Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden
Adolf Frederick or Adolph Frederick was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. He was the son of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach; the first king from the House of Holstein-Gottorp, Adolf Frederick was a weak monarch, instated as first in line of the throne following the parliamentary government's failure to reconquer the Baltic provinces in 1741–43. Aside from a few attempts, supported by pro-absolutist factions among the nobility, to reclaim the absolute monarchy held by previous monarchs, he remained a mere constitutional figurehead until his death, his reign saw an extended period of internal peace, although the finances stagnated following failed mercantilist doctrines pursued by the Hat administration. The Hat administration ended only in the 1765–66 parliament, where the Cap opposition overtook the government and enacted reforms towards greater economic liberalism as well as a Freedom of Press Act unique at the time for its curtailing of all censorship, retaining punitive measures only for libeling the monarch or the Church of Sweden.
His father was Christian Augustus duke and a younger prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, prince-bishop of Lübeck, administrator, during the Great Northern War, of the duchies of Holstein-Gottorp for his relative Charles Frederick. His mother Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach was a descendant of earlier royal dynasties of Sweden, granddaughter of Princess Catherine of Sweden, eldest sister of King Charles X of Sweden. On his mother's side, Adolf Frederick descended from King Gustav Vasa and from Christina Magdalena, a sister of Charles X of Sweden. From both his parents he was descended from Holstein-Gottorp, a house with a number of medieval Scandinavian royal dynasties among its ancestors. Adolf Frederick was a 13th-generation descendant of King Erik V of Denmark. From 1727 to 1750 prince Adolf Frederick was prince-bishop of Lübeck, which meant the rulership of a fief around and including Eutin. After his first cousin Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp died in 1739, Adolf Frederick became administrator of Holstein-Kiel during the minority of the duke's orphan son known as Charles Peter Ulrich.
Shortly afterwards, the young boy was invited to Russia by his maternal aunt, Empress Elizabeth, who soon declared him her heir. In 1743, Adolf Frederick was elected heir to the throne of Sweden by the Hat faction in order that they might obtain better conditions at the Treaty of Abo from Empress Elizabeth of Russia, who had adopted his nephew as her heir, he succeeded as King Adolf Frederick twelve years on 25 March 1751. During his twenty-year reign, Adolf Frederick was little more than a figurehead, the real power being lodged in the hands of the Riksdag of the Estates distracted by party strife. Twice he endeavoured to free himself from the tutelage of the estates; the first occasion was in 1756 when, stimulated by his imperious consort Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, he tried to regain a portion of the attenuated prerogative through the Coup of 1756 to abolish the rule of the Riksdag of the Estates and reinstate absolute monarchy in Sweden. He nearly lost his throne in consequence. On the second occasion during the December Crisis, under the guidance of his eldest son, the crown prince Gustav, afterwards Gustav III of Sweden, he succeeded in overthrowing the "Cap" senate, but was unable to make any use of his victory.
Adolf Frederick died in Stockholm on 12 February 1771 after having consumed a meal consisting of lobster, sauerkraut and champagne, topped off with 14 servings of his favourite dessert: hetvägg made of semla and served in a bowl of hot milk. The king was regarded, both during his time and in times, as dependent on others, a weak ruler and lacking of any talents, but he was also a good husband, a caring father, a gentle master to his servants. His favourite pastime was to make snuffboxes, which he spent a great deal of time doing, his personal hospitality and friendliness were witnessed by many who mourned him at his death. Following his death, his son Gustav III seized power in 1772 in a military coup d'état, reinstating absolute rule. By his marriage to Princess Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, he had the following children: Gustav III Charles XIII Frederick Adolf Sofia Albertina With Marguerite Morel he had one son who died as a child: Frederici Adolf Frederick may have been the father of Lolotte Forssberg by Ulla von Liewen, but this has however never been confirmed
Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach was queen-consort of Denmark and Norway by marriage to King Christian VI of Denmark and Norway. She was born in Castle Schonberg, to Christian Heinrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach by his wife, Countess Sophie Christiane of Wolfstein, she was raised at the court of the Queen of Poland, Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, in Saxony. King Frederick IV of Denmark allowed Crown Prince Christian, to find a suitable bride. During a trip through Europe accompanied by Chancellor Ulrik Adolf Holstein the Crown Prince met Sophie Magdalene while she was serving as lady-in-waiting of the Queen of Poland at the Pretzsch Castle, she came from a small, insignificant poor and large German princely family. In the Crown Prince's letters he wrote that he fell for Sophie Magdalene's intense religiosity, which matched with his own beliefs, it would affect his reign. The wedding took place on 7 August 1721 at Pretzsch Castle in Saxony. A French envoy to the Danish court sent a description home of the 20-year-old Crown Princess:...
