however medieval vernacular examples known as'butterwalks' were traditional jettied colonnades in British and North European marketplaces. During the 16th-century, a pattern of market trading using mobile stalls under covered arcades was established in Florence, from where it spread throughout Italy. Examples of the earliest open loggias include: Mercato Nuovo by Giovanni Battista del Tasso. Arcades soon spread across North America and the Antipodes. Examples of these grand shopping arcades include: Palais Royal in Paris. Other notable nineteenth century grand arcades include the Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert in Brussels, inaugurated in 1847 and Istanbul's Çiçek Pasajı opened in 1870.
Shopping arcades were the precursor to the modern shopping mall, the word "arcade" is now used for malls which do not use the architectural form at all. The Palais-Royal, which opened in 1784 and became one of the most important marketplaces in Paris, is regarded as the earliest example of the grand shopping arcades. A royal palace, the complex consisted of gardens and entertainment venues situated under the original colonnades; the area boasted some 145 boutiques, cafés, hair salons, bookshops and numerous refreshment kiosks as well as two theatres. The retail outlets specialised in luxury goods such as fine jewellery, furs and furniture designed to appeal to the wealthy elite. Retailers operating out of the Palais complex were among the first in Europe to abandon the system of bartering, adopt fixed-prices thereby sparing their clientele the hassle of bartering. Stores were fitted with long glass exterior windows which allowed the emerging middle-classes to window shop and indulge in fantasies when they may not have been able to afford the high retail prices.
Thus, the Palais-Royal became one of the first examples of a new style of shopping arcade, frequented by both the aristocracy and the middle classes. It developed a reputation as being a site of sophisticated conversation, revolving around the salons, cafés, bookshops, but became a place frequented by off-duty soldiers and was a favourite haunt of prostitutes, many of whom rented apartments in the building. One of the earliest British examples of a shopping arcade, the Covered Market, England was opened on 1 November 1774 and is still active today; the Covered Market was started in response to a general wish to clear "untidy and unsavoury stalls" from the main streets of central Oxford. John Gwynn, the architect of Magdalen Bridge, drew up the plans and designed the High Street front with its four entrances. In 1772, the newly formed Marke
Guru Granth Sahib
Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the Sikh scriptures. It was compiled by the ten gurus of Sikhism and is itself regarded by Sikhs as the final and eternal living guru. Adi Granth, the first rendition, was compiled by Guru Arjan; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, added one shloka, dohra mahala 9 ang, 1429 and all 115 hymns of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur. This second rendition came to be known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib. After Guru Gobind Singh's death in 1708, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib for distribution; the text consists of 1,430 angs and 6,000 śabads, which are poetically rendered and set to a rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music. The bulk of the scripture is divided into sixty rāags, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author; the hymns in the scripture are arranged by the rāgas in which they are read. The Guru Granth Sahib is written in the Gurmukhī script, in various languages, including Lahnda, Braj Bhasha, Sanskrit and Persian.
Copies in these languages have the generic title of Sant Bhasha. Guru Granth Sahib was composed by the Sikh Gurus: Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Angad Dev, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh added 1 sloakh in mahala 9 Ang 1429, it contains the traditions and teachings of Indian sants, such as Ravidas, Ramananda and Namdev among others, two Muslim Sufi saints Bhagat Bhikan and: Sheikh Farid. The vision in the Guru Granth Sahib is of a society based on divine justice without oppression of any kind. While the Granth acknowledges and respects the scriptures of Hinduism and Islam, it does not imply a moral reconciliation with either of these religions, it is installed in a Sikh gurdwara. The Granth is revered as the spiritual authority in Sikhism. During the guruship of Guru Nanak Dev, collections of his holy hymns were compiled and sent to distant Sikh communities for use in morning and evening prayers, his successor Guru Angad Dev began collecting his predecessor's writings.
