Manang District, Nepal
Manang District (Nepali: मनाङ जिल्ला Listen, a part of Gandaki Pradesh, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal. The district, with Chame as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,246 km² and had a population of 6,538; the pass of Thorung La at 5415 meters above the sea connects the district to Mustang District by providing a route between the towns of Manang and Muktinath. Manang district gets least amount of rainfall among districts of Nepal as it lies to the north of the Himalayas which blocks monsoon air; the Manang Valley, which lies close to the Nepal-Tibet border, offers tremendous opportunities due to its rich natural flora and fauna. Three tracks start from here; the first, via Thorangla and Mustang to Lhasa—a journey that takes four days. Along with the Marwaris who have migrated from India to Nepal in large numbers, the Manangies are the best known traders of Nepal, they have received special dispensation from the King to trade in South East Asia, travel abroad with precious stones and metals, musk and other items.
They import ready-made garments and electronic goods. Many of the Manangies spend as much as six months away from home. Many of them reside in Kathmandu; the parents' lack of proficiency in the English language is irrelevant as it in no way affects their trading skills. Since the area was opened to outsiders in the late 1970s, many have switched from the traditional agriculture to hoteleering; the trail from Manang to Muktinath has been used by the locals for hundreds of years to transport huge herds of sheep and yak in and out of Manang. It is an important route for the people of the region; the northern parts of Manang Valley are dry and desolate places different from the thick forests and brown green valleys of Sikkim and Eastern Nepal. The district consists of four rural municipalities; these are as follows: Chame Nashong Rural Municipality Narphu Rural Municipality Neshyang Rural Municipality Prior to the restructuring of the district, Manang District consisted of the following municipalities and Village development committees: Bagarchhap Bhakra Chame Dharapani Ghyaru Khangsar Manang Nar Ngawal Phu Pisang Tachi Bagarchhap Tanki Manang Thoche Zones of Nepal Districts in Nepal: their Websites, Official Facebook Page & ICT "Districts of Nepal".
Lamjung District, a part of Gandaki Pradesh, is one of the 77 districts of Nepal. The district, with Besisahar as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,692 square kilometres and as of 2011 had a population of 167,724. Lamjung lies in the mid-hills of Nepal spanning tropical to trans-Himalayan geo-ecological belts, including the geographical midpoint of the country, it has mixed habitation of ethnicities. It is host to the highest density of the Gurung ethnic population in the country; the epicentre of an earthquake on 25 April 2015 was near Lamjung District. Most of the major damage and casualties took place in Nepal's capital; the death toll was placed at over 8,800. However, only four deaths were reported in Lamjung District. While Lamjung was the district with the 20th most deaths in Nepal, it was damaged; the villages of Bichaur, Dudhpokhari, Gauda and Pyarjung were the most affected. Assistant Sub Inspector Bir Bahadur Thapa Magar identified the four deaths in Lamjung District as Lakshmi Gurung, 18, of Ilampokhari village.
Twenty-five people were injured in Lamjung District. Local police estimate 2,094 houses were destroyed while another 2,129 houses were damaged. "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Gorkha District, a part of Gandaki Pradesh, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal and connected with the creation of the modern Nepal and the name of the legendary Gurkha soldiers. The district, with Gorkha Municipality as its district headquarters, covers an area of 3,610 km² and has a population of 288,134, it is the location of the Manakamana Temple. The temples of great sage Gorakh Nath and goddess Gorakh Kali temple is located in district, after which the district got its name. Four major rivers run within and along it - the Chepe, Daraudi and Budhi Gandaki. There are three major legends associated with naming of "Gorkha". In Nepali,‘ Kharka’ means ‘Grass Land’; this land was believed to be like meadow in Ancient period. Thus it was named Kharka and the term Kharka got modified to Garkha and Garkha changed to Gorkha. In Sanskrit Scripture, ‘Gorakshaa’ means the protection of cow. Since Nepal is a country where killing a Cow is considered unholy and a serious crime, the land was named Goraksha and it became Gorkha.