She's a impressive woman, although she is not high growth or of beautiful forms. She's not pretty, but her majestic attitude was notorious, her skin is white, her face-range is fine and soulful with light blue eyes. She used a lot of diamonds and other precious stones. About the Crown Prince, the French diplomat made one unflattering description:... He's a small, sickly-looking gentleman, his face is elongated, somewhat haggard, his nose is big. The eyes are prominent and mouth pulled up in a forced, stereotyped smile"; when Frederick IV died in 1730, Christian VI and Sophie Magdalene were crowned King and Queen of Denmark and Norway. She was behind the making of a new Danish queen's crown when she refused to wear the same one that the hated Queen Anna Sophie – whom she called "that whore!" – had worn. Queen Sophie Magdelene established the collection of crown jewels when she bequeathed a large part of her jewelry for that purpose; this includes the emeralds given to Sophie by King Christian VI upon the birth of the future Frederik V.
The marriage between the king and the queen was harmonious and her husband loved and trusted her, but the royal couple was not popular. Queen Sophie Magdalene was described as haughty and proud, she was accused of isolating the royal family within the court, dominated by the royal couple's strong religious feelings and the German favorites and relatives of the queen. A number of laws and prohibitions inspired by the strong religious feelings of the royal couple was issued, including a ban against theater performances and rides on Sundays, in 1735 introduced public holiday regulation with obligatory church attendance, where breaches of duty resulted in fines or time in jail. Sophie Magdalene's religiosity and strong influence of Pietism was expressed when in 1737 she founded at Vallø Castle the Noble Vallø Foundation for Unmarried Daughters, a home for aging and aristocratic unmarried women. Despite their Pietism, the royal couple loved the splendor and luxury. Sophie Magdalene made the most of her position as queen in matters of rank and ceremony, the court life was a mixture of subdued religious puritanism and ceremonious pomp.
The queen was accused of creating a certain isolation around the royal family. The king and the queen let themselves bee seen in public, were so humanly hostile that they let themselves be transported through the city in a carriage with covered windows. Sophie Magdalene led an extravagant lifestyle - despite Denmark's faltering economy. Following the fashion of queens of her day, she owned a lathe built by Diderich de Thurah, 1735–36, which she used for turning items of ivory or precious woods, it has been speculated that the love of Sophie Magdalene for the jewels and luxury came from her father-in-law, after watching him cover his consort, Anna Sophie Reventlow, with jewels and other gifts. She enjoyed fashion. Queen Sophie Magdalene was accused of never having discarded her German though German culture and language had been dominant at the Court before her time: the first member of the Danish royal family who spoke Danish rather than German was in fact Sophie Magdalene's great grandson, Frederik VI.
The Queen learned Danish. Her favoritism toward all things German over Denmark was reputed, her German entourage was favored over Danes. Among her German favorites where Frederica of Württemberg, who attracted wide spread dislike; the queen's dislike for all Danish was so pronounced that when she once visited Valløs noble monastery, where lived a majority of German women, she cried on the way into the room of the Danish Miss Rosenkrantz and said: "It smells so Danish!". As a queen, she received several of her relatives in Denmark, her younger sister, Sophie Caroline, Dowager Princess of Ostfriesland, was appointed by her as abbess at Vallø stift, with an annual pension of 16,600 thalers, a large sum in those times. At the National Archives is a letter from Sophie Magdale
Austrian Armed Forces
The Austrian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of Austria and the main military organisation responsible for the national defence. It includes following branches: the Joint Forces, which consists of the Land Forces, Air Forces, International Missions and Special Forces, next to Mission Support and Joint Command Support Centre; the military consists of 22,400 active-duty personnel and 1,000,000 reservists, of which 25,500 are joint-structured and 126,700 unstructured. The wartime strength is 55,000; the military budget is € 2.65 billion, which includes military pensions. Austria, a landlocked country, has no navy; that duty has been assumed by the Bundespolizei. Between 1918 and 1920, the Austrian semi-regular army was called Volkswehr, fought against Yugoslavian army units occupying parts of Carinthia, it has been known as "Bundesheer" since except when Austria was a part of Nazi Germany. The Austrian Army did develop a defence plan in 1938 against Germany, but politics prevented it from being implemented.
