The Coppa Acerbo was an automobile race held in Italy, named after Tito Acerbo, the brother of Giacomo Acerbo, a prominent fascist politician. Following Italy's defeat in World War II, the consequent demise of fascism, the race was renamed the Circuito di Pescara, in some years was referred to as the Pescara Grand Prix; the race was run between 1924 and 1961 and over the years was held to a variety of vehicle class regulations and durations. In 1957 the Pescara Grand Prix formed a round of the Formula One World Championship, a race which still holds the record as having the longest circuit length used for a Championship event; the Coppa Acerbo races were held over a 24–26 km circuit and ending at Pescara, on the Adriatic coast. The course layout featured an inland route through the Abruzzo hills, that passed through several villages, followed by a long, straight descent back to the coast, where a tight right-hand corner led on to a four-mile long straight running next to the sea; the pit and paddock complex was located at the end of this straight.
In an effort to slow competitor speeds past these pits the Pescara circuit became one of the first to have an artificial chicane installed, just before the pit lane. The Pescara circuit layout holds the record as the longest circuit to to host a Formula One World Championship event, with the Nürburgring Nordschleife coming second at about 23 km; the first Coppa Acerbo was staged in 1924 and was won by a then-unknown junior driver by the name of Enzo Ferrari to find fame as the creator of Ferrari and head of the Formula One team Scuderia Ferrari. The race was run for the top class of international competition, the only real limiting factor on vehicle specifications being the cars' ability to transmit power through the inadequate tyres of the day. Although never itself a Grande Epreuve, or a constituent of the European Championship, the Coppa Acerbo was considered one of the most prestigious races of its day; these early races were dominated by home-grown cars and drivers, Alfa Romeo in particular was unbeatable.
The Milanese manufacturer won seven of the first nine races. Alfa's domination of the race came to an end with the introduction of the 750 kg Grand Prix regulations in 1934, a race, marked by tragedy when Guy Moll, one of the most promising young drivers of the day, was killed. Germany's state-funded Silver Arrows of Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union would come to eclipse all their rivals for the subsequent five years. Although the race was again won by two Italian drivers during this time, including a second victory for Varzi, it was only when the organisers decided to run the Coppa to the 1.5 litre voiturette formula in 1939 that any other manufacturer could stand a realistic chance of winning. Fittingly it was Alfa Romeo, with their new 158 Alfetta car, that took the honours in this last competition before the outbreak of World War II. In 1939 a "Coppa Acerbo Song" was published. After WWII the race remained suspended for a year during post-war rebuilding; when it was run again in 1947 the name of the race was changed, because of its fascist connections, it became known as the Circuito di Pescara.
For the first three years the race was run for two-seater sports cars and was a minor constituent in the European racing calendar. However, in common with many race organisers around the continent, with the introduction of the Formula One World Championship in 1950 the race organisers saw their chance to return the Pescara event to its former position of prominence. Although, once again, not a World Championship event the race did attract many top-name teams and drivers over the following two years. Despite it being an Italian event, himself a former winner, Ferrari decided to withdraw his team from the 1950 event, but the Alfa Romeo and Talbot-Lago works teams did attend, along with many privateer and amateur racers; the 1950 race was won by future World Champion Juan Manuel Fangio driving for Alfa Romeo. The following year Ferrari did attend, the race was won by Fangio's Argentinian compatriot José Froilán González driving one of their 375 cars; when the World Championship switched to the slower Formula Two regulations, the organisers decided to abandon formula racing in favour of further sportscar events.