Myth holds. There is still a cave with his idol of him in this place which supports the myth, thus since the city was established in the place where Sage Gorakhnath appeared, it was named ‘Gorkha’. River Daraundi Club masel. Manakamana Temple: The Manakamana Temple situated in the Gorkha district of Nepal is the sacred place of the Hindu Goddess Bhagwati, an incarnation of Parvati; the name Manakamana originates from "mana" meaning heart and "kamana" meaning wish. Venerated since the 17th century, it is believed that Goddess Bhagawati grants the wishes of all those who make the pilgrimage to her shrine to worship her. Gorakhnath: It lies ten meters down the southern side of Gorkha Palace, visited with great devotion by Brahmans and Chhetris considering it to be the holy pilgrimage Site. Great fare is organized each year on the day of Baisakh Purnima in Gorakhnath Cave. Gorakhkali Temple: This Temple is located at the west side of the Gorkha Palace. Chepe, Daraudi and Budhi Gandaki. Gorkha Kingdom: About 1700 steps leads you to the top of the hill at an altitude of 3281 ft. where Newar fashioned Gorkha Palace stands firm along with forts and temple boasting on its rich History.
It is at 40–50 minutes of Walking Distance far from Gorkha Bazaar. One can view Manaslu and Ganesh Mountains from the Palace Complex. Manaslu: Eighth highest mountain in the world Ligligkot and Lakhan Thapa Gaon are popular places in Gorkha for Hiking, Liglig has an interesting history. Dhike Dada is a new attraction for public from Tanahun and Lamjung. Gorkha town has daily bus services to and from Pokhara. Following is the data obtained from the PHASE Nepal website: Central/regional/zonal hospitals: 0 District hospitals: 2 Primary healthcare centres: 3 Health posts: 10 Sub-health post: 55 Number of doctors: 8A district hospital is in Gorkha, the municipal hospital in Amppipal is supported by a German NGO; the small health centers in many village development committees are without Auxiliary Health Workers, Auxiliary Nurse Midwives and Community Health Workers. So, people seeking emergency health assistance have to travel a long distance to the district headquarters or Kathmandu or end up dying because of lack of treatment.
Many people still believe in Dhami and Jhakri and are against taking medicine or going to the hospital for the treatment. An NGO, PHASE Nepal provides many health care facilities and training programs to three VDCs: Sirdibas, Bihi/Prok and Chumchet. Many people residing in these VDCs have benefited from the program; as per the National Population and Housing Census of Nepal 2011, the literacy rate of Gorkha is 66.34%. The female literacy rate is 59.44% and the male literacy rate is 75.09%. Drabya Saha Multiple Campus, Prithvi Narayan Muniplicity-8, Laxmi Bazar Gorkha Campus, Prithvi Narayan Muniplicity, Gorkha Bhawani Multiple Campus, Gorkha Dullav Campus, Ghyampesal, Gorkha Paropakar Adarsha Multiple Campus, Gorkha Bheemodaya Multiple Campus, Gorkha The district consists of 11 Municipalities, out of which two are urban municipalities and nine are rural municipalities; these are as follows: Gorkha Municipality Palungtar Municipality Sulikot Rural Municipality Siranchok Rural Municipality Ajirkot Rural Municipality Chum Nubri Rural Municipality Dharche Rural Municipality Bhimsen Rural Municipality Sahid Lakhan Rural Municipality Aarughat Rural Municipality Gandaki Rural Municipality Prior to the restructuring of the district, Gorkha District consisted of the following municipalities and Village development committees: "Districts of Nepal".
Chitwan District (Nepali: चितवन जिल्लाListen is one of 77 districts of Nepal, is located in the southwestern part of Province No. 3 with Bharatpur, the fourth largest city of Nepal, as its district headquarters. It covers an area of 2,238.39 km2, in 2011 had a population of 579,984 people. Bharatpur is a commercial and service centre of central south Nepal and major destination for higher education, health care and transportation in the region; the district takes its name from the Chitwan Valley, one of Nepal's Inner Terai valleys between the Mahabharat and Siwalik ranges, both considered foothills of the Himalayas. Narayangadh is located on the banks of the Narayani River, is the main town with numerous shopping zones where people come from all over the district and neighbouring districts. Chitwan is one of the few remaining undisturbed vestiges of the Terai region, which extended over the foothills of Nepal. There are several predication on the origin of the name Chitwan; some of the most satisfactory predications on the origin of its name are: The name Chitwan is a composite of the Sanskrit words चित्त, transliterated "citta" meaning heart and वन, transliterated "vana" meaning jungle or forest.