This tradition was continued by the fifth gurus as well. When the fifth guru Guru Arjan Dev was collecting religious writings of his predecessor, he discovered that pretenders to the guruship were releasing what he considered as forged anthologies of writings of the previous guru and including their own writings with them. In order to prevent spurious scriptures from gaining legitimacy, Guru Arjan Dev began compiling a sacred scripture for the Sikh community, he finished collecting the religious writings of Guru Ram Das, his immediate predecessor, convinced Mohan, the son of Guru Amar Das, to give him the collection of the religious writings of the first three gurus. In addition, he sent disciples to go across the country to find and bring back any unknown religious writings of theirs, he invited members of other religions and contemporary religious writers to submit writings for possible inclusion. Guru Arjan pitched a tent by the side of Ramsar tank in Amritsar and started the task of compiling the holy Granth.
He selected hymns for inclusion in the Adi Bhai Gurdas acted as his scribe. While the holy hymns and verses were being put together Akbar, the Mughal Emperor, received a report that the Adi Granth contained passages vilifying Islam. Therefore, while travelling north, he asked to inspect it. Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas brought him a copy of the Adi Granth. After choosing three random passages to be read, Akbar decided. In 1604, Adi Granth was completed and installed at the Harmandir Sahib, with Baba Buddha as the first granthi, or reader. Since communities of Sikh disciples were scattered all over northern India, copies of the holy scripture needed to be made for them; the sixth guru added the tunes of 9 out of 22 Vars. Seventh and eighth guru did not have writings of their own added to the holy scripture; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, included writings of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur in the Guru Granth Sahib, included 1 salokh in mahala 9 Ang 1429. In 1704 at Damdama Sahib, during a one-year respite from the heavy fighting with Aurangzeb which the Khalsa was engaged in at the time, Guru Gobind Singh and Bhai Mani Singh added the religious compositions of Guru Tegh Bahadur to Adi Granth to create a definitive compilation.
Religious verses of Guru Gobind Singh were not included in Guru Granth Sahib, but he added 1 sloak in mahala 9 Ang 1429. His banis are found in the Sri Dasam Granth, they are part in the daily prayers of Sikhs During this period, Bhai Mani Singh collected Guru Gobind Singh's religious writings, as well as his court poems, included them in a secondary religious volume, today known as the Dasam Granth Sahib. Sikhs consider the Guru Granth Sahib as the eternal living guru, the highest religious and spiritual guide for Sikhs and inspire all of humanity, its place in Sikh devotional life is based on two fundamental principles: on the "Gurbani", received by the Sikh gurus in their divine consciousness from God and revealed to mankind. The Guru Granth Sahib answers all questions regarding religion and that morality can be discovered within it; the word is the guru and the guru is the word. Thus, in Sikh theology, the revealed divine word was written by past gurus. Numerous holy men, aside from the Sikh gurus, are collectively referred to as Bhagats or "devotees."
In 1708 Guru Gobin
Guru Nanak was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day in the month of Katak, October–November. Guru Nanak travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth, he set up a unique spiritual and political platform based on equality, fraternal love and virtue. Guru Nanak's words are registered in the form of 974 poetic hymns in the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, with some of the major prayers being the Japji Sahib, the Asa di Var and the Sidh-Ghost, it is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak's sanctity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them. Guru Nanak was born on 29 November 1469 at Rāi Bhoi Kī Talvaṇḍī near Lahore, his parents were Kalyan Chand Das Bedi, popularly shortened to Mehta Kalu, Mata Tripta.
