Tocumen International Airport
Tocumen International Airport is the international airport of Panama City, the capital of Panama. The airport serves as the homebase for Copa Airlines and is a regional hub to and from The Caribbean, South and Central America and additionally features routes to some European and Asian cities. There is high terrain to the north of the airport; the Tocumen VOR-DME and non-directional beacon are located just south of the field. During World War II, Panamanian airports were leased by the U. S. military. The nearest airport to Tocumen was the Paitilla Point Airfield. Several airports were built to protect the Panama Canal from foreign aggression; the 37th Pursuit Group at Albrook Field replaced the P-40 Warhawks of the 28th Pursuit Squadron at the Paitilla Point airbase from 9 December 1941 though 26 March 1942 in the immediate aftermath of the Pearl Harbor attack. Tocumen International Airport was inaugurated on June 1, 1947 by President Enrique A. Jiménez, airport operations began before the construction works were completed.
The administrative building/passenger terminal was inaugurated seven years during the administration of Colonel Jose Antonio Remon Cantera. The old airport building, being used as a cargo terminal, was built on an area of 720 ha and was 126 ft above sea level; as time passed, due to Panama's role as a country of transit, that terminal became too small to attend to the growing demand for air operations. These circumstances compelled the aeronautical authorities at the time to consider expanding the airport. Work on the new buildings began in 1971. In order to build the structure that houses the current passenger terminal, a lot of land had to be moved and the bed of the Tocumen river had to be diverted from its original site; the current passenger terminal was inaugurated on August 15, 1978 and operations began on September 5 of the same year. The Tocumen International Airport is one of the few airports in the region that has two landing runways able to serve the largest commercial aircraft operating today.
The name of the airport was changed in 1981 by the military government for Omar Torrijos International Airport, in honor to the Panamanian leader who died on July 31, 1981, at the age of 52 in a plane crash in Cerro Marta, Coclesito in bad conditions. After nine years, the original name was reestablished after the fall of the dictatorship of Panama by the U. S. invasion of 1989. The original runway is used for cargo and private flights, but as a supplement to the primary runway during peak traffic periods; the main runway is 3,050 m × 45 m and is used for commercial flights, the 03R direction is ILS Cat. I enabled; until May 31, 2003 Tocumen International Airport was managed by the Civil Aeronautics Directorate. On June 1 of that year, an innovative terminal management platform was created through Law No. 23 of January 29, 2003, which set out a regulatory framework for the management of airports and landing strips in Panama. This law allowed the creation of Aeropuerto Internacional de Tocumen, S.
A. referred to as Tocumen, S. A. which manages the terminal. This law is one of a number of laws that restructured the aeronautical sector in Panama to further its improvement and modernization. In August 2015, it was announced that Emirates would operate flights to Tocumen International Airport from Dubai starting February 2016, at which point it would have become the world's longest non-stop flight. In January 2016, the route was delayed due to a lack of economical opportunities for the flight, it has not yet been announced when the flight will begin scheduled operations. It was planned to make the route between Tocumen International Airport and Dubai the longest flight in the world, until Emirates started flying between Dubai and Auckland. During 2018, Tocumen International Airport will undergo the completion of the airport's new South Terminal. In 2006, Tocumen S. A. started a major renovation program. The main passenger terminal was expanded 20,830 m2 at a cost of US$21 million. New boarding gates were built to allow more flights to and from Panama, to facilitate the growth of commercial and internal circulation areas.
Tocumen airport administration acquired 22 new boarding bridges and replaced the oldest 14. This included the addition of 6 remote positions, hence allowing Tocumen Airport to have a total of 28 boarding gates; the new installations were opened in 2006. The airport has a VIP lounge, Copa Club, operated by the partnership between United Airlines and Copa Airlines that caters to Copa's partner airlines and Star Alliance members, it had an Admirals Club for American Airlines, which closed on June 30, 2012. The Lounge Panama, a VIP airport lounge operated by Global Lounge Network started operations at PTY on January 9, 2019; the next step of the modernization project was the purchasing of new equipment to provide service and support to the common areas of the airport. New equipment included: modern boarding gates and elevators, luggage conveyor belts, flight information system, revamping the air conditioning system; the renovation of the old Tocumen international airport to be used as a cargo terminal, was the last step of the modernization project of Tocumen international airport.