During this period endurance sportscar racing was as prestigious as the top open-wheel series, for 1952 the organisers changed the race's name, once again, to the 12 Ore di Pescara. The change of format did not hinder Ferrari's chances of victory and their cars and drivers took wins in both 1952 and 1953. Despite the success of the endurance format, when the Formula One engine capacity limit was raised to 2.5 litres from 1954 the Circuito di Pescara was switched back to single-seat rules. The 1954 event was won by one of the most iconic Formula One cars of all time, a Maserati 250F, driven by Luigi Musso; this was to be the last race for two years, as in 1955, as a result of the disaster at the 24 hours of Le Mans, the race was cancelled. Sportscars returned once more in 1956; the 1957 Pescara Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race, held on 18 August 1957, at the Pescara Circuit. The race was the seventh, penultimate round of the 1957 World Drivers' Championship; the race, the only Formula One World Championship race at the track, is best remembered for being held at the longest circuit to stage a Formula One World Championship Grand Prix.
It was the first of the two consecutive Italian races, after the subse
Scuderia Ferrari S.p. A. is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer Ferrari and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing. The team is nicknamed "The Prancing Horse", with reference to their logo, it is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season. The team was founded by Enzo Ferrari to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. Among its important achievements outside Formula One are winning the World Sportscar Championship, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 24 Hours of Spa, 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, Bathurst 12 Hour, races for Grand tourer cars and racing on road courses of the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia and the Carrera Panamericana; as a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors' Championships, the last of, won in 2008. Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers' Championships for the team.
Since Räikkönen's title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers' title with Felipe Massa and the 2010 and 2012 drivers' titles with Fernando Alonso. Michael Schumacher is the team's most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five drivers' titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team, his titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, the team won consecutive constructors' title from 1999 until the end of 2004. Sebastian Vettel and Charles Leclerc are the two main race drivers; the team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the team's home race; the Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the racing team of Alfa Romeo and racing Alfa Romeo cars. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to re-enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, which absorbed what had been Scuderia Ferrari. Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was dismissed by Alfa in 1939.
The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport for a period of four years. In 1939, Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815; the 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars. World War II put a temporary end to racing, Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, which would design and build its own cars; the team was based in Modena from its pre-war founding until 1943, when Enzo Ferrari moved the team to a new factory in Maranello in 1943, both Scuderia Ferrari and Ferrari's roadcar factory remain at Maranello to this day. The team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, used for testing road and race cars; the team is named after Enzo Ferrari. Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams.
The prancing horse was the symbol on Italian World War I ace Francesco Baracca's fighter plane, became the logo of Ferrari after the fallen ace's parents, close acquaintances of Enzo Ferrari, suggested that Ferrari use the symbol as the logo of the Scuderia, telling him it would'bring him good luck'. In May 1947, Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder, 1.5 L Tipo 125, the first racing car to bear the Ferrari name. A Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grands Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, Scuderia Ferrari entered in this first season, it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. In fact the Ferrari team missed the first race of the championship, the 1950 British Grand Prix, due to a dispute about the'start money' paid to entrants, the team debuted in the 1950 Monaco Grand Prix with the 125 F1, sporting a supercharged version of the 125 V12, three experienced and successful drivers, Alberto Ascari, Raymond Sommer and Gigi Villoresi.
The company switched to the large-displacement aspirated formula for the 275, 340, 375 F1 cars. The Alfa Romeo team dominated the 1950 Formula One season, winning all eleven events it entered, but Ferrari broke their streak in 1951 when rotund driver José Froilán González took first place at the 1951 British Grand Prix. After the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars. Ferrari entered the 2.0 L 4-cyl Ferrari Tipo 500, which went on to win every race in which it competed in the 1952 Formula One season with drivers Ascari, Giuseppe Farina, Piero Taruffi. In the 1953 Formula One season, Ascari won only five races but another world title; the 1954 Formula One season brought new rules for 2.5 L engines. Ferrari had only two wins, González at the 1954 British Grand Prix and Mike Hawthorn a
Monaco Grand Prix
The Monaco Grand Prix is a Formula One motor race held each year on the Circuit de Monaco. Run since 1929, it is considered to be one of the most important and prestigious automobile races in the world and, with the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, forms the Triple Crown of Motorsport; the circuit has been called "an exceptional location of glamour and prestige". The race is held on a narrow course laid out in the streets of Monaco, with many elevation changes and tight corners as well as a tunnel, making it one of the most demanding tracks in Formula One. In spite of the low average speeds, the Monaco circuit is a dangerous place to race and involves the intervention of a safety car. Thus, it is the only Grand Prix that does not adhere to the FIA's mandated 305-kilometre minimum race distance for F1 races; the Monaco Grand Prix was part of the pre-Second World War European Championship and was included in the first World Championship of Drivers in 1950. It was designated the European Grand Prix two times, 1955 and 1963, when this title was an honorary designation given each year to one Grand Prix race in Europe.