Thus, the meaning of Chitwan is Heart of the Jungle. Chitwan was a dense forest ruled by the Tharu God/King Chitrasen Baba, he ruled over his state. People believe him as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Still today, Tharu people worship his idol during HariBodhini Ekadashi in Chitrasari, way to Sauraha. Since the forest locally called ban was ruled by Lord Chitrasen, it was called Chitra Ban transliterated to Chitwan. Chitwan, still known as Dense Forest was a land of Bengal tiger. Leopard is locally called चित्रि according to Tharu language. Since the forest was densely populated by leopard or चित्रि, it was called the forest of leopard, namely चित्रि वन transliterated to Chitwan. Chitwan is the home land of Tharu people, who are renowned for their drawing, their houses are decorated by religious drawings denoting different phases of history and environment along that time. Since their homes in the forest were decorated with their drawings, locally called चित्र, the land was called चित्र वन transliterated to Chitwan.
Chitwan was a dense forest ruled by Chitrsen Baba, where different RishiMunis came to have their meditation during ancient time with numbers of wild animals like leopard and Bengal tiger. The people inhabiting the Chitwan District are predominantly peasant farmers cultivating food and cash crops such as rice, wheat, lentils and vegetables; the district is the major maize-producing area in Nepal, with an area under maize cultivation of 27,170 ha in the year 2003–04. Maize is cultivated on irrigated /seasonal irrigated land in winter and spring, on rain fed land in summer. Due to an easy road access, maize produced can be distributed to other parts of the country; the poultry industry in the district constitutes a significant proportion of the country's poultry industry. Chitwan is famous in Nepal for production of mustard oil; this popularity of the mustard in Chitwan is attributed to the predominant soil type silt, resulting from the flooding of the Narayani River and tributaries. Chitwan is profusely spotted with clay lands, which are good for growing rice and vegetables such as cabbage, radish, broccoli, cucumbers and carrot.
Chitwan is famous for floriculture, mushroom cultivation and bee keeping. At present Bharatpur's largest business area, Narayangadh, is less accessible due to the movement of the main bus terminal due to the previous king's son's anger with the politics of the citizens of the city; this bus terminal is however no longer in use following a successful people's movement in 2006. It is believed that Nepali leftist revolutionary leader Prachanda spent his childhood and youth in Chitwan. Chitwan is adapting the New Community Movement South Korean model of development. One of the biggest rice mills, Agam Food Industry, is situated in Chitwan; this industry process rice into various forms employing many local people. Chitwan is fresh place to live in. Chitwan is popular for tasty Taas, a spicy fried goat meat dish served with bhuja or cheura available in many restaurants. Momo, Sukuti Khaja Set and other Newa cuisine and Tharu food is popular. Dal bhat is the staple food of the area and dairy products are widely consumed.
For centuries, traditional fermented foods and beverages have constituted about 20% of the local diet. Depending on altitudinal variation, finger millet, buckwheat, vegetable and soybeans are grown. Chitwan has a rich flora and fauna. Nepal's first national park, the Chitwan National Park together with the adjacent Parsa National Park support a species diversity much higher than any other on the Indian subcontinent. Rare species include Bengal tiger, rhino, mugger crocodile, Indian rock python and several species of deer; the protected areas are guarded by a battalion of the Nepal Army and patrolled by anti-poaching units. The Rapti River flows east to south west in the south of Bharatpur and forms the northern border of the Chitwan National Park; the Narayani River flows north to south in the west of Bharatpur. It is the deepest and one of the biggest rivers of Nepal; the Narayani Bridge over the river connects Chitwan District with Nawalparasi District of Nepal. Small island, like Nagarban in Narayani river are popular picnic spot.
Bishazari Tal Lake is cl
Rasuwa District(Nepali: रसुवा जिल्लाListen, a part of Province No. 3, is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, a landlocked country Nepal, South Asia. The district, with Dhunche as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,544 km² and has a population of 43,300; as per census 2011 total households in Rasuwa district is 9,778. It is the smallest district by area, among 16 districts in the Himalaya region of Nepal. Origin of its name had begun as'Rasowa', believed to be derived as a combination of two Tibetan words ra and sowa as it was famous for its lamb and grazing lands, and people started to call it Rasuwa. The administrative division of Rasuwa comprised 5 Rural Municipalities. Rasuwa is accessible by bus from Kathmandu via Pasang Lhamu highway, with its headquarters being about 120 km from Kathmandu; as of 2013, 3 VDCs namely Thuman and Haku is not touched by any kind of roadway. Its territory has elevations ranging from 614 to 7,227 meters from mean sea Level. Forests cover 31.43 % of the land.