It included the redesign of the central building, the construction of new buildings for cargo companies among other improvements. The second expansion phase of Tocumen International airport is the Northern Terminal. At a cost of USD 60 million, a new term
Air Transat is a Canadian leisure airline based in Montreal, operating scheduled and charter flights, serving 63 destinations in 30 countries. The airline is owned and operated by Transat A. T. Inc. Francois Legault founded Air Transat with other business partners such as Jean-Marc Eustache, Philippe Sureau, Lina de Cesare, Yvon Lecavalier and Pierre Ménard. Legault left the company in 1997 with no forewarning after a dispute with business partners, who only found out after the fact. Air Transat made its inaugural flight on November 1987, travelling from Montreal to Acapulco. Six years Air Transat assumed defunct Nationair's maintenance base and aircraft. Today, the company books over 3.5 million passengers a year. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transat A. T. Inc. Air Transat is now one of Canada's largest airlines, after Air WestJet. Air Transat has 5,000 employees. On February 13, 2011, Air Transat Flight TS163 operated with their first all female flight crew from Cancun to Vancouver; the airline has won many awards, including the 2012 and 2018 Skytrax World's Best Leisure Airline Awards.
On February 13, 2009, Transat A. T. announced a five-year partnership with CanJet. Since 1 May 2009, Transat Tours Canada has chartered CanJet's Boeing 737 aircraft flying from Canadian cities to various destinations; this replaced an agreement with Calgary based Westjet. On September 13, 2013, Air Transat struck a seasonal lease deal with Air France-KLM leisure carrier Transavia France, covering the lease of up to nine Boeing 737-800s by 2019; the deal, which extends a 2010 winter capacity agreement, calls for Transavia France to lease four 737-800s to Air Transat during winter 2014, five in 2016, six in 2017, seven in 2018 and eight in 2019. Although the first two groups of refugees from Syria arrived in Canada on government aircraft in December 2015, the next two groups were on Air Transat aircraft. While it was unlikely that Air Transat would be the exclusive airline chartered by the Canadian government if more than 35,000 refugees would arrive in 2016 a spokesman advised the Toronto Star that the company had been confirmed as the airline that would bring the second group to Canada on 21 December.
In a Transat press release, Jean-François Lemay, the carrier's general manager made the following statement, "We are pleased to be the first Canadian airline company to engage in this major humanitarian effort, to be assisting the Canadian government and international authorities in this way."Air Transat and Flair Air were accused by a CBC News story of misleading customers and regulators in both Canada and Mexico by marketing and selling nonstop tickets between Edmonton and Cancun. CBC uncovered a letter in which the airlines admitted that they would divert for a technical stop to refuel. Air Transat specializes in charter flights from 19 Canadian cities to vacation destinations to 15 countries in the south during winter and in 11 European countries during summer; some destinations are provided all year around by the airline. During the summer season its main destinations are Europe and in the winter season the Caribbean, United States and Central America, though the airline operates many year-round flights to Europe from their Toronto and Montreal bases.
Its main Canadian gateways are Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport and Vancouver International Airport. The airline has operations at Calgary International Airport, Edmonton International Airport, Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport and others; as of December 2018, the Air Transat fleet consists of the following aircraft: Air Transat has operated several other aircraft types in the past including the following: Boeing 727-200 Boeing 737-400 Boeing 757-200 Lockheed L-1011-385 Tristar On August 24, 2001, Air Transat Flight 236, an Airbus A330-200, en route from Toronto to Lisbon with 306 crew and passengers, piloted by Captain Robert Piche, made an emergency landing in the Azores without engine power due to fuel starvation over the Atlantic Ocean. The aircraft safely landed on Terceira Island; the aircraft was evacuated in 90 seconds. All 306 passengers on board survived. An investigation revealed that the cause of the accident was a fuel leak in the number two engine, caused by an incorrect part installed in the hydraulics system by Air Transat maintenance staff.