Graham Hill was known as "Mr. Monaco" due to his five Monaco wins in the 1960s. Brazil's Ayrton Senna won the race more times than any other driver, with six victories, winning five races consecutively between 1989 and 1993. Like many European races, the Monaco Grand Prix predates the current World Championship; the principality's first Grand Prix was organised in 1929 by Antony Noghès, under the auspices of Prince Louis II, through the Automobile Club de Monaco, of which he was president. The ACM organised the Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo, in 1928 applied to the Association Internationale des Automobiles Clubs Reconnus, the international governing body of motorsport, to be upgraded from a regional French club to full national status, their application was refused due to the lack of a major motorsport event held wholly within Monaco's boundaries. The rally could not be considered as it used the roads of other European countries. To attain full national status, Noghès proposed the creation of an automobile Grand Prix in the streets of Monte Carlo.
He obtained the official sanction of Prince Louis II, the support of Monégasque Grand Prix driver Louis Chiron. Chiron thought; the first race, held on 14 April 1929, was won by William Grover-Williams, driving a works Bugatti Type 35B. It was an invitation-only event, but not all of those invited decided to attend; the leading Maserati and Alfa Romeo drivers decided not to compete, but Bugatti was well represented. Mercedes sent Rudolf Caracciola. Starting fifteenth, Caracciola drove a fighting race, taking his SSK into the lead before wasting 4½ minutes on refuelling and a tyre change to finish second. Another driver who competed using a pseudonym was "Georges Philippe", the Baron Philippe de Rothschild. Chiron was unable to compete, having a prior commitment to compete in the Indianapolis 500 on the same day. Caracciola's SSK was refused permission to race the following year, but Chiron did compete, when he was beaten by privateer René Dreyfus and his Bugatti Type 35B, finished second. Chiron took victory in the 1931 race driving a Bugatti.
As of 2018, he remains the only native of Monaco to have won the event. The race grew in importance after its inception; because of the high number of races which were being termed'Grands Prix', the AIACR formally recognised the most important race of each of its affiliated national automobile clubs as International Grands Prix, or Grandes Épreuves, in 1933 Monaco was ranked as such alongside the French, Belgian and Spanish Grands Prix. That year's race was the first Grand Prix in which grid positions were decided, as they are now, by practice time rather than the established method of balloting; the race saw Achille Varzi and Tazio Nuvolari exchange the lead many times before the race being settled in Varzi's favour on the final lap when Nuvolari's car caught fire. The race became a round of the new European Championship in 1936, when stormy weather and a broken oil line led to a series of crashes, eliminating the Mercedes-Benzes of Chiron and von Brauchitsch, as well as Bernd Rosemeyer's Typ C for newcomer Auto Union.
In 1937, von Brauchitsch duelled Caracciola before coming out on top. It was the last prewar Grand Prix at Monaco, for in 1938, the demand for £500 in appearance money per top entrant led AIACR to cancel the event, while looming war overtook it in 1939, the Second World War ended organised racing in Europe until 1945. Racing in Europe started again on 9 September 1945 at the Bois de Boulogne Park in the city of Paris, four months and one day after the end of the war in Europe. However, the Monaco Grand Prix was not run between 1947 due to financial reasons. In 1946 a new premier racing category, Grand Prix, was defined by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, the successor of the AIACR, based on the pre-war voiturette class. A Monaco Grand Prix was run to this formula in 1948, won by the future world champion Nino Farina in a Maserati 4CLT; the 1949 event was cancelled due to the death of Prince Louis II. The race provided future five-time world champion Juan Manuel Fangio with his first win in a World Championship race, as well as third place for the 51-year-old Louis Chiron, his best result in the World Championship era.
