Gwalior is a major city in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities. Located 343 kilometres south of Delhi, the capital city of India, 120 kilometres from Agra and 414 kilometres from Bhopal, the state capital, Gwalior occupies a strategic location in the Gird region of India; the city and its fortress have been ruled by several historic northern Indian kingdoms. From the Kachchhapaghatas in the 10th century, Tomars in the 13th century, it was passed on to the Mughal Empire to the Maratha in 1754, followed by the Scindia in the 18th century. A study of urban pollution in 2016 found the city to have the highest level of air pollution in India, the second highest in the world. Besides being the administrative headquarters of Gwalior district and Gwalior division, Gwalior has many administrative offices of the Chambal division of northern Madhya Pradesh. Several administrative and judicial organisations and boards have their state and national headquarters situated in the city.
Gwalior was the winter capital of the state of Madhya Bharat which became a part of the larger state of Madhya Pradesh. Prior to Indian independence on 15 August 1947, Gwalior remained a princely state of the British Raj with the Scindia as the local rulers. High rocky hills surround the city from all sides, on the north it just forms the border of the Ganga- Yamuna Drainage Basin; the city however is situated in the valley between the hills. Gwalior's metropolitan area includes Gwalior city centre, Morar Cantonment, Lashkar Gwalior, Maharaja Bada, Phool Bagh, Thatipur. Gwalior was one of the major sites of rebellion during the 1857 uprising. Post-independence, Gwalior has emerged as an important tourist attraction in central India while many industries and administrative offices came up within the city. Before the end of the 20th century it became a million plus agglomeration and now it is a metropolitan city in central India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighbouring districts on all three main directions.
A 2016 report of the World Health Organization found Gwalior to be the second-most air-polluted city in the world and the most polluted city in India. Gwalior has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. According to local tradition, Gwalior owes its name to a sage of former times. Suraj Sen, a local prince, is said to have lost his way in the forest. On a secluded hill, he met an old man, the sage Gwalipa, whose influence took him by surprise. Upon asking the sage for some drinking water, he was led to a river, where the waters not only quenched his thirst but cured him of leprosy. Out of gratitude, the prince wished to offer the sage something in return, the sage asked him to build a wall on the hill to protect the other sages from wild animals which disturbed their yajnas. Suraj Sen built a palace inside the fort, named "Gwalior" after the sage, the city that grew around the fort took the same name.
The river from which Suraj Sen quenched his thirst also came to known as Swarn Nadi. According to legend, Gwalior was founded in 8 AD after a local chieftain, Suraj Sen, was cured of leprosy from a drink given to him by a holy man called Gwalipa. Suraj subsequently named them after Gwalipa; the earliest historical record found at Gwalior is the Gwalior inscription of the Alchon Hun ruler Mihirakula. It describes Mihirakula's father Toramana as "a ruler of, of great merit, renowned by the name of the glorious Tôramâna. Around the 9th century, the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty controlled Gwalior and during their rule, they constructed the Teli ka Mandir temple. In 1021, Gwalior was attacked by forces led by Mahmud Ghazni but they were repelled. In 1231 Iltutmish captured Gwalior after an 11-month-long effort and from till the 13th century it remained under Muslim rule. In 1375, Raja Veer Singh was made the ruler of Gwalior and he founded the rule of the Tomar clan. During those years, Gwalior saw its golden period.
The Jain Sculptures at Gwalior Fort were built under Tomar rule. Man Singh Tomar made his dream palace, the Man Mandir Palace, now a tourist attraction at Gwalior Fort. Babur described it as "the pearl in the necklace of forts of India and not the winds could touch its masts"; the daily light and sound show organised there tells about the history of the Gwalior Fort and Man Mandir Palace. In the 1730s, the Scindias captured Gwalior and it remained a princely state during the British Rule. Chaturbhuj Temple at Gwalior Fort claims the world's first occurrence of zero as a written number. By the 15th century, the city had a noted singing school, attended by Tansen. Gwalior was ruled by the Mughals for the longest time and the Marathas. Gwalior is known for not participating in the 1857 rebellion due to non-co-operation with Rani Lakshmibai. After Kalpi fell into the hands of the British on 24 May 1858, Lakshmibai sought shelter at Gwalior Fort; the Maharaja of Gwalior was not willing to give up his fort without a fight as he was a strong ally of the British, but after negotiations, his troops capitulated and the rebels took possession of the fort.
