George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
As Viceroy of India, he is noted for the creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam. As Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, he drew the Curzon Line as the eastern frontier of Poland. He was passed over as Prime Minister in 1923 in favour of Stanley Baldwin and his character polarised opinion amongst his contemporaries, sow gratitude and resentment along his path with equally lavish hands. He quarrelled endlessly and his arrogance and inflexibility made even more enemies, critics have been negative in contrasting his enormous talents and energy on behalf of British imperialism with his mixed results and unrealized ambitions. He was born at Kedleston Hall, built on the site where his family and his mother, worn out by childbirth, died when George was 16, her husband survived her by 41 years. Neither parent exerted an influence on Curzons life. Lord Scarsdale was an austere and unindulgent father who believed in the family tradition that landowners should stay on their land. He thus had little sympathy for those journeys across Asia between 1887 and 1895 which made his son one of the most travelled men who sat in a British cabinet.
Paraman periodically forced him to parade through the wearing a conical hat bearing the words liar, sneak. Curzon noted, No children well born and well-placed ever cried so much and he was educated at Wixenford School, Eton College and Balliol College, Oxford. At Eton he was a favourite of Oscar Browning, a relationship that led to his tutors dismissal. While at Eton, he was a figure who was liked and disliked with equal intensity by large numbers of masters. This strange talent for both attraction and repulsion stayed with him all his life, few people ever felt neutral about him, at Oxford he was President of the Union and Secretary of the Oxford Canning Club. Although he failed to achieve a first class degree in Greats, he won the Lothian and Arnold Prizes and he was elected a prize fellow of All Souls College in 1883. Whilst at Oxford, he was a contemporary and close friend of Cecil Spring Rice and Edward Grey. While at Oxford, Curzon was the inspiration for the following Balliol rhyme and my cheeks are pink, my hair is sleek, I dine at Blenheim once a week.
Curzon became Assistant Private Secretary to Lord Salisbury in 1885, subsequent performances in the Commons, often dealing with Ireland or reform of the House of Lords, received similar verdicts. He was Under-Secretary of State for India in 1891–92 and Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1895–98
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India and the ninth most populous agglomeration in the world, Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named a world city. It is the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, Mumbai has the highest number of billionaires and millionaires among all cities in India. The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies, during the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development, during the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon Indias independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State, in 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.
Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India and it is home to some of Indias premier scientific and nuclear institutes like BARC, NPCL, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses Indias Hindi and Marathi film and television industry, Mumbais business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures. The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja, in 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name Bombaim, in his Lendas da Índia. This name possibly originated as the Old Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning good little bay, in 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu, Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include, Bombay, Bombaym, Mombaim, Bambaye, Bombeye, Boon Bay, and Bon Bahia.
After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial diwan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai. By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in the Indian statewise official languages of Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, the Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995. According to Slate magazine, they argued that Bombay was a corrupted English version of Mumbai, Slate said The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region. A resident of Mumbai is called mumbaikar in the Marathi language, the term has been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai. Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands, Bombay Island, Mazagaon, Colaba, Worli and it is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited
Eton College /iːtən/ is an English independent boarding school for boys in Eton, near Windsor. It educates more than 1,300 pupils, aged 13 to 18 years and it was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor, making it the 18th oldest Headmasters and Headmistresses Conference school. Eton is one of the seven public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has referred to as the chief nurse of Englands statesmen. The school is headed by a Provost and Fellows, who appoint the Head Master and it contains 25 boys houses, each headed by a housemaster, selected from the more senior members of the teaching staff, which numbers some 155. Almost all of the pupils go on to universities, about a third of them to Oxford or Cambridge. The Head Master is a member of the Headmasters and Headmistresses Conference, Eton has a long list of distinguished former pupils. David Cameron was the 19th British prime minister to have attended the school, about 20% of pupils at Eton receive financial support, through a range of bursaries and scholarships.
In early 2014, this figure had risen to 263 pupils receiving the equivalent of around 60% of school fee assistance, Eton has been described as the most famous public school in the world, and been referred to as the chief nurse of Englands statesmen. The Good Schools Guide called the school the number one public school, adding that The teaching. The school is a member of the G20 Schools Group, Eton today is a larger school than it has been for much of its history. In 1678, there were 207 boys, in the late 18th century, there were about 300, while today, the total has risen to over 1,300. Eton College was founded by King Henry VI as a charity school to free education to 70 poor boys who would go on to Kings College, Cambridge. Henry took Winchester College as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its Statutes and removing its Headmaster, when Henry VI founded the school, he granted it a large number of endowments, including much valuable land. He persuaded the Pope, Eugene IV, to grant him a privilege unparalleled anywhere in England, the school came into possession of one of Englands Apocalypse manuscripts.