However, there was no race in 1951. In 1952, the first
Captain George Edward Thomas Eyston MC OBE was a British racing driver in the 1920s and 1930s, he broke the land speed record three times between 1937 and 1939. He was an engineer and inventor. George Eyston was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, his study of engineering at Cambridge was interrupted by World War I when he was commissioned in the Dorset Regiment and served in the Royal Field Artillery. After the war he was captain of the First Trinity Boat Club. Eyston's racing career began before World War One, when he was still a schoolboy, raced motorcycles under an assumed name. After the war he reverted to his own name, moved on to car racing and entered European road races in Bugattis, with success in races such as the 1921 and 1926 French Grand Prix Later he became well known for racing supercharged MGs such as the Magic Midget and the K3 Magnette, his entries with the K3 included the 1933 Isle of Man and 1934 Northern Ireland Tourist Trophy events, the 1934 Mille Miglia He fitted a diesel engine from an AEC bus into a car built on a Chrysler chassis and used it to set high-speed endurance records at Brooklands, attaining 100.75 mph in 1933 and 106 mph in 1936.
In 1935, he was one of the first British racers to travel to the Bonneville salt flats of Utah, with his 24- and 48-hour record-setting car Speed of the Wind. He is best known today for land speed records set in his car Thunderbolt. Between 1937 and 1939 he set three new land speed records, wresting them from Malcolm Campbell's Blue Bird, but was twice bettered by John Cobb; the rivalry was friendly, in years Eyston, as competitions manager for Castrol, assisted with Cobb's ill-fated attempt on the water speed record in Crusader. He was involved in the design of his Thunderbolt car at the Bean Cars factory in Tipton, Staffordshire; as an engineer and inventor, he held a number of patents related to motor engineering and supercharging. His work on developing high-power gearboxes was important for Thunderbolt, along with his invention of the Powerplus supercharger used on MGs. During World War II Eyston served on various bodies connected with industry and was a Regional Controller for the Ministry of Production.
Capt. Eyston sent his daughter to live in the United States. Eyston was awarded the Military Cross on 18 July 1917 - 2nd Lt. George Edward Thomas Eyston, RFA. Spec. Res. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, he rendered most valuable service. On several occasions he went forward under heavy machine gun fire, he carried out his duties with great courage and determination, was able to obtain most valuable information. He was awarded the Segrave Trophy in 1935, he was made a chevalier of the Légion d'honneur in 1938. He was made an OBE in 1948. Notes^1 – Eyston was co-driver with Birkin at the French GP and Birkin drove with Lewis at the Belgian GP, therefore rules excluded Eyston from the Championship. G. E. T. Eyston. Flat Out. John Miles. Foreword by Sir Malcolm Campbell G. E. T. Eyston. Motor Racing and Record Breaking. George Eyston. F. Bradley. Speed on Salt. Batsford. George Eyston. Fastest on Earth. Charles Jennings; the Fast Set. Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11596-6. EYSTON, Capt. George Edward Thomas, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2008.
Luigi Cristiano Fagioli, nicknamed "the Abruzzi robber", was an Italian motor racing driver. He is the oldest driver to win a race in Formula One being the only race winner born outside the 20th century. Born in the small city of Osimo, in the Marche region of central Italy, as a boy Luigi Fagioli was fascinated by the new invention of the automobile and the ensuing racing. Blessed with great natural driving instincts, a young Fagioli spent several years participating in hillclimbing and sports car races before entering Grand Prix racing in 1926. By 1930, his racing success led to an opportunity to join the Maserati team on the Grand Prix motor racing circuit, he made his presence felt, winning the Coppa Ciano and Circuit of Avellino. In April of the following year he went head to head with Louis Chiron and his Bugatti Type 51 at the Monaco Grand Prix. In what is one of racing's most famous battles, Chiron won but Fagioli showed how skilled he was in a car geared for great speed on long stretches, not the tight twists and short runs of Monte Carlo.
