The city is spread across 14 islands on the coast in the southeast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago and the Baltic Sea. The area has settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC. It is the capital of Stockholm County, Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the countrys GDP and it is an important global city, and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some of Europes top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and it hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the citys most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited museum in Scandinavia. The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is known for its decoration of the stations. Swedens national football arena is located north of the city centre, Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city.
The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Ministers residence is adjacent at the Sager House. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BCE, there were already a number of people living in the present-day Stockholm area. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable, at the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholms location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne, the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade.
The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification, the second part of the name means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. Stockholms core, the present Old Town was built on the island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid 13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League, Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s and it stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages and early modern period. Hanse, spelled as Hansa, was the Middle Low German word for a convoy, the League was created to protect the guilds economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes the merchants visited. The Hanseatic cities had their own system and furnished their own armies for mutual protection. The hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century, Lübeck became a base for merchants from Saxony and Westphalia trading eastward and northward. This area was a source of timber, amber, the towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies when needed. The Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, and commercial ships often had to be used to carry soldiers, Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa.
Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard in 1080, Merchants from northern Germany stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement. Later they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their position more secure. Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members, before the official foundation of the League in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London 1157. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England, to them from all tolls in London. The allied cities gained control over most of the trade, especially the Scania Market. In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial government, which failed to provide security for trade.
Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes. The principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck, with the first general Diet of the Hansa held there in 1356, other such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Yet the League never became a closely managed formal organisation, over the period, a network of alliances grew to include a flexible roster of 70 to 170 cities. The league succeeded in establishing additional Kontors in Bruges and these trading posts became significant enclaves
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek writer, known as a mathematician, geographer and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has been given as Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid in a statement by the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes. This is a very late attestation and there is no reason to suppose that he ever lived elsewhere than Alexandria. Ptolemy wrote several treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise. The second is the Geography, which is a discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day. This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning Four Books or by the Latin Quadripartitum.
The name Claudius is a Roman nomen, the fact that Ptolemy bore it indicates he lived under the Roman rule of Egypt with the privileges and political rights of Roman citizenship. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemys family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius who was responsible for granting citizenship, if, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD41 and 68. The astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown and it occurs once in Greek mythology, and is of Homeric form. All the kings after him, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, were Ptolemies, abu Mashar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy. The correct answer is not known”, Ptolemy wrote in Greek and can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data. He was a Roman citizen, but most scholars conclude that Ptolemy was ethnically Greek and he was often known in Arabic sources as the Upper Egyptian, suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt.
Later Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic, Ptolemys Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Ptolemy presented his models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets. The Almagest contains a catalogue, which is a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus
The Viking Age is the period from the late 8th century to the mid-11th century in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age. It is the period of history when Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and rivers for trade, raids and conquest. Three Viking ships had beached in Weymouth Bay four years earlier, the Viking devastation of Northumbrias Holy Island was reported by the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York, who wrote, Never before in Britain has such a terror appeared. Vikings were portrayed as violent and bloodthirsty by their enemies. The chronicles of medieval England portrayed them as rapacious wolves among sheep, the first challenges to the many anti-Viking images in Britain emerged in the 17th century. Pioneering scholarly works on the Viking Age reached a readership in Britain. Archaeologists began to dig up Britains Viking past, linguistics traced the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs. New dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled more Victorians to read the Icelandic Sagas, the Vikings who invaded western and eastern Europe were chiefly pagans from Denmark and Sweden.
They settled in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, peripheral Scotland and their North Germanic language, Old Norse, became the mother-tongue of present-day Scandinavian languages. By 801, a central authority appears to have been established in Jutland. In Norway, mountainous terrain and fjords formed strong natural boundaries, communities there remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in Denmark which is lowland. By 800, some 30 small kingdoms existed in Norway, the sea was the easiest way of communication between the Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world. It was in the 8th century that Scandinavians began to build ships of war, the North Sea rovers were traders and explorers as well as plunderers. There are various theories concerning the causes of the Viking invasions, for people living along the coast, it would seem natural to seek new land by the sea. Another reason was that during this period England and Ireland, the Franks, had well-defended coasts and heavily fortified ports and harbours.
