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Gustave Caillebotte

Gustave Caillebotte was a French painter, a member and patron of the Impressionists, although he painted in a more realistic manner than many others in the group. Caillebotte was noted for his early interest in photography as an art form. Gustave Caillebotte was born on 19 August 1848 to an upper-class Parisian family living in the rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis, his father, Martial Caillebotte, was the inheritor of the family's military textile business and was a judge at the Seine department's Tribunal de commerce. Caillebotte's father was twice widowed before marrying Caillebotte's mother, Céleste Daufresne, who had two more sons after Gustave: René and Martial. Caillebotte was born at home on rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis in Paris, lived there until 1866, when his father had a home built on 77 rue de Miromesnil. Beginning in 1860, the Caillebotte family began spending many of their summers in Yerres, a town on the Yerres River about 12 miles south of Paris, where Martial Caillebotte, Sr. had purchased a large property.

It was around this time that Caillebotte began to draw and paint. Caillebotte earned a law degree in 1868 and a license to practice law in 1870, he was an engineer. Shortly after his education, he was drafted to fight in the Franco-Prussian war, served from July 1870 to March 1871 in the Garde Nationale Mobile de la Seine. After the war, Caillebotte began visiting the studio of painter Léon Bonnat, where he began to study painting seriously, he developed an accomplished style in a short time and had his first studio in his parents' home. In 1873, Caillebotte entered the École des Beaux-Arts, but did not spend much time there, he inherited his father's fortune in 1874 and the surviving sons divided the family fortune after their mother's death in 1878. Around 1874, Caillebotte met and befriended several artists working outside the Académie des Beaux-Arts, including Edgar Degas and Giuseppe de Nittis, he attended the first Impressionist exhibition of 1874; the "Impressionists" – called the "Independents", "Intransigents", "Intentionalists" – had broken away from the academic painters showing in the annual Salons.

Caillebotte made his debut in the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876, showing eight paintings, Les raboteurs de parquet, his earliest masterpiece. Its subject matter, the depiction of labourers preparing a wooden floor was considered "vulgar" by some critics and this is the probable reason for its rejection by the Salon of 1875. At the time, the art establishment deemed only rustic peasants or farmers acceptable subjects from the working class; the painting is now at the Musée d'Orsay in Paris. A second version, in a more realistic style resembling that of Degas was exhibited, demonstrating Caillebotte's range of technique and his adept restatement of the same subject matter. With regard to the composition and painting style of his works, Caillebotte may be considered part of the first movement after Impressionism: Neo-Impressionism; the second period of Pointillism, whose main representative was Georges Seurat, announced its influence in the late works that Caillebotte painted at his country house in Petit Gennevilliers.

Caillebotte's style belongs to the School of Realism but was influenced by his Impressionist associates. In common with his precursors Jean-François Millet and Gustave Courbet, as well his contemporary Degas, Caillebotte aimed to paint reality as it existed and as he saw it, hoping to reduce the inherent theatricality of painting; because of his close relationship with so many of his peers, his style and technique vary among his works, as if "borrowing" and experimenting, but not sticking to any one style. At times, he seems much in the Degas camp of rich-colored realism; the tilted ground common to these paintings is characteristic of Caillebotte's work, which may have been influenced by Japanese prints and the new technology of photography, although evidence of his use of photography is lacking. Cropping and "zooming-in", techniques that are found in Caillebotte's oeuvre, may be the result of his interest in photography, but may just as be derived from his intense interest in perspective effects.

A large number of Caillebotte's works employ a high vantage point, including View of Rooftops, Boulevard Seen from Above, A Traffic Island. Caillebotte painted many domestic and familial scenes and portraits. Many of his paintings depict members of his family. There are scenes of dining, card playing, piano playing and sewing, all executed in an intimate, unobtrusive manner that portrays the quiet ritual of upper-class indoor life, his country scenes at Yerres focus on pleasure boating on the leisurely stream as well as fishing and swimming, domestic scenes around his country home. He used a

Stendal, Indiana

Stendal is an unincorporated community in southern Lockhart Township, Pike County, United States. It lies along southeast of the city of Petersburg, the county seat of Pike County, its elevation is 610 feet, it is located at 38°16′0″N 87°8′40″W. Although Stendal is unincorporated, it has a post office, with the ZIP code of 47585. Stendal was laid out in 1867, named after Stendal, in Germany. A post office has been in operation at Stendal since 1873; the athletic teams of Stendal High were known as the'Aces.' Despite of the fact that Stendal did not have a gymnasium, the "Gym-less Wonders" won 3 Pike County Tournaments behind the star power of Indiana Basketball Hall of Famer, Kern McGlothlin. The Aces won three IHSAA Sectional titles in Boys' Basketball. McGlothlin would return to Stendal as the head coach of the Aces, following a collegiate career at Evansville College. McGlothlin would accumulate a record of 319-134. Greencastle, Ind. Cannelton, Ind. and Winslow, Ind. Much of his IHSAA success came at Winslow, coaching fellow Hall of Dick Farley.

Stendal High closed in 1966. The last person to graduate was Carolyn McFarland, née Bone, Class of'66 valedictorian. Stendal is the hometown of former U. S. Senator Vance Hartke, who starred for the Stendal Aces basketball team in high school

Host (painting)

Host is a painting by Ellen Gallagher. It is in the collection of the Seattle Art Museum in Washington in the United States. Keeping in the tradition of Gallagher's early works, the painting comprises sheets of penmanship paper, painted with a light, beige oil paint, glued to a canvas with thousands of tiny lips and eyes drawn in graphite; the eyes look like googly eyes and the lips are large, banana-like in shape and exaggerated similar to the make-up worn by white actors in minstrel shows. This painting was acquired by the museum with gifts from Richard and Elizabeth Hedreen and the Margaret E. Fuller Purchase Fund. Host was first exhibited at the American Academy of Arts and Letters' "Invitational Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture" in 2000 in New York City, it was exhibited four times at the Seattle Art Museum as part of various group exhibitions. It was exhibited in New York at the New Museum as part of Gallagher's solo show, "Ellen Gallagher: Don't Axe Me" in 2013; this is one of many in a collection of works by Gallagher that reflects on early African-American stereotypes those depicted in minstrel shows.

This, among other similar paintings by the artist, have been described as being deceptively part of the minimalism movement, until the viewer sees the details mouths and eyes. Doll's Eyes - a painting by Gallagher with a similar theme