His father was the local patwari for crop revenue in the village of Talwandi. His parents were both Hindu employed as merchants, he had one sister, Bebe Nanaki, five years older than he was. In 1475 she moved to Sultanpur. Guru Nanak was attached to his sister and followed her to Sultanpur to live with her and her husband, Jai Ram. At the age of around 16 years, Nanak started working under Daulat Khan Lodi, employer of Nanaki's husband; this was a formative time for Nanak, as the Puratan Janam Sakhi suggests, in his numerous allusions to governmental structure in his hymns, most gained at this time. According to Sikh traditions, the birth and early years of Guru Nanak's life were marked with many events that demonstrated that Nanak had been marked by divine grace. Commentaries on his life give details of his blossoming awareness from a young age. At the age of five, Nanak is said to have voiced interest in divine subjects. At age seven, his father enrolled him at the village school. Notable lore recounts that as a child Nanak astonished his teacher by describing the implicit symbolism of the first letter of the alphabet, resembling the mathematical version of one, as denoting the unity or oneness of God.
Other childhood accounts refer to strange and miraculous events about Nanak, such as one witnessed by Rai Bular, in which the sleeping child's head was shaded from the harsh sunlight, in one account, by the stationary shadow of a tree or, in another, by a venomous cobra. On 24 September 1487 Nanak married Mata Sulakkhani, daughter of Mūl Chand and Chando Rāṇī, in the town of Batala; the couple had Sri Chand and Lakhmi Chand. Sri Chand received enlightenment from Guru Nanak's teachings and went on to become the founder of the Udasi sect; the earliest biographical sources on Nanak's life recognised today are the Janamsākhīs. Bhai Gurdas, a scribe of the Gurū Granth Sahib wrote about Nanak's life in his vārs. Although these too were compiled some time after Nanak's time, they are less detailed than the Janamsākhīs; the Janamsākhīs recount in minute detail the circumstances of the birth of the guru. Gyan-ratanavali is attributed to Bhai Mani Singh who wrote it with the express intention of correcting heretical accounts of Guru Nanak.
Bhai Mani Singh was a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh, approached by some Sikhs with a request that he should prepare an authentic account of Guru Nanak’s life. One popular Janamsākhī was written by a close companion of the Guru, Bhai Bala. However, the writing style and language employed have left scholars, such as Max Arthur Macauliffe, certain that they were composed after his death. According to the scholars, there are good reasons to doubt the claim that the author was a close companion of Guru Nanak and accompanied him on many of his travels. Nanak was a Guru, founded Sikhism during the 15th century; the fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. The Guru Granth Sahib is worshipped as the Supreme Authority of Sikhism and is considered the eleventh and final guru of Sikhism.
As the first guru of Sikhism, Guru Nanak contributed a total of 974 hymns to the book. Nanak’s teachings can be found in the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib, as a collection of verses recorded in Gurmukhi. There are two competing theories on Guru Nanak's teachings. One, according to Cole and Sambhi, is based on hagiographical Janamsakhis, states that Nanak's teachings and Sikhism were a revelation from God, not a social protest movement nor any attempt to reconcile Hinduism and Islam in the 15th century; the other states, Nanak was a Guru. According to Singha, "Sikhism does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood, but it has a pivotal concept of Guru. He is not an incarnation of God, not a prophet, he is an illumined soul."The hagiographical Janamsakhis were not written by Nanak, but by followers without regard for historical accuracy, contain numerous legends and myths created to show respect for Nanak. The term revelation, clarify Cole and Sambhi, in Sikhism is not limited to the teachings of Nanak, they include all Sikh Gurus, as well as the words of past and future men and women, who possess divine knowledge intuitively through meditation.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century. He lost sight in his left eye, he fought his first battle alongside his father at age 10. After his father died, he fought several wars to expel the Afghans in his teenage years and was proclaimed as the "Maharaja of Punjab" at age 21, his empire grew in the Punjab region under his leadership through 1839. Prior to his rise, the Punjab region had numerous warring misls, twelve of which were under Sikh rulers and one Muslim. Ranjit Singh absorbed and united the Sikh misls and took over other local kingdoms to create the Sikh Empire, he defeated invasions by outside armies those arriving from Afghanistan, established friendly relations with the British. Ranjit Singh's reign introduced reforms, investment into infrastructure and general prosperity, his Khalsa army and government included Sikhs, Hindus and Europeans. His legacy includes a period of Sikh cultural and artistic renaissance, including the rebuilding of the Harimandir Sahib in Amritsar as well as other major gurudwaras, including Takht Sri Patna Sahib and Hazur Sahib Nanded, Maharashtra under his sponsorship.