Legend has it that Edwards mistress, Jane Shore, intervened on the schools behalf and she was able to save a good part of the school, although the royal bequest and the number of staff were much reduced. Construction of the chapel, originally intended to be slightly over twice as long, only the Quire of the intended building was completed. Etons first Headmaster, William Waynflete, founder of Magdalen College and previously Head Master of Winchester College, as the school suffered reduced income while still under construction, the completion and further development of the school has since depended to some extent on wealthy benefactors
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
It is the second highest summit in Ecuador, reaching a height of 5,897 m. It is one of the worlds highest volcanoes, since 1738, Cotopaxi has erupted more than 50 times, resulting in the creation of numerous valleys formed by lahars around the volcano. The last eruption lasted from August 2015 to January 2016, since the recent eruptions, Cotopaxi has been officially closed for climbing by authorities. On a clear day, Cotopaxi is clearly visible on the skyline from Quito and is part of the chain of volcanoes around the Pacific plate known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. It has an almost symmetrical cone that rises from a plain of about 3,800 metres. It has one of the few glaciers in the world. At its summit, Cotopaxi has an 800 X550 m wide crater which is 250 m deep, the crater consists of two concentric crater rims, the outer one being partly free of snow and irregular in shape. The crater interior is covered with ice cornices and rather flat, the highest point is on the outer rim of the crater on the north side.
Many sources claim that Cotopaxi means Neck of the Moon in an indigenous language, the mountain was honored as a Sacred Mountain by local Andean people, even prior to the Inca invasion in the 15th century. It was worshiped as “rain sender”, that served as the guarantor of the lands fertility, with 87 known eruptions, Cotopaxi is one of Ecuadors most active volcanoes. The first recorded eruption of Cotopaxi was in 1534, cotopaxis most violent eruptions in historical times occurred in the years 1742,1744,1768, and 1877. The 1744 and 1768 events destroyed the town of Latacunga. The city of Latacunga was again leveled completely due to the mudslide deposits, there was a major eruption from 1903 to 1904, and minor activity persisted until at least 1940 and possibly 1942. The same source reported increased thermal/seismic, non-eruptive activity in 1975 and 2002, in the increased activity of 2002, fumarolic activity and sulfuric emissions increased and ice around the inside and on the southeastern side of the cone started to melt.
However, no eruption was observed. In 2015, two large phreatic eruptions in the morning of the 14th of August marked a new phase of volcanic activity, the volcano remains in a very abnormal situation. In August,2,100 earthquakes were recorded and emission rates of sulfur dioxide reach approximately 20,000 tonnes per day, the government estimates some 300,000 people are at risk from the volcano in the provinces of Cotopaxi, Tungurahua and Pichincha. The first European who tried to climb the mountain was Alexander von Humboldt in 1802, however, in 1858 Moritz Wagner investigated the mountain, but he could not reach the summit either
Addis Ababa or Addis Abeba, is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia. It has a population of 3,384,569 according to the 2007 population census and this number has been increased from the originally published 2,738,248 figure and appears to be still largely underestimated. As a chartered city, Addis Ababa has the status of both a city and a state and it is where the African Union is and its predecessor the OAU was based. It hosts the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa is therefore often referred to as the political capital of Africa for its historical and political significance for the continent. The city is populated by people from different regions of Ethiopia and it is home to Addis Ababa University. The Federation of African Societies of Chemistry and Horn of Africa Press Institute are headquartered in Addis Ababa, Entoto is one of a handful of sites put forward as a possible location for a medieval imperial capital known as Barara. Dubbed the Pentagon, the 30 hecatre site incorporates a castle with 12 towers, the site of Addis Ababa was chosen by Empress Taytu Betul and the city was founded in 1886 by Emperor Menelik II.