The part did not maintain adequate clearance between the hydraulic lines and the fuel line, allowing vibration in the hydraulic lines to degrade the fuel line and cause the leak. The aircraft involved in the incident remains in service with Air Transat; the incident went down in history as the longest non-powered flight and landing by a commercial airliner. On March 6, 2005, Air Transat Flight 961, an Airbus A310-300, en route from Varadero to Québec City with 9 crew and 261 passengers on board, experienced a structural failure in which the rudder detached in flight; the crew returned to Cuba. It has been established that no unusual rudder inputs had been used by the crew during the flight, they were not manipulating the rudder when it failed and there was no obvious fault in the rudder or yaw-damper system; the investigation that followed determined that the manufacturer's inspection procedure for the composite rudder was not adequate. Inspection procedures for composite structures on airliners were changed because of this incident.
On July 18, 2016, Air Transat Flight 725, an Airbus A310-300, en route from Glasgow to Toronto with 250 passengers was grounded overnight following the arrest of pilots Captain Jean-Francois Perreault and Imran Zafar Syed for preparing to fl
Santiago de Cali, or Cali, is the capital of the Valle del Cauca department, the most populous city in southwest Colombia, with an estimated 2,319,655 residents according to 2005-2020/DANE population projections. The city spans 560.3 km2 with 120.9 km2 of urban area, making Cali the second-largest city in the country by area and the third most populous. As the only major Colombian city with access to the Pacific Coast, Cali is the main urban and economic centre in the southwest of the country, has one of Colombia's fastest-growing economies; the city was founded on 25 July 1536 by the Spanish explorer Sebastián de Belalcázar. Cali is a centre for sports in Colombia, is the only Colombian city to have hosted the Pan American Games, it hosted the 1992 World Wrestling Championships, the ninth edition of the World Games in 2013, the UCI Track Cycling World Championships in 2014 and the World Youth Championships in Athletics in 2015. Cali will host the first Junior Pan American Games in 2021. Cali is the shortened form of the official name of the city: Santiago de Cali.
"Santiago" honours Saint James. The origin of the word "Cali" comes from the local Amerindians the "Calima". Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the region was inhabited by indigenous tribes speakers of Cariban languages. In the region between the Cauca River and the Western Cordillera, the Gorrones established themselves between the present day Roldanillo and Santiago de Cali; the biggest town of the Morrones was sited on the River Pescador near the present-day towns of Zarzal and Bugalagrande. The Morrones traded with the Quimbayas. On his way to Cali, Sebastián de Belalcázar first met the Timbas who ran away before the arrival of the men, leaving behind gold. After the Timbas, towards the north, the Spaniards entered the territory of the chief Jamundí and his tribe, the Jamundíes, between the rivers Pance and Jamundí; this tribe offered a strong resistance to the invaders, fighting with poisonous darts and arrows against the arquebuses and swords of the Spaniards. The Spanish prevailed in the struggle over the central valley.
Before taking control over the region, the Spaniards had to defeat the chief Petecuy, whose tribe inhabited the area between the river Lilí and the Western Cordillera. Petecuy formed a big army with many tribes and fought the Spaniards on Holy Tuesday of 1536; the natives lost to the Spaniards and the region was divided in encomiendas. Santiago de Cali was important for Belalcázar. After the capture and execution of the Inca Atahualpa at Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro had sent Belalcázar to take possession of Guayaquil and Quito on his behalf, but Cali, being outside the Quechua empire, was claimed by Belalcazar as his own territory. After his death, his descendants maintained possession of much of the land until the war of independence against Spain; the founder of Cali, Sebastián de Belalcázar, came to the American continent in the third voyage made by Columbus in 1498. In 1532, after serving in Darién and Nicaragua, he joined Francisco Pizarro in the conquest of Perú. In 1534, Belalcázar separated from Pizarro's expedition to find the city of Quito, in his search of El Dorado he entered the territory of what is now Colombia, founding the cities of Pasto and Popayán.