He was popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab, or "Lion of Punjab". Maharaja Ranjit Singh was succeeded by his son Maharaja Kharak Singh. Ranjit Singh was born on 13 November 1780, to Maha Singh Sukerchakia and Raj Kaur – the daughter of Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind, in Gujranwala, in the Majha region of Punjab. Several different clans have claimed Ranjit Singh as their own, his grand-daughters - the daughters of his son Duleep Singh - believed that their true ancestors belonged to the Sandhawalia family of Raja Sansi. Ranjit Singh has been described as "Sansi" in some records, which has led to claims that he belonged to the low-caste Sansi tribe. However, it is more that he belonged to a Jat gotra named Sansi: the Sandhawalias, who claimed Rajput descent, belonged to the same gotra. Ranjit Singh's birth name was Buddh Singh, after his ancestor, a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh, a Khalsa, whose descendants created the Sukerchakia misl before the birth of Ranjit Singh, which became the most powerful of many small Sikh kingdoms in northwestern Southern Asia in the wake of the disintegrating Mughal Empire.
The child's name was changed to Ranjit by his father to commemorate his army's victory over the Muslim Chatha chieftain Pir Muhammad. Ranjit Singh contracted smallpox as an infant, which resulted in the loss of sight in his left eye and a pockmarked face, he was short in stature, never schooled, did not learn to read or write anything beyond the Gurmukhi alphabet, however, he was trained at home in horse riding and other martial arts. At age 12, his father died, he inherited his father's Sukerchakia misl estates and was raised by his mother Raj Kaur, along with Lakhpat Rai managed the estates. The first attempt on his life was made when he was 13, by Hashmat Khan, but Ranjit Singh prevailed and killed the assailant instead. At age 18, his mother died and Lakhpat Rai was assassinated, thereon he was helped by his mother-in-law from his first marriage. In his teens, Ranjit Singh took to alcohol, a habit that intensified in the decades of his life, according to the chronicles of his court historians and the Europeans who visited him.
However, he neither smoked nor ate beef, required all officials in his court, regardless of their religion, to adhere to these restrictions as part of their employment contract. Ranjit Singh married many times, in various ceremonies, had twenty wives; some scholars note that the information on Ranjit Singh's marriages is unclear, there is evidence that he had many mistresses. According to Khushwant Singh in an 1889 interview with the French journal Le Voltaire, his son Dalip Singh remarked, "I am the son of one of my father's forty-six wives". At age 15, Ranjit Singh married his first wife Mehtab Kaur, the only daughter of Gurbaksh Singh Kanhaiya and his wife Sada Kaur, the granddaughter of Jai Singh Kanhaiya, the founder of the Kanhaiya Misl; this marriage was pre-arranged in an attempt to reconcile warring Sikh misls, wherein Mahtab Kaur was betrothed to Ranjit Singh. However, the marriage failed, with Mehtab Kaur never forgiving the fact that her father had been killed by Ranjit Singh's father and she lived with her mother after marriage.