His interest in the area grew when his wife Taytu began work on a church on Mount Entoto, and Menelik endowed a second church in the area. However, the area did not encourage the founding of a town for lack of firewood and water. Initially, Taytu built a house for herself near the Filwoha hot mineral springs, other nobility and their staff and households settled in the vicinity, and Menelik expanded his wifes house to become the Imperial Palace which remains the seat of government in Addis Ababa today. The name changed to Addis Ababa and became Ethiopias capital when Menelik II became Emperor of Ethiopia, the town grew by leaps and bounds. One of Emperor Meneliks contributions that is visible today is the planting of numerous eucalyptus trees along the city streets. Following all the engagements of their invasion, Italian troops from the colony of Eritrea entered Addis Ababa on 5 May 1936. Along with Dire Dawa, the city had been spared the aerial bombardment practiced elsewhere, the city was liberated by Major Orde Wingates Sudanese and Ethiopian Gideon Force in time to permit Emperor Haile Selassies return on 5 May 1941, five years to the day after he had left.
Following reconstruction, Haile Selassie helped form the Organisation of African Unity in 1963, the OAU was dissolved in 2002 and replaced by the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa has its headquarters in Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa was the site of the Council of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in 1965. Ethiopia has often called the original home of mankind because of various humanoid fossil discoveries like the Australopithecine Lucy. After analysing the DNA of almost 1,000 people around the world, the research indicated that genetic diversity decreases steadily the farther ones ancestors traveled from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Mount Everest, known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in China as Chomolungma/珠穆朗玛峰, is Earths highest mountain. Its peak is 8,848 metres above sea level, Mount Everest is in the Mahalangur Range. The international border between China and Nepal runs across Everests summit point and its massif includes neighbouring peaks Lhotse,8,516 m, Nuptse,7,855 m, and Changtse,7,580 m. In 1856, the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India established the first published height of Everest, known as Peak XV, at 8,840 m. The current official height of 8,848 m as recognised by China and Nepal was established by a 1955 Indian survey, in 2005, China remeasured the height of the mountain and got a result of 8844.43 m. An argument regarding the height between China and Nepal lasted five years from 2005 to 2010, China argued it should be measured by its rock height which is 8,844 m but Nepal said it should be measured by its snow height 8,848 m. In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m and Nepal recognises Chinas claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m.
In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal and the other from the north in Tibet, as of 2016 there are well over 200 corpses on the mountain, with some of them even serving as landmarks. The first recorded efforts to reach Everests summit were made by British mountaineers, with Nepal not allowing foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. Tragedy struck on the descent from the North Col when seven porters were killed in an avalanche. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953 using the southeast ridge route.
Tenzing had reached 8,595 m the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition, the Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960. In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations, starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing 500 kg and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as accurately as possible. They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression, several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down. The British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal which is parallel to the Himalayas, conditions in Terai were difficult because of torrential rains and malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria while two others had to retire because of failing health, nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 240 km distant
Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years and it is the oldest of the original seven English public schools defined by the Clarendon Commission and regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. It is sometimes referred to by pupils, former pupils and others as Win, the upper-class lifestyle magazine Tatler named the school as its Public School of the Year in 2010. Winchester College was founded in 1382 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and it was founded in conjunction with New College, for which it was designed to act as a feeder, the buildings of both colleges were designed by master mason William Wynford. In addition to the 70 scholars and 16 Quiristers, the provided for ten noble Commoners. These Commoners were paying guests of the Headmaster or Second Master in his apartments in College. In the 1860s New Commoners was closed and converted to classrooms, at the same time two more houses were acquired and added to the Houses category, a tenth was acquired in 1905 and allotted to Commoners.
There are therefore now ten houses in addition to College, which continues to occupy the original 14th-century buildings, from the late 1970s there has been a continual process of extension to and upgrading of College Chambers. The Scholars live in the buildings, known as College. College is not usually referred to as a house, hence the terms housemaster of College and College house are not generally used, the housemaster of College is now known as the Master in College, though these duties formerly belonged to the Second Master. Within the school, College refers only to the body of scholars, Winchester College, every pupil at Winchester, apart from the Scholars, lives in a boarding house, chosen or allocated when applying to Winchester. It is here that he studies and sleeps, each house is presided over by a housemaster and a number of house tutors. Houses compete in competitions, mostly in sporting competitions. Each house has a name, usually based on the family name of the first housemaster.