Pure thirst for adventure may have been a factor, a reason for the raids is believed by some to be over-population caused by technological advances, such as the use of iron, or a shortage of women due to selective female infanticide. Although another cause could well have been caused by the Frankish expansion to the south of Scandinavia. Consequently, these Vikings became raiders, in search of subsistence, There is ongoing debate among scholars as to why the Scandinavians began to expand during the 8th through 11th centuries
Scandza was described as a great island by the Roman historian Jordanes in his work Getica, written while in Constantinople around 551 AD. This island was located in the Arctic regions of the sea that surrounded the world and he described the area to set the stage for his treatment of the Goths migration to Gothiscandza, the island in front of the Vistula river. Composed of information from sources, his account contains several accurate descriptions of the mouth of the Vistula river. It is possible that Jordanes was describing Scandinavia, prominent Swedish archaeologist, Göran Burenhult, regards Jordanes account as a unique glimpse into the tribes of Scandinavia in the 6th century. Jordanes was himself of Gothic descent, early Greek and Roman geographers used the name Scandia for various uncharted islands in Northern Europe. The name originated in Greek sources, which used it for a time for different islands in the Mediterranean region. In the Iliad the name denotes an ancient city in Kythira, the first attested written use of the name for a Northern European island appears in the work of Roman Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia of c.
Pliny described Scandia as an island located north of Britannia and this island does not appear to be the same as the island Pliny calls Scatinavia, located near Cimbri. In Claudius Ptolemys Geographia, written in the 2nd century AD, Scandia is described as the most easterly of the Scandiae islands and this is the region where Pliny had located Scatinavia. The name Scandia was therefore after Ptolemy generally associated with the part of Scandinavian peninsula by the early Roman geographers. When Scandinavian scholars became familiar with the Roman records in the Middle Ages, the early 13th-century Latin paraphrase of the Scanian Law bears the title Lex Scandiae provincialis. Jordanes referred to Ptolemys description of Scandia as a great island shaped like a juniper leaf having bulging sides and he referred to Pomponius Melas description of Codanonia which was located in the Codanian Gulf. This island was in front of the Vistula and that there was a lake from which sprang the river Vagus. On the western and northern side it was surrounded by an enormous sea, there were many small islands where wolves could pass when the sea was frozen.
In winter the country was not only cruel to people but to wild beasts, due to the extreme cold there were no swarms of honey-making bees. In the 16th century, Olaus Magnus, a Swedish cartographer familiar with Plinys writings, in Olaus Magnus map, the name denotes an area including Svecia and Norvegia, where he places various tribes described by the ancient geographers. Although mainly a historical name, Scandia still occasionally continues in use today as a Latin name for Scandinavia, the Scandinavian Bishops Conference, an Episcopal Conference organized by the Catholic Church since 1923, is called Conferentia Episcopalis Scandiae. In the north, there was the nation of the Adogit who lived in continual light during the midsummer, due to this alternation they go from joy to suffering
The culture is probably the result of a multiethnic cultural mix of the Gothic, Geto-Dacian and Slavic populations of the area. The Chernyakhov culture encompassed regions of modern Ukraine, and it is named after the localities Sântana de Mureș, Mureș County, Transylvania in Romania and Cherniakhiv, Kaharlyk Raion, Kiev Oblast in Ukraine. The dual name reflects past preferential use by different schools of history to designate the culture, the spelling Chernyakhov is the transliteration from the Russian language. Other spellings include Sîntana de Mureș, Czerniachów, the culture developed in the 2nd century AD. Of varied origins, the quickly became remarkably homogeneous throughout the areas it occupied. Scholars debate whether this means that the disparate peoples mingled inextricably, houses were arranged in parallel, and are of two predominant types. The most numerous are sunken huts, called Grubenhäuser in German and they are generally small in size, measuring 5-16 square metres in area.