Belalcázar founded Santiago de Cali on 25 July 1536, a few kilometres north of its present location, near what are now the towns of Vijes and Riofrío. Under the orders of Belalcázar, captain Miguel Muñoz moved the city to its present location in 1537, where the chaplain Brother Santos de Añasco celebrated a mass in the place occupied by the Church La Merced today, Belalcázar designated Pedro de Ayala as the first municipal authority. During the Colonia, Santiago de Cali was part of the gobernación of Popayán, part of Quito's Audiencia. Although Cali was the capital of Popayán's gobernación, Belalcázar moved this function to Popayán in 1540, owing to "better" weather there; until the 18th century most of the territory of what is now Santiago de Cali was occupied by haciendas, the city was only a small town near the Cali River. In 1793, Santiago de Cali had 6,548 inhabitants; the haciendas were the property of the dominant noble class with many slaves dedicated to stockbreeding and raising sugar cane crops.
Many of these haciendas became zone of the present city like Cañaveralejo, Pasoancho, Arroyohondo, Cañasgordas and Meléndez. Santiago de Cali was strategically positioned for trade, centrally located in relation to the mining regions of Antioquia, Chocó, Popayán. In the colonial period, the first trail for mules and horses between Santiago de Cali and the port of Buenaventura was completed. On 3 July 1810 Santiago de Cali refused to recognize the Council of Regency of Spain, established its own junta; this local uprising predates the national one in Bogotá by 17 days. The Governor of Popayán, Miguel Tacón organized an army to control the uprising; the people from Cali called for help to the "Junta Suprema" in Bogotá, which sent a contingent under colonel Antonio Baraya to support the independence cause. For mutual defense, Cali formed, with Anserma, Toro and Caloto, the Confederated cities of the Cauca Valley, which declared independence from the Governorate of Popayán on 1 February 1811, although they continued to recognize the absent Ferdinand VII as their head of state.
On 28 March 1811 in the battle of Bajo Palacé, the first in C
Aerovías de Integración Regional S. A. d/b/a LATAM Airlines Colombia, known as LAN Colombia, is a Colombian airline. It is the second-largest air carrier in Colombia; the airline operates scheduled regional domestic and international services, as well as a domestic cargo service. Its main base is El Dorado International Airport in Bogotá. On 28 October 2010, it was announced that 98% of the shares in the previous airline AIRES had been acquired by Chilean carrier LATAM Airlines. On 3 December 2011, it started operations as LAN Colombia, it became an affiliate member of the Oneworld alliance on 1 October 2013. LATAM Colombia's fleet consists of the following aircraft: The airline operated the following aircraft: 4 further Airbus A320-200 On 28 January 2008, AIRES Flight 053 overran the runway at Bogota's El Dorado airport, en route from Maracaibo, Venezuela after the left hand main gear collapsed; the aircraft was a Dash 8-202, registration HK-3997. Probable cause for the crash was that the aircraft was carrying out a landing with an unresolved fault in the left engine, which prevented the aircraft from being able to stop within the length of runway available, causing a runway excursion.
A contributing factor was the failure to correct the maintenance reports in a satisfactory manner and failure to properly follow-up on repetitive entries. On 23 August 2008, AIRES Flight 051 sustained substantial damage following the collapse of the right hand main landing gear on landing at Barranquilla-Ernesto Cortissoz Airport, Colombia. None of the 31 occupants were injured; the Bombardier Dash 8-301, registered HK-3952, operated on an international flight from Curaçao-Hato International Airport. The approach and landing were normal, touching down about 770 metres past the threshold of runway 23; the crew noticed a vibration of the right hand main gear. The undercarriage leg collapsed. There was no fire. On 16 August 2010, AIRES Flight 8250 crashed on landing at Gustavo Rojas Pinilla International Airport, in San Andrés, after being struck by lightning during a thunderstorm; the death of one person was reported as a result of a heart attack on the way to the hospital and another 114 were injured.
One of the injured occupants died. The cause was determined to be pilot error. Official website Conexión LAN Airlines buys Aires
American Airlines, Inc. is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, scheduled passenger-kilometers flown, number of destinations served. American, together with its regional partners, operates an extensive international and domestic network with an average of nearly 6,700 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries. American Airlines is a founding member of Oneworld alliance, the third largest airline alliance in the world. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle. American operates out with Dallas/Fort Worth being its largest. American operates its primary maintenance base in Tulsa in addition to the maintenance locations located at its hubs; as of 2017, the company employs over 122,000 people. Through the airline's parent company, American Airlines Group, it is publicly traded under NASDAQ: AAL with a market capitalization of about $25 billion as of 2017, included in the S&P 500 index.