Each house has a name, which is more frequently used in speech. Each house has a letter assigned to it, in the order of their founding, to act as an abbreviation, especially on laundry tags. A member of a house is described by the name of the house with -ite suffixed, as a Furleyite, a Toyeite. The houses have been ordered by their year of founding, College does not have an informal name, although the abbreviation Coll is sometimes used, especially on written work
The Pennine Alps, known as the Valais Alps, and formerly called Alpes Poeninae, are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland and Italy, the Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea and Toce, tributaries of the Po. The Swiss side is drained by the Rhône, the Great St Bernard Tunnel, under the Great St Bernard Pass, leads from Martigny, Switzerland to Aosta. The main chain runs from west to east on the border between Italy and Switzerland, from Mont Vélan, the first high summit east of St Bernard Pass, the chain rarely goes below 3000 metres and contains many four-thousanders such as Matterhorn or Monte Rosa. Unlike many other ranges, the higher peaks are often located outside the main chain
George Herbert Leigh Mallory was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s. The pair were last seen when they were about 800 vertical feet from the summit, Mallorys ultimate fate was unknown for 75 years, until his body was discovered on 1 May 1999 by an expedition that had set out to search for the climbers remains. Whether Mallory and Irvine reached the summit before they died remains a subject of speculation, Mallory was born in Mobberley, the son of Herbert Leigh Mallory, a clergyman who changed his surname from Mallory to Leigh-Mallory in 1914. His mother was Annie Beridge, the daughter of a clergyman in Walton, George had two sisters and a younger brother, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, the World War II Royal Air Force commander. He was raised in 10-bedroom house on Hobcroft Lane in Mobberley, in 1896, Mallory attended Glengorse, a preparatory boarding school in Eastbourne on the south coast of England, having transferred from another preparatory school in West Kirby.
At the age of 13, he won a scholarship to Winchester College. In his final year there, he was introduced to climbing and mountaineering by a master, R. L. G. Irving. In October 1905, Mallory entered Magdalene College, Cambridge, to study history, Mallory was a keen oarsman, rowing for his college while at Cambridge. In 1909 Lytton Strachey wrote of Mallory, Mon dieu. —George Mallory, after gaining his degree, Mallory stayed in Cambridge for a year writing an essay he published as Boswell the Biographer. He lived briefly in France afterwards, in 1910, he began teaching at Charterhouse School, Surrey, where he met the poet Robert Graves, a pupil. In his autobiography, Goodbye to All That, Graves remembered Mallory fondly both for his encouragement of Graves interest in literature and poetry and his instruction in climbing, Graves recalled, He was wasted at Charterhouse. He tried to treat his class in a way, which puzzled and offended them. While at Charterhouse, Mallory met his wife, Ruth Turner, who lived in Godalming and Ruth had two daughters and a son, Frances Clare, Beridge Ruth, known as Berry, and John.
After the war, Mallory returned to Charterhouse, resigning in 1921 in order to join the first Everest expedition, between expeditions, he attempted to make a living from writing and lecturing, with only partial success. In 1923, he took a job as lecturer with the Cambridge University Extramural Studies Department and he was given temporary leave so that he could join the 1924 Everest attempt. In 1910, in a party led by Irving, Mallory and an attempted to climb Mont Vélan in the Alps. In 1911, Mallory climbed Mont Blanc, as well as making the ascent of the Frontier ridge of Mont Maudit in a party again led by Irving. To which he responded, None but ourselves, by 1913, he had ascended Pillar Rock in the English Lake District, with no assistance, by what is now known as Mallorys Route—currently graded Hard Very Severe 5a
German Cameroon was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of todays Republic of Cameroon. German Cameroon included parts of Gabon and the Congo with western parts of the Central African Republic, southwestern parts of Chad. The first German trading post in the Duala area on the Kamerun River delta was established in 1868 by the Hamburg trading company C, the firm’s agent in Gabon, Johannes Thormählen, expanded activities to the Kamerun River delta. In 1874, together with the Woermann agent in Liberia, Wilhelm Jantzen, both of these West Africa houses expanded into shipping with their own sailing ships and steamers and inaugurated scheduled passenger and freight service between Hamburg and Duala. These companies and others purchased extensive acreage from local chiefs and began systematic plantation operations, by 1884, Adolph Woermann, representing all West African companies as their spokesman, petitioned the imperial foreign office for protection by the German Empire.