Fagioli went on to take the victory at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza in Monza, Italy beating Chiron as well as fellow Italian greats, Achille Varzi and Tazio Nuvolari. In 1932, Fagioli won the Grand Prix of Rome driving for Maserati but for the 1933 season he was signed by the Alfa Romeo team of Scuderia Ferrari. Driving an Alfa Romeo P3, he won the Coppa Acerbo, the Grand Prix du Comminges, the Italian Grand Prix. A supremely confident Fagioli displayed a fiery temper and retaliated against other drivers on the track when he felt they had done something wrong, he took chances that others might not and as such he developed a somewhat negative reputation after he had several significant race crashes. His talents were considerable and for the 1934 season he was lured away by Mercedes to drive one of their Silver Arrows with the brilliant Hermann Lang as his chief mechanic; the move proved successful for Fagioli but his relationship with the German team manager and co-drivers was difficult. In his first race for Mercedes, one their cars dominated, a furious Fagioli abandoned his vehicle after having been given orders by team manager Alfred Neubauer to stay in second place and allow fellow Mercedes driver Manfred von Brauchitsch to win.
Despite the problems, Fagioli remained part of the German team, earning his second consecutive Coppa Acerbo and together with Rudolf Caracciola, drove a Mercedes W25A to claim his second straight Italian Grand Prix title. Following this, Fagioli went on to take first place at the Spanish Grand Prix at the Circuito Lasarte. For the 1935 racing season, his factory Mercedes was upgraded to a W25B model with which he captured the Monaco Grand Prix and the AVUS and Penya Rhin Grand Prix races. However, his relationship with his teammates worsened, in particular, Rudolf Caracciola and in some races Fagioli tried to pass Caracciola against team orders, he left Mercedes at the end of the 1936 season and joined Auto Union where his rivalry with Caracciola escalated, culminating at the Tripoli Grand Prix when Fagioli physically attacked his former teammate. Health problems, including crippling rheumatism, soon began to affect Luigi Fagioli's racing ability. At the Coppa Acerbo he needed the aid of a cane just to walk and had no choice but to drop out of the race.
With his health somewhat improved, following the end of World War II, 52-year-old Luigi Fagioli joined Alfa-Romeo's 1950 Formula One team driving the 158/159 Alfetta, earning five podium finishes in six races en route to finishing a remarkable third overall in the first FIA World Championship. He entered the final round as one of three drivers in contention for the title, despite not winning a race, his only Grand Prix of 1951 was his last, but he won the French Grand Prix with Juan-Manuel Fangio, earning the distinction of being the oldest person to win a Formula One race. For 1952, Fagioli signed with Lancia to drive sports cars and took great personal delight by finishing in third place in the Mille Miglia ahead of arch rival Rudolf Caracciola. Shortly after, while practicing for a touring car race to be held as part of the Monaco Grand Prix, he had what appeared to be a minor crash: however, his internal injuries were such that he died in hospital three weeks later. Luigi Fagioli ranks as one of Italy's greatest race car drivers, has the second-highest percentage of podium finishes in the Formula One World Championship, after "one-time wonder" Dorino Serafini.