The separation became complete when Ranjit Singh married his second wife Raj Kaur of Nakai Misl in 1798. Mehtab Kaur died in 1813. Raj Kaur, the daughter of Sardar Ran Singh Nakai, the third ruler of Nakai Misl, was Ranjit Singh's second wife and the mother of his heir, Kharak Singh, she changed her name from Raj Kaur to avoid confusion with Ranjit Singh's mother. Throughout her life she remained the favourite of Ranjit Singh. Like his first marriage, the second marriage brought him a strategic military alliance, his second wife died in 1818. Ratan Kaur and Daya Kaur were wives of Sahib Singh Bhangi of Gujrat. After Sahib Singh's death, Ranjit Singh took them under his protection in 1811 by marrying them via the rite of chādar andāzī, in which a cloth sheet was unfurled over each of their heads. Ratan Kaur gave birth to Multana Singh in 1819, Daya Kaur gave birth to Kashmira Singh in 1819 and to Pashaura Singh in 1821, his other wives include Moran Sarkar in 1802, Chand Kaur in 1815, Lakshmi in 1820, Mehatab Kaur in 1822, Saman Kaur in 1832, as well as Guddan, Gulbahar, Ram Devi, Bannat and Danno before his l
Guru Hargobind, revered as the sixth Nanak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. He had become Guru at the young age of eleven, after the execution of his father, Guru Arjan, by the Mughal emperor Jahangir. Guru Hargobind introduced the process of militarization to Sikhism as a response to his father's execution and to protect the Sikh community, he symbolized it by representing the dual concept of miri and piri. In front of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, Guru Hargobind constructed the Akal Takht, as a court for consideration of temporal issues and administration of justice; the Akal Takht represents the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa today. Guru Hargobind had the longest tenure as Guru, lasting 9 months and 3 days. Hargobind was born in 1595 in Wadali Guru, a village 7 km west of Amritsar, the only son of Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru, he suffered from smallpox as a child and survived a poisoning attempt by an uncle, as well as another attempt on his life, when a cobra was thrown at him.
He studied religious texts with Bhai Gurdas and trained in swordsmanship and archery with Baba Buddha. On 25 May 1606 Guru Arjan selected Hargobind as his successor and instructed his son to start a military tradition to protect the Sikh people and always keep himself surrounded by armed Sikhs for protection. Shortly afterwards, Guru Arjan was arrested and killed by order of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind's succession ceremony took place on 24 June 1606, he put on two swords: one indicated his spiritual authority and the other, his temporal authority. He followed his martyred father's advice and always kept himself surrounded by armed Sikhs for protection; the number fifty two was special in his life, his retinue consisted of fifty two armed men. He thus founded the military tradition in the Sikh faith. Guru Hargobind had three wives: Damodari and Mahadevi, he had children from all three wives. Two of his eldest sons from the first wife died during his lifetime. Tegh Bahadur, his son from Nanaki, became the ninth Sikh Guru.
The Guru was a martial artist, an avid hunter and, according to Persian records, unlike earlier Gurus, he and the Sikh Gurus that followed him were meat eaters. Guru Hargobind encouraged people to maintain physical fitness and keep their bodies ready for physical combat, he had his own Darbar. The arming and training of some of his devoted followers began; the Guru came to possess seven hundred horses and his Risaldari grew to three hundred horsemen and sixty musketeers. He nominated his grandson to succeed him as the seventh Guru Har Rai, he died in 1644 at Kiratpur Sahib, a town situated on the banks of river Sutlej, was cremated on the banks of River Sutlej, where now stands Gurdwara Patalpuri. Guru Hargobind led the Sikh response against Mughal power after Guru Arjan's execution, he nominally accepted Shah Jahan's authority but resisted the Islamic persecution, fighting four wars against Shah Jahan's armies. His attempts to transform the Sikh community brought him in conflict with the Mughal authority.
Because of the execution of Guru Arjan by Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind from the start was a dedicated enemy of the Mughal rule. He advised Sikhs to fight the Mughals; the death of his father at the hands of Jahangir prompted him to emphasise the military dimension of the Sikh community. He symbolically wore two swords, which represented piri, he created a formal court, Akal Takht. Jahangir responded by jailing the 14 year old Guru Hargobind at Gwalior Fort in 1609, on the pretext that the fine imposed on Guru Arjan had not been paid by the Sikhs and Guru Hargobind, it is not clear as to. The year of his release appears to have been either 1611 or 1612, when Guru Hargobind was about 16 years old. Persian records, such as Dabistan i Mazahib suggest he was kept in jail for twelve years, including over 1617-1619 in Gwalior, after which he and his camp were kept under Muslim army's surveillance by Jahangir, it is unclear. Scholars suggest that Jahangir had more or less reverted to tolerant policies of Akbar by about 1611 after he felt secure about his throne, the Sunnis and Naqshbandhi court officials at the Mughal court had fallen out of his favour.