The other predominant type is surface dwellings called Wohnstallhäuser, which are of variable size. Some settlements have both types of dwellings, although Romanian finds have only sunken-floored houses, although the variation in types may be attributable to the different ethnic groups in the zone, the differences are a reflection of socio-economic factors. The Wohnstallhäuser are typical of Germanic settlements in central Europe, and had not been found in cultures of south-eastern Europe. Conversely, the huts have been found in earlier Dacian cultures in the Carpathians and the farmers of the forest-steppe. Whatever their origins, these styles were adopted by all peoples of the culture. Both inhumation and cremation were practiced, the dead were buried with grave goods – pottery, iron implements, bone combs, personal ornaments, although in periods grave goods decrease. Of the inhumation burials, the dead were buried in a north-south axis. Funerary gifts often include fibulae, belt buckles, bone combs, glass drinking vessels, womens burials in particular shared very close similarities with Wielbark forms - buried with two fibulae, one on each shoulder.
Like in the Wielbark culture, Chernyakhov burials usually lack weapons as funerary gifts and this could be the result of the influences of Christianity, but could just as easily be explained in terms of an evolution of non-Christian beliefs about the afterlife. Pottery was predominantly of local production, being both wheel and hand-made, wheel made pottery predominated, and was made of finer clay. It was reminiscent of earlier Sarmatian types, refined by Roman, hand made pottery showed a greater variety in form, and was sometimes decorated with incised linear motifs
Stora Hammars stones
The Stora Hammars image stones are four Viking Age image stones located in Stora Hammars, Lärbro parish, Sweden. The four Stora Hammars image stones are phallic shaped, similar combinations of death with this erotic symbology occur on other Gotland rune and image stones. The images on the Stora Hammars II and IV stones are very worn, because of the position of the woman in two of the panels, it has been interpreted as illustrating the legend of Hildr and its never-ending battle. Near the altar is a stone, which one scholar has been suggested may be a cult stone similar to the Elgesem runestone. The Stora Hammars III image stone has four panels, the lower of which shows a ship with warriors, one of the panels has been interpreted as depicting Odin in the form of an eagle taking the mead of poetry, a legend described in section 6 of the Skáldskaparmál. Gunnlöð and Suttungr are shown to the right of the eagle, another panel depicts a rider on a horse being greeted by a woman who has been interpreted as being a Valkyrie.
The woman appears to be wearing a long serk or underdress, which may be pleated, and a short overdress
The term is commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Viking home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age. Facilitated by advanced seafaring skills, and characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. A romanticized picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century, current popular representations of the Vikings are typically based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy. One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning creek, various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken, meaning a person from Viken. According to this theory, the word simply described persons from this area, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called Viking in Old Norse manuscripts, in addition, that explanation could only explain the masculine and ignore the feminine, which is a serious problem because the masculine is easily derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa.
The form occurs as a name on some Swedish rune stones. There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age and this is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan, ‘to turn’, similar to Old Icelandic víkja ‘to move, to turn’, with well-attested nautical usages. In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. A víkingr would originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterized by the shifting of rowers, in that case, the word Viking was not originally connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, Widsith, in Old English, and in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term generally referred to Scandinavian pirates or raiders. As in the Old Norse usages, the term is not employed as a name for any people or culture in general, the word does not occur in any preserved Middle English texts.
The Vikings were known as Ascomanni ashmen by the Germans for the ash wood of their boats, Lochlannach by the Gaels, the modern day name for Sweden in several neighbouring countries is possibly derived from rōþs-, Ruotsi in Finnish and Rootsi in Estonian. The Slavs and the Byzantines called them Varangians, Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard. The Franks normally called them Northmen or Danes, while for the English they were known as Danes or heathen. It is used in distinction from Anglo-Saxon, similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland. The period from the earliest recorded raids in the 790s until the Norman conquest of England in 1066 is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history, Vikings used the Norwegian Sea and Baltic Sea for sea routes to the south. The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France—the Duchy of Normandy—in the 10th century, in that respect, descendants of the Vikings continued to have an influence in northern Europe
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
National Library of Sweden
The National Library of Sweden is the national library of Sweden. As such it collects and preserves all domestic printed and audio-visual materials in Swedish, being a research library, it has major collections of literature in other languages. The collections of the National Library consist of more than 18 million objects, including books, pictures, the audio-visual collection consists of more than 7 million hours of recorded material. The National Library is a research library, with collections of foreign literature in a wide range of subjects. The library holds a collection of 850 broadsides of Sweden dating from 1852, the National Library purchases literature about Sweden written in foreign languages and works by Swedes published abroad, a category known as suecana. The National Library has been collecting floppy disks, CR-ROMs, and other storage media since the mid-1990s, along with e-books, e-journals, websites. In 1953, the National Library purchased considerable amounts of Russian literature from Leningrad and these books were to form the basis of a Slavonic library in Stockholm.