Avusrennen 1935 Coppa Acerbo 1933, 1934 Coppa Ciano 1930 European Grand Prix 1951 Grand Prix du Comminges 1933 Italian Grand Prix 1933, 1934 Monaco Grand Prix 1935 Penya Rhin Grand Prix 1935 Spanish Grand Prix 1934 * Two shared drives with Juan Manuel Fangio, resulting in positions 1 and 11, respectively. Each driver scored half points for the win. Trofeo Luigi Fagioli Hillclimb Official web site
Alfa Romeo P3
The Alfa Romeo P3, P3 monoposto or Tipo B was a classic Grand Prix car designed by Vittorio Jano, one of the Alfa Romeo 8C models. The P3 was first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car and Alfa Romeo's second monoposto after Tipo A monoposto, it was based on the earlier successful Alfa Romeo P2. Taking lessons learned from that car, Jano went back to the drawing board to design a car that could last longer race distances; the P3 was the first genuine single seater racing car, was powered by a supercharged eight-cylinder engine. The car was light for the period, weighing just over 1,500 lb despite using a cast iron engine block; the P3 was introduced in June, halfway through the 1932 Grand Prix season in Europe, winning its first race at the hands of Tazio Nuvolari, going on to win 6 races that year driven by both Nuvolari and Rudolf Caracciola, including all 3 major Grands Prix in Italy and Germany. The 1933 Grand Prix season brought financial difficulties to Alfa Corse so the cars were locked away and Alfa attempted to rest on their laurels.
Enzo Ferrari had to run his breakaway'works' Alfa team as Scuderia Ferrari, using the older, less effective Alfa Monzas. Alfa procrastinated until August and missed the first 25 events, only after much wrangling was the P3 handed over to Scuderia Ferrari. P3s won six of the final 11 events of the season including the final 2 major Grands Prix in Italy and Spain; the regulations for the 1934 Grand Prix season brought larger bodywork requirements, so to counteract this the engine was bored out to 2.9 litres. Louis Chiron won the French Grand Prix at Montlhery, whilst the German Silver Arrows dominated the other four rounds of the European Championship; however the P3s won 18 of all the 35 Grands Prix held throughout Europe. By the 1935 Grand Prix season the P3 was hopelessly uncompetitive against the superior German cars in 6 rounds of the European Championship, but that didn't stop one final, legendary works victory; the P3 was bored out to 3.2 litres for Nuvolari for the 1935 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring, in the heartland of the Mercedes and Auto-Union empire.
In the race, Nuvolari punctured a tyre early on while leading, but after the pitstop he carved through the field until the last lap when Manfred von Brauchitsch, driving the far superior Mercedes Benz W25 suffered a puncture, leaving Nuvolari to win the race in front of 300,000 stunned Germans. The P3's agility and versatility enabled it to win 16 of the 39 Grands Prix in 1935; the P3 had earned its place as a great racing car. 1932: Tazio Nuvolari, Rudolf Caracciola, Giuseppe Campari, Baconin Borzacchini 1933: Louis Chiron, Luigi Fagioli, Giuseppe Campari 1934: Achille Varzi, Louis Chiron, Guy Moll, Brian E. Lewis, Carlo Felice Trossi, Gianfranco Comotti 1935: Tazio Nuvolari, Raymond Sommer, Louis Chiron, Comte George de Montbressieux, Richard Shuttleworth, René Dreyfus, Vittorio Belmondo, Mario Tadini, Antonio Brivio, Guido Barbieri, Pietro Ghersi, Renato Balestrero 1936: Raymond Sommer, "Charlie" Martin, José Padierna de Villapadierna, Giovanni Battaglia, Clemente Biondetti, Austin Dobson Profile of P3 at Grand Prix History The Golden Age by Leif Snellman Results Tables by Quintin Cloud
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the Union Internationale Motonautique governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale governs air sports. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing. In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom. Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular.
After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became established. Motorsports became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, their appropriate organisations. Motor racing is the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other; the Red Bull RB8, the 2012 Formula One World Championship winning car Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former ` Formula' series include Formula Two.
Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, organized by the owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing; the series was conceived in 2012, the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014. The series is sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains; the series has gained significant traction in recent years. A series originated on June 1909 in Portland, Oregon at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50-200 miles, its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11th, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 40 different drivers; the current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season.
Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series at Sonoma Raceway on September 17th, 2017 in Sonoma, California. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American'stock car'. Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, specialised racing types; the premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition. Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area.
An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but gained interest from all over the country; as oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. NASCAR was organized in 1947. Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, including part of A1A; the highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500 nicknamed'The Great American Race', held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.
Touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Off-Road Racing is a group