Steeply varying territory and plenty of natural blessings make Rasuwa a famous tourist destination in Nepal. Sightseeing places including Gosaikunda Lake and Mt. Langtang plus one of the hot springs in Nepal are located in the district. Following are five Rural Municipalities in Rasuwa District: Kalika Rural Municipality Gosainkunda Rural Municipality Naukunda Rural Municipality Parbatikunda Rural Municipality Uttargaya MunicipalityMany leaders of different parties are here but only 5 mayors are here. Nepali Congress won 2 places, CPN UML won Rastriya Prajatantrik Party won 1 seat/place; the first person, elected in Rasuwa from Nepali Congress was Mr. Bal Chandra Poudel; the history of other parties are not commeced yet but this district in Nepal is the one with no VDC. The winner of election 2070 bs in this district is Mr. Janarjan Dhakal. Rasuwa is rich in natural resources. Langtang mountain range stands to the north of Rasuwa; the northern parts of the area fall within the boundaries of Langtang National Park.
Gosainkunda Lake, Ganja La Pass, Tamang village in Bridim are the major highlights of Rasuwa for tourism. The Gosainkunda Lake known as "Frozen Lake", one of the most beautiful mountain lakes lies in the Langtang region. There are about 108 kundas in this area. Saraswati Kund, Bhairab Kund, Surya Kund and Gosainkund are most important ones. Langtang valley is another attraction in Rasuwa, aptly called the valley of glaciers; the valley offers pine forest, swift mountain streams, rugged rock and snow-capped peaks, grassy down and meadows strewn with daisies and wild animals. Radio Langtang Radio Rasuwa Radio Gosainkunda Rasuwa Khabar Online Langtang News Rasuwa Online Sahakarya Online News https://rasuwaprofile.com rasuwaprofile.com Rasuwa District Profile 2011 "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Sherpa is one of the major ethnic groups native to the most mountainous regions of Nepal, as well as certain areas of China, Bhutan and the Himalayas. The term sherpa or sherwa derives from the Sherpa language words Shar and Wa, which refer to their geographical origin in Kham Salmogang of eastern Tibet. Most Sherpa people live in the eastern regions of Nepal. Sherpas had village gompas. Tengboche was the first celibate monastery in Solu-Khumbu. Sherpa people live in China and the Indian states of Sikkim and the northern portion of West Bengal the district of Darjeeling; the Sherpa language belongs to the south branch of the Tibeto-Burman languages, it is a mixed Eastern Tibet and central Tibetan dialects. However, this language is unintelligible to Lhasa speakers; the number of Sherpas migrating to Western countries has increased in recent years to the United States. New York City has the largest Sherpa community in the United States, with a population of 3,000; the 2001 Nepal census recorded 154,622 Sherpas within its borders.
Some members of the Sherpa population are known for their skills in mountaineering as a livelihood. The Sherpa were nomadic people. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated from Kham in eastern Tibet to Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi and Chawa; these four groups split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today. Mahayana Buddhism religious conflict may have contributed to the migration out of Tibet in the 13th and 14th centuries and arrived in Khumbu regions of Nepal. Sherpa migrants travelled before crossing the Himalaya. By the 1400s, Khumbu Sherpa people attained autonomy within the newly formed Nepali state. In the 1960s, as tension with China increased, Nepali government influence on the Sherpa people grew. In 1976, Khumbu became a national park, tourism became a major economic force. Gautam concluded that the Sherpa migrated from Tibet to Nepal 600 years ago through Rongshar to the west and later through the Nangpa La pass.
It is presumed that the group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called "Shyar Khamba", the place where they settled was called "Shyar Khumbu". As the time passed, the "Shyar Khamba," inhabitants of Shyar Khumbu, were called Sherpa. A recent Nepal Ethnographic Museum study postulated that present-day Nepal became an integral part of the kingdom of Nepal. Since ancient times, like other indigenous Kirat Nepalese tribes, would move from one place to another place within the Himalayan region surviving as Alpine pastoralists and traders. Genetic studies shows that much of the Sherpa population has allele frequencies which are found in other Tibeto-Burman regions, in tested genes, the strongest affinity was for Tibetan population sample studies done in Xizang Tibetan Autonomous Region. Genetically, the Sherpa cluster closest with the sample Han populations. Additionally, the Sherpa had exhibited affinity for several Nepalese populations, with the strongest for the Rai people, followed by the Magars and the Tamang.