Another theory states that Jahangir discovered the circumstances and felt Guru Hargobind was harmless, so he ordered his release. According to Surjit Singh Gandhi, 52 Rajas who were imprisoned in the fort as hostages for "millions of rupees" and for opposing the Mughal empire were dismayed as they were losing a spiritual mentor. Guru Hargobind requested Jehangir to let these Rajas be freed along with him and he stood surety for their loyal behaviour. Jahangir accepted his request but ordered the release of only as many as could hold onto the hem of his cloak when he walked out. So Guru Hargobind got an large cloak made and wore it the day of his release; as Guru Hargobind left the fort, the other 52 captive rajas held the hem of this cloak and thus were permitted to came out along with him. After his release, Guru Hargobind more discreetly strengthened the Sikh army and reconsolidated the Sikh community, his relations with Jahangir remained friendly. He accompanied Jahangir to Kashmir and Rajputana and subdued Tara Chand of Nalagarh, who had continued for a long time in open rebellion and all efforts to subdue him had failed.
During Jahangir's reign, Guru Hargobind fought a battle against the Mughals at Rohilla. The battl
Outline of Sikhism
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Sikhism: Sikhism – monotheistic religion founded in the fifteenth century upon the teachings of Guru Nanak and ten succeeding Gurus, emphasizing universal, selfless love and brotherhood. "Only those who selflessly love everyone, they alone shall find God". Guru Granth Sahib teaches the humans how to unite with the creator, it is the fifth-largest organized religion in one of the fastest-growing. Gurbani Guru Granth Sahib Nitnem Japji Sahib Asa Di Var - 24 stanzas used as a morning prayer Sukhmani Sahib - A popular set of hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib divided into 24 sections Laavaan - The four hymns of the Anand Karaj or wedding ceremony Sawayya - One of the morning prayers. Rehras - The evening prayer Tav-Prasad Savaiye Varan Bhai Gurdas Sikh philosophy Three pillars of Sikhism Naam Japo Kirat Karo Vand Chhako Sikh beliefs Reincarnation Meditation Grihastha Seva Guru Maneyo Granth Sikh Rehat Maryada – Code of conduct Prohibitions in Sikhism Bhakti Shakti Advaita Simran Selfless service Nāma – Naam Karan – Naam Japo – Five Thieves – Kaam – lust Krodh – anger, wrath Lobh – greed Moh – attachment Hankaar – ego, pride Five Virtues Sat – Truth Santokh – Contentment, Satisfaction Daya – Compassion, Kindness Nimrata – Humililty, Benevolence Pyaar – Love Sikh Rehat Maryada – Nanakshahi calendar – Ardās – Amrit – elixir of immortality - the sanctified nectar or sugar water substitute used in ceremonies.
It is prepared by stirring it in an iron bowl with the double-edged sword and continuous recitation of five banis by the five selected members of the Khalsa. Anand Karaj – Sikh marriage ceremony, meaning "Blissful Union" or "Joyful Union", it was introduced by Guru Amar Das. Antam Sanskar – Kirtan – call-and-response chanting Langar – communal kitchen where free food is distributed to all comers Charhdi Kala – Dasvand Naam Karan - Child's naming ceremony Amrit Sanchar – Baptism into the Khalsa tradition Akhand Path Continuous reading of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Anand Karaj - Wedding ceremony Antam Sanskar - Funeral rites Bandi Chhor Divas A celebration during Diwali Vasakhi A festival during late Spring Gurpurab A celebration a Guru's birth Akal Takhat - Nominal seat of Sikh temporal/political authority. Amritsar – city of 1.5 million in the northwestern part of India. It is home to the Harmandir Sahib, known as the Golden Temple, the spiritual and cultural center of the Sikh religion. Anandpur or Anandpur Sahib – Birthplace of the Khalsa Virasat-e-Khalsa Patna Sahib Goindval Sahib Harmandir Sahib - Holy shrine of the Sikhs in the holy city of Amritsar.