In 1955, Austria issued its Declaration of Neutrality, meaning that it would never join a military alliance. The Austrian Armed Forces' main purpose since has been the protection of Austria's neutrality, its relationship with NATO is limited to the Partnership for Peace program. With the end of the Cold War, the Austrian military have assisted the border police in controlling the influx of illegal immigrants through Austrian borders; the war in the neighbouring Balkans resulted in the lifting of the restrictions on the range of weaponry of the Austrian military, imposed by the Austrian State Treaty. The main constitutional tasks of today's Austrian military are: to protect the constitutionally established institutions and the population's democratic freedoms. To maintain order and security inside the country. To render assistance in the case of natural catastrophes and disasters of exceptional magnitude. Under the constitution, the President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In reality, the Chancellor has the decision-making authority, exercised through the Minister for National Defence.
The Chancellor chairs the National Defence Council, which has as its members a vice-chairman, the minister for national defence, an appointee of this minister, the Chief of the General Staff, a parliamentary representative. The minister for national defence, acting in co-operation with the minister for interior, coordinates the work of the four major committees under the National Defence Council: the Military Defence Committee; the Chief of the General Staff acts as the senior military adviser to the Minister for National Defence, assists the minister in the exercise of his authority, and, as the head of the general staff, is responsible for planning. However, the army commander exercises direct operational control of the Bundesheer in both peacetime and wartime. Article 79 of the constitution, as amended in 1985, states that the Army is entrusted with the military defence of the country. Insofar as the constituted civil authority requests its co-operation, the army is further charged with protecting constitutional institutions and their capacity to act, as well as the democratic freedoms of the inhabitants.
In administering the armed forces, the Ministry for National Defence is organized into four principal sections and the inspectorate general: Section I deals with legal and legislative matters. The general troop inspectorate is a separate section of the ministry with responsibility for co-ordination and fulfilment of the missions of the armed forces, it encompasses a general staff department, an attaché department, planning and inspection groups. The armed forces consist of the army, of which the air force is considered a constituent part. In 1993, the total active complement of the armed forces was 52,000, of whom 20,000 to 30,000 were conscripts undergoing training of six to eight months; the army had 46,000 personnel on active duty, the air force had 6,000 personnel. Under the area defence strategy, which had determined the army's organizational structure until 1993, the army was divided into three principal elements: the standing alert force of active units, including the air division. Both the mobile militia and the stationary militia were brought up to strength only in times of mobilization or during periods allotted for refresher training three weeks in June.
Training of conscripts was conducted by twenty-eight training and equipment-holding regiment
Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp
Hedwig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp was Queen of Sweden and Norway as the wife of King Charles XIII and II. She was a famed diarist and wit, she is known in Sweden by her full pen name in Swedish, though her official name as queen was Charlotta. She was born in Eutin the daughter of Duke Frederick August I of Holstein-Gottorp and Princess Ulrike Friederike Wilhelmine of Hesse-Kassel, she grew up in Eutin and married her cousin Charles, Duke of Södermanland, in Stockholm on 7 July 1774 when she was fifteen years old. The marriage was arranged by King Gustav III to provide the throne of Sweden with an heir; the King had not consummated his marriage and had decided to give the task of providing an heir to the throne to his brother. Prince Charles remarked that she was pretty; the marriage was suggested in 1772, the first ceremony took place in Wismar 21 June 1774: she arrived in Sweden 3 June. She entered Stockholm by gondola 7 June, the wedding ceremony took place the same night, followed by a masquerade ball in Kungsträdgården.
She was noted for her beauty — her waist measured a mere 48 cm and her shoe size 31 — and, as the marriage of the monarch had not been consummated after nine years, there were hopes that she would provide an heir for the throne. In January 1775, there were signs, it was hoped that the question of succession was solved, prayers were held in the churches. However, the signs soon proved to be false; the news of the false pregnancy made the king decide to consummate his marriage and provide an heir to the throne personally. She made a personal success with her cheerful temperament and became a center of the royal court, where she was for some time informally called "Little Duchess" and was noticed for her beauty and vividness and ease with words. With these qualities she fulfilled a contemporary ideal. In contrast to the shy Queen, Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, "Duchess Lotta" was lively and flirtatious, was in many ways the female center of the court, it was said of her: "One can not imagine anything more lively and cheerful.
She is joy itself. Her greatest pleasure is to make up foolishness, it would be a good thing, if she introduced that custom, as our by nature somewhat melancholic nation could need some cheering up"She participated in the amateur theatre which were an important part at the royal court at the reign of Gustav III, both as an actress and as a dancer. Her dancing was seen as scandalous by some, as ballet dancers were during this age regarded as prostitutes. After having been subjected to criticism that she and Princess Sophia Albertina distracted the King from the affairs of state by pursuit of pleasure, she retired from the stage in 1783, her marriage was distant and both she and her spouse had extramarital affairs. Charles paid more attention to his lovers than to her: at the time of their marriage, he was in the middle of his relationship with Augusta von Fersen, her intimate friendship with Countess Sophie von Fersen inspired rumors of bisexuality which, true or not, were repeated throughout her time as royal Duchess, by both Francisco de Miranda in 1786 and by Frederica of Baden.