The British attacked Gwalior in no time, the battle was fought by Lakshmibai. Indian forces numbered around 20,000, British forces around 1,600 troops. Lakshmibai's example is remembered to this day by Indian nationalists
Eva Haljecka Petković was a Serbian physician and an activist for the rights of women doctors. She was the first female gynecologist in the Balkans, the first head of the Department of Maternity and Women's Diseases in Niš, the first woman who performed a caesarean section in Serbia. Eva Haljecka Petković was born in 1870, in a village of Congress Poland, at the border with the Russian Empire. Eva's mother died during her childbirth, her father, Marko Haljecki, was a construction engineer. Due to the nature of his business, she traveled with him and moved often. Petković was educated by her father, she completed her primary school in Odessa, her secondary school in Kiev, where her father worked. After finishing high school, she enrolled in medical school in 1886, studying in University of Bern, University of Zurich, where she graduated in 1891, she completed her specialization at the University of Vienna at the school's Gynecology and Obstetric Clinic in the class of Professor Friedrich Saout. After completing her studies, she joined her father, who worked on the construction of a dock and the Danube coastline near Belgrade.
She started her first job in January 1892, in Belgrade, by the decision of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Serbia, as a medical assistant at the General State Hospital in Belgrade. In 1905, she got the job of a secondary doctor at the Gynecology-Babic Department of the General State Hospital by the decision of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Serbia. In 1909, Petković went to Niš where she was appointed as the Secondary Doctor of the Nis District Hospital. In Niš, she served as the head of the District Hospital during the Balkan Wars from 1912 to 1913. During the World War I, from 1915, she was a prisoner of the Bulgarian army during the occupation of Nis, but returned to our position in December 1918 through September 1919. Besides the work of a manager and a doctor, Petković worked in cholera slums, where there were venereal and other patients, whom the Nis-English hospital did not want to receive at the time. After working as head of the District Hospital to the end of World War I, Eva became an assistant doctor at the Department of Maternity and Women's Diseases of the Nis District Hospital the same year.
On 3 January 1920, by the decree of the Ministry, she became the head of the Department of the Niš District Hospital, remained in office until 1924, when she retired. She was the first woman in the Balkans who performed a Caesarean section, in 1910, the first gynecologist in the Balkans, the first head of the Department of Maternity and Female Diseases in Niš. Petković was one of the most prominent fighters for equalizing the rights of women with the rights of men. In 1908, she sent an objection to National Assembly of Serbia. In her argument, she asked for the equalization of the rights of women doctors with the rights of men doctors— She devoted her lifetime to professional work and improvement of medicine to the improvement of women's health, she was one of the most active members of the Serbian Medical Society in Nis. For her devotion and work in the field of medicine, she was honored with the Royal Order of the Holy Savior of the Fifth Order, she died in 1947. Immigration to Serbia Beric, B.
"Dr Eva Haljecka, the first woman obstetrician-obstetrician in Yugoslav countries", Yugoslav gynecology and obstetrics, 23, pp. 95–99 Jovanovic, A. "Dr Eva Haljecka: First Director of the Gynecology Department of the Nis Hospital", Women's History of Niš, Niš 2013, pp. 34–36 Krstić, M. Female doctors awarded in Serbian liberation wars during 1876-1878 and 1912-1918. Milojević, В. "Dr Eva M. Haljecka-Petkovic: the first woman doctor in Nis and the first woman gynecologist in the field of today's Yugoslavia", Acta medica Medianae, 29, 2, pp. 107–124 Zivic, R. S. Gnostics of Nis Medicine, Nis 1997. Kujundzic, Dr Draga Ljocic and first female doctors, Serbian archive, 5, pp. 593–594
Alla fiera dell'est is an album by the Italian singer-songwriter Angelo Branduardi. It won the prize of Italian music critics in the same year. In 1978 it was released in a French version with the title "A la foire de l'est" and in an English version, entitled "Highdown Fair", with lyrics by Peter Sinfield. Lyrics of the Italian version were written by Luisa Zappa; the title track is an adaptation of a Hebrew Passover song "Chad Gadya". "Il vecchio e la farfalla" is inspired by an oriental proverb mentioned in The Travels of Marco Polo. "La serie dei numeri" is taken from a Breton song, "Ar Rannoù", contained in the anthology Barzaz Breiz. The melody of "Sotto il tiglio" is based on a German lied entitled "Unter den Linden", written by Walther von der Vogelweide. "Alla fiera dell'est" - 5:26 "La favola degli aironi" - 3:47 "Il vecchio e la farfalla" - 2:59 "Canzone per Sarah" - 4:21 "La serie dei numeri" - 4:33 "Il dono del cervo" - 3:17 "Il funerale" - 8:10 "L'uomo e la nuvola" - 3:49 "Sotto il tiglio - 2:56 "Canzone del rimpianto" - 3:01