A 2016 study of Sherpas in China suggested that a small portion of Sherpas and Tibetans allele frequencies originated from separate ancient populations, estimated to have remained somewhat distributed for 11,000 to 7,000 years. A 2014 study observed that considerable genetic components from the Indian Subcontinent were found in Sherpa people living in China; the western Y chromosomal haplogroups R1a1a-M17, J-M304, F*-M89 comprise 17% of the paternal gene pool in tested individuals. In the maternal side, M5c2, M21d, U from the west count up to 8% of people in given Sherpa populations. However, a study from 2015 did not support the results from the 2014 study. In a 2015 study of 582 Sherpa individuals from China and Nepal, Haplogroup D-M174 was found most followed by Haplogroup O-M175, Haplogroup F-M89 and Haplogroup K-M9; the Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution for Sherpas follow a pattern similar to that for Tibetans. Sherpa mtDNA distribution shows greater diversity, as Haplogroup A was found most followed by Haplogroup M9a, Haplogroup C4a, Haplogroup M70, Haplogroup D.
These haplogroups are found in some Tibetan populations. However, two common mtDNA sub-haplogroups unique to Sherpas populations were identified: Haplogroup A15c and Haplogroup C4a3b1. Many Sherpa are regarded as elite mountaineers and experts in their local area, they were immeasurably valuable to early explorers of the Himalayan region, serving as guides at the extreme altitudes of the peaks and passes in the region for expeditions to climb Mount Everest. Today, the term is used by foreigners to refer to any guide or climbing supporter hired for mountaineering expeditions in the Himalayas, regardless of their ethnicity; because of this usage, the term has become a slang byword for a mentor in other situations. Sherpas are renowned in the international climbing and mountaineering community for their hardiness and experience at high altitudes, it has been speculated that part of the Sherpas' climbing ability is the result of a genetic adaptation to living in high altitudes. Some of these adaptation
Ethnic groups in Nepal
Ethnic groups in Nepal are a product of both the colonial and state-building eras of Nepal. The groups are delineated using ethnic identity or the caste system in Nepal, they are categorized by common endogamy. Endogamy carves out ethnic groups in Nepal. Nepal's diverse linguistic heritage evolved from three major language groups: Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman languages, various indigenous language isolates. According to the 2001 national census, ninety two different living languages are spoken in Nepal. Based upon the 2011 census, the major languages spoken in Nepal are Nepali and Bhojpuri. Since Nepal's unification, various indigenous languages have come under threat of extinction as the government of Nepal has marginalized their use through strict policies designed to promote Nepali as the official language. Indigenous languages which have gone extinct or are critically threatened include Byangsi and Longaba. Since democracy was restored in 1990, the government has worked to improve the marginalization of these languages.
Tribhuvan University began surveying and recording threatened languages in 2010 and the government intends to use this information to include more languages on the next Nepalese census. Pahari Hill Hindus of the Khas Gorkha tribe and the Newar ethnicity dominated the civil service, the judiciary and upper ranks of the army throughout the Shah regime. Nepali was the national language and Sanskrit became a required school subject. Children who spoke Nepali natively and who were exposed to Sanskrit had much better chances of passing the national examinations at the end of high school, which meant they had better employment prospects and could continue into higher education. On the other hand, children who natively spoke local languages of the Madhesh and Hills, or Tibetan dialects prevailing in the high mountains were at a considerable disadvantage; this history of exclusion coupled with poor prospects for improvement created grievances that encouraged many in ethnic communities such as Madhesi and Kham Magar to support the Unified Communist Party of Nepal and various other armed Maoist opposition groups such as the JTMM during and after the Nepalese Civil War.
The negotiated end to this war forced King Gyanendra to abdicate in 2008. Issues of ethnic and regional equity have tended to dominate the agenda of the new republican government and continue to be divisive. Today after the end of a 10-year-old Maoist conflict, the upper caste dominates every field in Nepal. Brahmin and Chhetri have advantages. Although Newars are low in numbers, their urban living habitat gives them a competitive advantage. Thus, Newars are at the top of the Human Development Index. From a gender perspective, Newari women are the most lead in every sector. Brahmin and Chhetri women have experienced less social and economic mobility compared to Newari women. Brahmin women experience less equality due to their predominately rural living conditions which deprives them of access to certain educational and healthcare benefits. Bahun and Chhetri castes form the historical topmost state elites' circle with the significant majority of leadership in executive, judicial, local administrative bodies, political parties and social organizations.
Hindu varna system highlights these castes as high castes and makes them favorable in higher social status due to favorable social norms and laws. The population wise ranking of 125 Nepalese castes/ethnic groups as per 2011 Nepal census