From 1783, she had a long term relationship with Count Carl Piper, whom she herself referred to as her lover in her secret correspondence to Sophie von Fersen. Among her alleged lovers was Count Axel von Fersen, alleged lover of Marie Antoinette, it is not known. It has been suggested that this was a temporary affair which occurred during the stay of the royal court at Gripsholm Castle in the summer of 1784, she had a relationship with Axel von Fersen's younger brother, Count Fabian von Fersen Her affair with Fabian von Fersen is assumed to have started in the late 1780s was discontinued with the marriage of von Fersen in 1797. It was rumored at the time that the pregnancy, which ended in a miscarriage in 1792, was caused by Fabian von Fersen; the rumors of her extramarital affairs were given a lot of attention during her second pregnancy in 1797, which produced a stillborn daughter. The next year she gave birth a son, she was unable to have living children. She was indifferent to the affairs of her spouse as they gave her the opportunity to live more herself, she expressed her frustration when her husband's lack of lovers made him more focused toward her, which exposed her to his suspicions and accusations: "As long as he had his mistresses, things were better, but since the last one was exiled because she allowed herself to be insolent towards the King, he has not provided himself with a new one, his temperament has grown worse, I have daily been subjected to outbursts because of this, which has occurred in front of the staff.
This hostility have increased so much during the winter that I have reached the end of my patience." She expressed her views upon sexuality. Gustav III studied certain letters after his late mother in the company of others, as they contained information regarding the alleged love affair between his mother, Queen Louisa Ulrika, Count Carl Gustaf Tessin, the complaints from Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden over the attention Tessin gave his consort:"It is undoubtedly so, that these papers can give reason for reflection.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Carola of Vasa
Carola of Vasa was a titular princess of Sweden, the queen consort of Saxony. She was the last Queen of Saxony, she was the daughter of the former Crown Prince Gustav of Sweden and Princess Louise Amelie of Baden, a granddaughter of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, deposed in 1809. In the early 1850s, she was considered one of the most beautiful royal princesses of Europe. Suitors were not lacking, there had been plans for her to marry Napoléon III, Emperor of the French, she was a cousin of the Emperor's through her maternal grandmother Stéphanie de Beauharnais the adoptive daughter of Napoleon I and a Princess of the First French Empire. Her father was against the marriage due to the volatile political situation in France and his dynasty's historical dispute with the Napoleonic monarchy. 20 years when Napoleon III fell from power, her father is quoted as saying, "I foresaw that correctly!" In 1852, against her father's wishes, Carola converted to Catholicism. On 18 June 1853, Carola married in Crown Prince Albert of Saxony.
Their marriage was childless. Her closest heirs were: in paternal side, Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden, son of her first cousin, she had a good relationship to her parents-in-law and was described as their support during difficult times. As a crown princess, Carola began the activity within social issues which she would continue as a queen. In 1866, she visited Saxony's field hospitals in Vienna, where she made herself known as a good samaritan. In 1867, she founded the Albert commission, which contributed to the medical care of the German army during the war of 1870-71. For her work, she was decorated with the Saxon Order of Sidonia. In 1871, she accompanied Albert to Compiègne after the defeat of France, where she entertained the officers of the victorious armies as a popular hostess. In 1873, her spouse succeeded his father as King Albert I. In 1884, the deposed Vasa dynasty made peace with the new Swedish Bernadotte dynasty through her, when the remains of her grandfather, king Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, her father and her brother Ludvig were taken to Stockholm and interred in the royal crypt.