According to the Swedish Legal Deposit Act publishers of printed material must send one copy of every object to the National Library, publishers of music, radio and TV must similarly submit copies to the library. In some cases only a sample of broadcast material has to be submitted, in 2012 the Legal Deposit Act for Electronic Material was passed. It states that starting in 2013, publishing companies and public authorities must deliver digitally published content to the National Library, the obligation to collect all printed works in Swedish was laid down in 1661 in an ordinance from the Swedish Privy Council Chancery. The ordinance ordered all printers in Sweden to send two copies of every publication printed to the Chancery before the material was distributed, one copy was to go to the Swedish National Archives, the other to the National Library. The motive for this provision stemmed not from a desire to preserve publications for posterity, the library is responsible for coordinating all Swedish libraries, including public libraries.
The National Library developed and maintains LIBRIS, the library database system. LIBRIS is freely available to the public via the Internet and contains more than five million titles held in 300 Swedish libraries, the Swedish ISBN Agency is a unit within the National Library. It is responsible for assigning ISBNs having Swedens country prefix of 91-, the library is a partner of the World Digital Library. Anyone may use National Library services, but people must be at least 18 to request, items in the Swedish collection cannot be borrowed for home use and must be read in one of the reading rooms. The National Library is located in Humlegården in central Stockholm, the correct written form of the name is “The National Library of Sweden” or in Swedish, Kungliga biblioteket. The roots of what we now know as the National Library go back to the days of King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century, the king collected books on a variety of subjects including history and theology, as well as maps
Gutasaga is a saga regarding the history of Gotland before its Christianization. It was recorded in the 13th century and survives in only a single manuscript,1350, kept at the National Library of Sweden in Stockholm together with the Gutalag, the legal code of Gotland. It was written in the Old Gutnish dialect of Old Norse, the saga begins with Gotland being discovered by a man named Þieluar. He was a figure who shows up twice in the Prose Edda. Gotland is under a spell and under water during the day and out of only during the night. Þieluars son Hafþi and his wife Vitastjerna had three sons named Graip and Gunfjaun, the ancestors of the Gutes, after Havdes and Vitastjernas first night together, she had a dream about three snakes entwined in her bosom. This was interpreted as a symbol that all things are connected in circles, the subject is depicted on some of the picture stones on Gotland. The saga says that after his father died, Gute was appointed to be the chief and they shared Gotland, where Gute held the midsection, Graip the northern and Gunnfjaun the southern part.
Then they draw lots, and every person was picked to leave. … they went up the river Dvina, up through Russia and they went so far that they came to the land of the Greeks. … they settled there, and live there still, and still have something of our language, the events would have needed to be transmitted orally for almost a millennium before the text was written down. The mention of the Dvina river is in agreement with the Wielbark culture. It is therefore not only an effort to write down the history of Gotland and several other name of people from the Gutasaga are used for places and other Gotland related things like websites. A stone ship in Boge is called Tjelvars Grave, Boge is the place for the bay Tjäldersvik and the Tjäldersholm island. The Digerrojr cairn in Garde is known as to as Graips rojr, in 2011, a competition, hosted by the Swedish Astronomical Society, for naming a newly discovered asteroid in the asteroid belt was held in Visby. It was named 137052 Tjelvar after Tjelvar, the mythological first man to bring fire to the island, Norse saga Geats Goths Gotlander Original text English translation by Peter Tunstall Swedish-English facing-text translation