Kartarpur - Seat of Guru Nanak's first school. Nankana Sahib – Birthplace of Guru Nanak Samadhi of Ranjit Singh – Sikhism in Australia Sikhism in Afghanistan Sikhs in Belgium Sikhism in Canada Sikhs in Fiji Sikhism in India Sikhism in New Zealand Sikhism in Pakistan Sikhism in Thailand Sikhism in the United Arab Emirates Sikhism in the United Kingdom Sikhism in the United States / Sikhism in Germany Category:Gurdwaras Gurdwara Harimandir Sahib Gurdwaras in India Gurdwara Bangla Sahib Gurdwara Sri Tarn Taran Sahib Goindval Sahib Harmandir Sahib - Holy shrine of the Sikhs in the holy city of Amritsar. Gurdwaras in Canada Gurdwaras in the United States Gurdwara Sahib Fremont Sikh Gurdwara - San Jose Sikh Gurdwara of San Francisco Sikh Religious Society of Chicago Gurdwaras in Pakistan Kartarpur - Seat of Guru Nanak's first school. Nankana Sahib – Birthplace of Guru Nanak Khalsa Diwan Sikh Temple Gurdwara Sahib Klang Central Sikh Temple Gurdwara Sahib Silat Road Gurdwara Sri Guru Singh Sabha Gurdwara Sri Guru Nanak Satsang Sabha Gurdwara Khalsa Dharmak Sabha Gurdwara Pardesi Khalsa Dharmak Diwan Gurdwara Sahib Yishun / Gurudwaras in Germany and Switzerland Akali movement All India Sikh Students Federation Babbar Akali – British Sikh Student Federation Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee Khalistan movement – Separatist movement to create a Sikh homeland called Khālistān, in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan Ghadar Party Punjab Janata Morcha – Sarb Hind Shiromani Akali Dal – Singh Sabha Movement Shiromani Akali Dal – Haryana State Akali Dal – Shiromani Akali Dal – Shiromani Akali Dal – Shiromani Akali Dal – Shiromani Akali Dal – Shiromani Akali Dal Delhi – World Sikh Organization The Khanda is the symbol of Sikhism.
Baptised or Khalsa Sikhs wear the Five Ks: Kesh - uncut hair Kangha - a comb Kara - a circular Iron bracelet Kirpan - a small dagger Kachera - special underwear short, History of Sikhism Akali movement Anti-Sikh Riots - November 1984 Amritsar Massacre - April 13, 1919 Battle of Saragarhi - Famous battle First Anglo-Sikh War - 1845–1846 History of the Punjab Operation Blue Star - June 1984 Second Anglo-Sikh War - 1848–1849 Sikh holocaust of 1762 Sikh holocaust of 1746 Sikh Confederacy – Sikh Empire – Sukerchakia – Khalsa Sajana Divas Punjabi language Sikh Festivals Sikh names Turban Sikhs - article focused on Sikh society List of Sikhs Amritdhari – baptized Sikh who has undergone the Khalsa ceremony. According to Sikh Reht Maryada, any person, initiated into the Khalsa is called Amrit Dhari. Sahajdhari - unbaptized Sikh. Nihang - Sikhs who consume Bhang and other narcotics to assist in meditation. Panj Pyare or Panj Piare - title given to five Sikhs by Guru Gobind Singh at the historic divan at Anandpur Sahib on 30 March 1699 and who formed the nucleus of the Khalsa as the first batch to receiv