American Airlines was started in 1930 via a union of more than eighty small airlines. The two organizations from which American Airlines was originated were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport; the former was first created in Missouri in 1921, with both being merged in 1929 into holding company The Aviation Corporation. This in turn, was rebranded as American Airways. In 1934, when new laws and attrition of mail contracts forced many airlines to reorganize, the corporation redid its routes into a connected system, was renamed American Airlines. Between 1970 and 2000, the company grew into being an international carrier, purchasing Trans World Airlines in 2001. American had a direct role in the development of the DC-3, which resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Donald Douglas, when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes. Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase 20 aircraft.
The prototype DST first flew on December 17, 1935. Its cabin was 92 in wide, a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3. American Airlines inaugurated passenger service on June 26, 1936, with simultaneous flights from Newark, New Jersey and Chicago, Illinois. In 2011, due to a downturn in the airline industry, American Airlines' parent company AMR Corporation filed for bankruptcy protection. In 2013, American Airlines merged with US Airways but kept the American Airlines name, as it was the better recognized brand internationally; as of December 2018, American Airlines flies to 95 domestic destinations and 95 international destinations in 55 countries in five continents. American operates ten hubs. Charlotte – American's hub for the Southeast. About 42 million passengers fly through CLT on about 115,000 people per day. American has about 91% of the market share at CLT, making it the airport's largest airline.
Chicago–O'Hare – American's hub for the Midwest. About 28 million passengers fly on American through O'Hare every year, or about 77,000 people per day. American has about 35% of the market share at O'Hare making it the airport's second-largest airline after United. Dallas/Fort Worth – American's hub for the South. American has about 84% of the market share and flies 57 million passengers through DFW every year, about 156,000 people per day making it the busiest airline at the airport. American's corporate headquarters are in Fort Worth near the airport. DFW serves as American's primary gateway to Mexico, secondary gateway to Latin America. Los Angeles – American's hub for the West Coast and its transpacific gateway. About 16.5 million passengers fly through LAX on American every year, or about 45,000 people per day. American has about 19 % of the market share at LAX. Miami – American's primary Latin American hub. About 30 million passengers fly through MIA every year on American, about 79,000 people per day.
American has about 68% of the market share at Miami International, making it the largest airline at the airport. New York–JFK – American's secondary transatlantic hub. About 7 million passengers fly through JFK on American every year, or about 19,000 people per day. American has about 12% of the market share at JFK, making it the third-largest carrier at the airport behind Delta and JetBlue. Since 2017, American has been reducing its international operations at JFK, opting to expand its Philadelphia hub instead. JFK serves as a major connecting point for other Oneworld carriers. New York–LaGuardia – American's second New York hub. About 8.5 million passengers fly through LGA on about 23,000 people per day. The airport serves as a base for American Airlines Shuttle. American has about 27% of the market share at LGA, is the second-largest carrier behind Delta. Philadelphia – American's primary transatlantic hub. Americ
Avianca S. A. is a Colombian airline. It has been the national airline and flag carrier of Colombia since 5 December 1919, when it was registered under the name SCADTA, it is headquartered in Bogotá, D. C. with its main hub at El Dorado International Airport. Avianca is the flagship of a group of eight Latin American airlines, whose operations are combined to function as one airline using a codesharing system. Avianca is the largest airline in Colombia and second largest in Latin America, after LATAM of Brazil-Chile. Avianca and its subsidiaries have the most extensive network of destinations in Latin America, it is wholly owned by Synergy Group S. A. a South American holding company established by Germán Efromovich and specialising in air transport. It is listed on the Colombia Stock Exchange. Through SCADTA, Avianca is the world's second oldest airline after KLM, celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2009, when it was announced that it would merge with TACA, it is the oldest airline in the Western Hemisphere.