In 1888, Carola and her spouse made an official visit to Sweden. Queen Carola made an important contribution to the health care organisation in Saxony. In 1867, as Crown princess and Marie Simon founded the Albert-Verein, she founded a wet nurse school at Leipziger Tor, the hospital "Carola-Haus", the women employment agency Johannes-Verein, a women's school in Schwarzenberg, the home "Gustavheim" for the old and weak in Niederpoyritz, the school Lehrertöchterheim Carola-Stift Klotzsche and the home for handicapped Amalie hus Löbtau, Friedrichstadt. Carola was a popular queen, she was widowed in 1902. She was the 499th Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa. At the time of her death, she was the last surviving grandchild of Gustaf IV Adolf. Idun number 28, Friday 13 July 1888 Schimpff, George von. Aus dem Leben der Königin Carola von Sachsen: zur fünfundzwanzigjährigen Regierungs-Jubelfeier Seiner Majestät des Königs und Ihrer Majestät der Königin. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1898. Almanach de Gotha, Gotha 1887 und 1901 Hultman, H.: Prinsen av Vasa, Stockholm 1974 Louisa of Tuscany, Ex-Crown Princess of Saxony: My Own Story, London 1911
Kingdom of Saxony
The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany. The kingdom was formed from the Electorate of Saxony. From 1871 it was part of the German Empire, it became a Free state in the era of Weimar Republic in 1918 after the end of World War I and the abdication of King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony. Its capital was the city of Dresden, its modern successor state is the Free State of Saxony. Before 1806, Saxony was part of the Holy Roman Empire, a thousand-year-old entity that had become decentralised over the centuries; the rulers of the Electorate of Saxony of the House of Wettin had held the title of elector for several centuries. When the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in August 1806 following the defeat of Emperor Francis II by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, the electorate was raised to the status of an independent kingdom with the support of the First French Empire the dominant power in Central Europe.
The last elector of Saxony became King Frederick Augustus I. Following the defeat of Saxony's ally Prussia at the Battle of Jena in 1806, Saxony joined the Confederation of the Rhine, remained within the Confederation until its dissolution in 1813 with Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Leipzig. Following the battle, in which Saxony — alone of all the German states — had fought alongside the French. King Frederick Augustus I was deserted by his troops, taken prisoner by the Prussians and considered to have forfeited his throne by the allies, who put Saxony under Prussian occupation and administration; this was more due to the Prussian desire to annex Saxony than to any crime on Frederick Augustus's part, the fate of Saxony would prove to be one of the main issues at the Congress of Vienna. In the end, 40% of the Kingdom, including the significant Wittenberg, home of the Protestant Reformation, was annexed by Prussia, but Frederick Augustus was restored to the throne in the remainder of his kingdom, which still included the major cities of Dresden and Leipzig.
The Kingdom joined the German Confederation, the new organization of the German states to replace the fallen Holy Roman Empire. During the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, Saxony sided with Austria, the Saxon army was seen as the only ally to bring substantial aid to the Austrian cause, having abandoned the defense of Saxony itself to join up with the Austrian army in Bohemia; this effectiveness allowed Saxony to escape the fate of other north German states allied with Austria — notably the Kingdom of Hanover — which were annexed by Prussia after the war. The Austrians and French insisted as a point of honour that Saxony must be spared, the Prussians acquiesced. Saxony joined the Prussian-led North German Confederation the next year. With Prussia's victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, the members of the Confederation were organised by Otto von Bismarck into the German Empire, with WIlliam I as its emperor. John, as Saxony's incumbent king, was subordinate and owed allegiance to the Emperor, although he, like the other German princes, retained some of the prerogatives of a sovereign ruler, including the ability to enter into diplomatic relations with other states.
Wilhelm I's grandson Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated in 1918 as a result of Germany's defeat in World War I. King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony followed him into abdication and the erstwhile Kingdom of Saxony became the Free State of Saxony within the newly formed Weimar Republic; the 1831 Constitution of Saxony established the state as a parliamentary monarchy. The king was named as head of the nation, he was required to follow the provisions of the constitution, could not become the ruler of any other state without the consent of the Diet, or parliament. The crown was hereditary in the male line of the royal family through agnatic primogeniture, though provisions existed allowing a female line to inherit in the absence of qualified male heirs. Added provisions concerned the formation of a regency if the king was too young or otherwise unable to rule, as well as provisions concerning the crown prince's education. Any acts or decrees signed or issued by the king had to be countersigned by at least one of his ministers, who thus took responsibility for them.
Without the ministerial countersignature, no act of the king was to be considered valid. The king was given the right to declare any accused person innocent, or alternately to mitigate or suspend their punishment or pardon them, he was given supreme power over religious matters in Saxony. He appointed the president of the upper house of the Diet, together with a proxy from among three candidates suggested by that house, appointed the president and proxy of the lower house, as well; the king was given sole power to promulgate laws, to carry them into effect, only by his consent could any proposal for a law be advanced in the Diet. He had authority to issue emergency decrees and to issue non-emergency laws that he found needful or "advantageous," though such instruments required the counter-signature of at least one of his ministers, had to be presented to the next Diet for approval, he could not, change the constitution itself or the electoral laws in this manner. He was permitted to veto laws passed by the Diet, or to send them back with proposed amendments for reconsideration.
He was permitted to issue extraordinary decrees to obtain money for state expenditures refused by the Diet, through the