Bismarck, the Imperial Chancellor, sought to utilize the traders on site in governing the region via chartered companies, however, in response to Bismarck’s proposal, the companies withdrew their petition. At the core of the commercial interests was pursuit of profitable trading activities under the protection of the Reich, eventually Bismarck yielded to the Woermann position and instructed the admiralty to dispatch a gunboat. As a show of German interest, the small gunboat SMS Möwe arrived in West Africa, the protectorate of Kamerun was established during the period generally known as Europe’s imperialist Scramble for Africa. The German explorer, medical doctor, imperial consul and commissioner for West Africa Gustav Nachtigal was the force toward the colony’s establishment. By well over a dozen German companies, based in Hamburg and Bremen, conducted their trading, an extensive postal and telegraph system and a river navigation network with government ships connected the coast to the interior.
The Kamerun protectorate was enlarged with Neukamerun in 1911 as part of the settlement of the Agadir Crisis, at the outbreak of World War I, French and British troops invaded the German colony in 1914 and fully occupied it during the Kamerun campaign. The last German fort to surrender was the one at Mora in the north of the colony in 1916, following Germanys defeat, the Treaty of Versailles divided the territory into two League of Nations mandates under the administration of Great Britain and France. French Cameroun and part of British Cameroons reunified in 1961 as Cameroon, German West African Company History of Cameroon Neukamerun Index, German colonisation in Africa German South West Africa Togoland German East Africa DeLancey, Mark W. DeLancey, Mark D. Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon, the Great War in West Africa. Etablierung und Institutionalisierung des kolonialen Gewaltmonopols, archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Map of the territories exchanged between France and Germany at the Treaty of Fez, Verwaltung und Herrschaft in Kamerun 1884-1916.
Frankfurt am Main 2012, Campus Verlag, Hamburg und die Kolonialpolitik des Deutschen Reiches 1880 bis 1890
Henry Treise Morshead DSO, RE, FRGS was an English surveyor and mountaineer. His death was due to murder and the circumstances remain mysterious, born in 1882 and brought up at Hurlditch Court, near Tavistock near the Devon–Cornwall border, Henry Morshead was the eldest son of Reginald Morshead, a banker, and Ella Mary Morshead, née Sperling. At the Chatham Royal School of Military Engineering he had such a record that in 1904 he was posted to the Indian Army in the Royal Engineers Military Works Services at Agra. In 1906 he joined the Survey of India where, as was often the case, he retained his military status, apart from his service in the Great War he remained with the Survey until his death. Morshead was based at Dehradun, the scientific and exploration headquarters on the Survey of India and he became in charge of the Forest Map Office, the Computing Office, the Triangulation Surveying Party. He became knowledgeable in the history of Himalayan exploration, particularly in Tibet and he distinguished himself on several arduous winter Himalayan expeditions.
He was tough, well able to live off the land in regions of great heat, Morshead was promoted to captain in 1912. On leave in 1916, he met Evelyn Widdicombe who was Secretary and her family had moved to Canada when Evie was a child where her father, Harry Templer Widdicombe, failed to make his fortune so her mother had returned to England with the children. Her mother had founded a residential club which flourished. Morshead married Evie in 1917 and they had four sons and a daughter, two of their sons were killed in World War II. North of Himalaya, the Yarlung Tsangpo River flows east through the Tibetan Plateau, until the 1880s it was unknown by which route it eventually reached the sea or even whether it debouched to the Pacific or Indian ocean. It seemed there must be a waterfall and, indeed. Bailey and Morshead explored from the south with Morshead surveying the entire route, by ascending the Dibang River they crossed the Himalayan watershed into Tibet to reach the Dihang River and ascending the Gorge.
When they were at Lagung, just east of Namcha Barwa, after they had been imprisoned for several days they were released. They returned to India by turning back and passing through eastern Bhutan, the expedition covered 1,680 miles on foot and lasted from 16 May to 14 November 1913. In doing this they proved that the Dibang tributary of the Brahmaputra flows around rather than through the Himalayan mountains and they proved conclusively that the Tsangpo–Dihang–Brahmaputra was a single river and for the first time established its accurate course. The highest waterfall they found was 30 feet and they considered there was unlikely to be a higher fall, for his work Morshead was awarded the Macgregor Medal by the United Service Institution of India. At the time the expedition was regarded as a feat of exploration