It became an official member of Star Alliance on 21 June 2012, after a process that lasted 18 months from the initial announcement of its invitation to join the Alliance. The airline traces its history back to 5 December 1919, in the city of Colombia. Colombians Ernesto Cortissoz, Rafael Palacio, Cristóbal Restrepo, Jacobo Correa and Aristides Noguera and Germans Wilhem Schnurbusch, Werner Kämerer, Stuart Hosie and Albert Tietjen founded the Colombo-German Company, called Sociedad Colombo-Alemana de Transportes Aéreos or SCADTA; the company accomplished their first flight between Barranquilla and the nearby town of Puerto Colombia using a Junkers F.13, transporting 57 pieces of mail. The flight was piloted by German Helmuth von Krohn; this and another aircraft of the same type were mechanically constructed monoplanes, the engines of which had to be modified to efficiently operate in the climate of the country. There were nine aircraft in the fleet with a total range of 850 km which could carry up to four passengers and two crewmen.
Due to the topographic characteristics of the country and the lack of airports at the time, floats were adapted for two of the Junkers aircraft to make water landings in the rivers near different towns. Using these floats, Helmuth von Krohn was able to perform the first inland flight over Colombia on 20 October 1920, following the course of the Magdalena River. Soon after the airline was founded, German scientist and philanthropist Peter von Bauer became interested in the airline and contributed general knowledge, capital and a tenth aircraft for the company, as well as obtaining concessions from the Colombian government to operate the country's airmail transportation division using the airline, which began in 1922; this new contract allowed SCADTA to thrive in a new frontier of aviation. By the mid-1920s, SCADTA started its first international routes that covered destinations in Venezuela and the United States. In 1924, the aircraft that both Ernesto Cortissoz and Helmuth von Krohn were flying crashed into an area known as Bocas de Ceniza in Barranquilla, killing them.
In the early 1940s, Peter von Bauer sold his shares in the airline to the US-owned Pan American World Airways. On 14 June 1940, in the city of Barranquilla, SCADTA, under ownership by United States businessmen, merged with regional Colombian airline SACO, forming the new Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia S. A. or Avianca. Five Colombians participated in this: Rafael María Palacio, Jacobo A. Corea, Cristobal Restrepo, Aristides Noguera, as well as German citizens Albert Teitjen, Werner Kaemerer and Stuart Hosie, while the post of first President of Avianca was filled by Martín del Corral. Avianca claims SCADTA's history as its own. In 1946, Avianca began flights to Quito, Panama City, New York City and Europe, using Douglas DC-4s and C-54 Skymasters. In 1951, Avianca acquired 1049 Super Constellations. In 1961, Avianca leased two Boeing 707 aircraft, to operate its international routes and on 2 November 1961, it acquired its own Boeing 720s. In 1976, Avianca became the first Latin American airline to continuously operate a Boeing 747.
Three years it started operations with another 747, this time a 747 Combi, mixing cargo and passenger operations. In 1994, the regional carrier SAM and the helicopter operator Helicol, beginning Avianca's new system of operations; this arrangement allowed for specialized services in cargo and postal services, as well as a more modern fleet, made up of Boeing 767–200s, Boeing 767–300s, Boeing 757–200s, McDonnell Douglas MD-83s, Fokker 50s, Bell helicopters. By 1996, Avianca Postal Services became Deprisa. After the September 11 attacks, the regional carrier SAM Colombia, its major rival ACES Colombia joined efforts to create Alianza Summa, which began merged operations on 20 May 2002. In November 2003, Alianza Summa was disbanded and ACES Colombia was liquidated altogether and SAM Colombia was acquired to be a regional carrier under Avianca's brand. On 10 December 2004, Avianca concluded a major reorganization process, undertaken after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, by obtaining confirmation of its reorganization plan, financially backed by the Brazilian consortium, OceanAir/Synergy Group and the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia, allowing the airline to obtain funds for US$63 million, in the 13 months following withdrawal from bankruptcy.
Under this plan
Rafael Núñez International Airport
Rafael Núñez International Airport is an airport serving the Caribbean port city of Cartagena, Colombia. It is the largest airport in the country's northern Caribbean region in terms of passenger movement, it is located between the Caribbean coast and the Ciénaga de la Virgen marsh, in the center of Crespo, a neighborhood in northern Cartagena. It is named after Rafael Núñez, the former Colombian president who wrote the verses to the National Anthem of Colombia; the airport has been managed since 1996 by the Sociedad Aeropuertos del Caribe S. A. a Colombian company that has the technology of its partner operator AENA Spain. Airlines including Air Canada Rouge, Air Panama, Air Transat, American Airlines, Copa Airlines, Delta Air Lines, EasyFly, JetBlue, LATAM Colombia, LATAM Perú, Spirit Airlines, VivaColombia, Wingo have international flights from this airport to various cities in North and South America. KLM have flights to Netherlands; the Cartagena VOR-DME is located 14.0 nautical miles south of the airport.
The Cartagena non-directional beacon is located 2.9 nautical miles south of the airport. Both are aligned with Runway 01; the first aerial activity in began in late 1919 when businessmen Nemesio de la Espriella of Cartagena and Guillermo Echavarria of Antioch began negotiations to acquire a Farman F-40 aircraft made in France. The aircraft arrived by ship packed in boxes, they soon began building a makeshift hangar at Bocagrande, an area of mangroves and a few vacation houses. A few years they built a stunning Caribbean hotel; this was the beginning of the "Colombian Air Navigation Company". The first flight took place on February 14, 1920 when pilot Jourdanet Jacques René Bazin flew the plane "Cartagena" around the city, carrying as passengers Guillermo Echavarria Martinez Martelo Tulita and the Queen of Carnival. Eight days a mail flight was made to the city of Barranquilla, marking the beginning of commercial aviation activity in the country. In 1930 the SCADTA built another airfield on the island of Manzanillo.
By 1940 the company had become Avianca and continued operating from Manzanillo to various domestic destinations. It was in mid-1946 when TACA de Colombia established a subsidiary called Colombian Aerodromes Company, dedicated to the construction and maintenance of airfields, to provide technical maintenance for aircraft company property, to compete with Avianca; until the mid-fifties when airports were acquired by the State, Avianca never authorized the use of its airports by other airlines, each business had to build its own facilities in the cities where it intended to operate. In December 1946 Crespo Air Field was inaugurated with great pomp in Cartagena, built by that subsidiary airport. Plans for the TACA de Colombia was to make the new aerodrome in the distribution center operations TACA group companies and operate international flights to Panama, Costa Rica and the United States, without interfering with operations Avianca and Pan American from the airport in Barranquilla and offering a healthy competition.
With the suspension of operations of the company TACA de Colombia in April 1947, these plans were cut short. Crespo airport passed to LANSA company operating at the terminal since November 1946. LANSA airfield became famous during the festivities Crespo when novembrinas and the National Queen of Beauty, received the famous "real flights" to carry the candidates and their retinues, which were covered with deployed by major media in the country. In 1979, Cartagena had 99 flights a week, 55 of which were shared flights and international flights were only 44 for the city; this flow was insufficient to meet the needs of the new hotel offering 7000 beds. In 1980 he organized the First Symposium for the Development of the City and the concerns raised and managed the tasks for the national government to end the redevelopment of the airport, and for 1982 was opened the new passenger terminal and extended runway to 2,600 feet, with his resurfacing and navigational aids valued at $1.4 million. They extended the platform.
In addition, he built a waiting bay at the head of the track 3-6 for three aircraft, enabling the facilitation of air operations. It was concluded the perimeter wall and Juan Cano Angola and built houses for the monitoring of the safety zone. At the end of the year before had given the new parking service for 250 private cars, 14 positions for tour buses 120 and additional area for taxis and the access roads to the city. With the new facilities are expected to contribute to the growth of tourism in the city, while private investment was devoted to the recovery of the walled city with its old houses, real colonial relics. During 1993 and 1994 in developing the principles established in the new Constitution of 1991 to improve governance, the Law 105 of 1993 and the national government of President César Gaviria, by Decree 1647 of 994, arranged decentralization airports by the Civil Aeronautics and set the parameters for this process forward; the aim was therefore to improve the technical capacity of Civil Aviation to carry out the functions of operation, service development and maintenance of the system of air traffic control, monitoring of air operations, technical control, moving territorial entities and public companies, private or mixed economic management and operation of airports.
The Civil Aviation together with the consulting firm Booz Allen & Hamilton, the outline design of decentralization and concession contracts. As a result of the study, the COMP, Ministry of Finance