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Gwanggaeto the Great

Gwanggaeto the Great was the nineteenth monarch of Goguryeo. His full posthumous name means "Entombed in Gukgangsang, Broad Expander of Domain, Supreme King", sometimes abbreviated to Hotaewang, his era name is Yeongnak and he is recorded as Yeongnak Taewang. Gwanggaeto's imperial reign title meant that Goguryeo was on equal standing as an empire with the imperial dynasties in China. Under Gwanggaeto, Goguryeo began a golden age, becoming a powerful empire and one of the great powers in East Asia. Gwanggaeto made enormous conquests into: Western Manchuria against Khitan tribes. In regard to the Korean peninsula, Gwanggaeto defeated Baekje, the most powerful of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, in 396, capturing the capital city of Wiryeseong in present-day Seoul. In 399, the southeastern kingdom of Korea, sought aid from Goguryeo due to incursions by Baekje troops and their Wa allies from the Japanese archipelago. Gwanggaeto dispatched 50,000 expeditionary troops, crushing his enemies and securing Silla as a de facto protectorate.

In his western campaigns, he defeated the Xianbei of the Later Yan empire and conquered the Liaodong peninsula, regaining the ancient domain of Gojoseon. Gwanggaeto's accomplishments are recorded on the Gwanggaeto Stele, erected in 414 at the supposed site of his tomb in Ji'an along the present-day China–North Korea border. Constructed by his son and successor Jangsu, the monument to Gwanggaeto the Great is the largest engraved stele in the world. At the time of Gwanggaeto's birth, Goguryeo was not as powerful. In 371, three years prior to Gwanggaeto's birth, the rival Korean kingdom of Baekje, under the great leadership of Geunchogo, soundly defeated Goguryeo, slaying the monarch Gogukwon and sacking Pyongyang. Baekje became one of the dominant powers in East Asia. Baekje's influence was not limited to the Korean peninsula, but extended across the sea to Liaoxi and Shandong in China, taking advantage of the weakened state of Former Qin, Kyushu in the Japanese archipelago. Goguryeo was inclined to avoid conflicts with its ominous neighbor, while cultivating constructive relations with the Former Qin, the Xianbei, the Rouran, in order to defend itself from future invasions and bide time to reshape its legal structure and initiate military reforms.

Gogukwon's successor, adopted a foreign policy of appeasement and reconciliation with Baekje, concentrated on domestic policies to spread Buddhism throughout Goguryeo's social and political systems. Furthermore, due to the defeats that Goguryeo had suffered at the hands of the proto-Mongol Xianbei and Baekje, Sosurim instituted military reforms aimed at preventing such defeats in the future. Sosurim's internal arrangements laid the groundwork for Gwanggaeto's expansion. Sosurim's successor, invaded Later Yan, the successor state of Former Yan, in 385 and Baekje in 386. Gwanggaeto succeeded his father, upon his death in 391. Upon his coronation, Gwanggaeto adopted the era name Yeongnak and the title Taewang, equivalent to "emperor", affirming that he was an equal to the Imperial rulers of China. In 392, Gwanggaeto led an attack on Baekje with 40,000 troops. In response, the monarch of Baekje, launched a counterattack on Goguryeo in 393 but was defeated. Despite the ongoing war, during 393, Gwanggaeto established 9 Buddhist temples in Pyongyang.

Asin was defeated again. After suffering multiple defeats against Goguryeo, Baekje's political stability began to crumble. In 395, Baekje was defeated once more by Goguryeo and was pushed south to its capital of Wiryeseong on the Han River. In the following year, in 396, Gwanggaeto led an assault on Wiryeseong by land and sea, using the Han River, triumphed over Baekje. Gwanggaeto captured the Baekje capital and the defeated Asin submitted to him, surrendering a prince and 10 government ministers. In 395, while his campaign against Baekje was ongoing to the south, Gwanggaeto made an excursion to invade the Khitan Baili clan to the west on the Liao River, destroying 3 tribes and 600 to 700 camps. In 398, Gwanggaeto conquered the Sushen people to the northeast, who were Tungusic ancestors of the Jurchens and Manchus. In 400, while Gwanggaeto was occupied with Baekje, Wa troops in Silla, the Xianbei state of Later Yan, founded by the Murong clan in present-day Liaoning, attacked Goguryeo. Gwanggaeto repulsed the Xianbei troops.

In 402, Gwanggaeto retaliated and conquered the prominent fortress called 宿軍城 near the capital of Later Yan. In 405 and again in 406, Later Yan troops attacked Goguryeo fortresses in Liaodong, but was defeated both times. Gwanggaeto conquered all of Liaodong. By conquering Liaodong, Gwanggaeto recovered the ancient domain of Gojoseon. In 407, Gwanggaeto dispatched 50,000 troops consisting of infantry and cavalry and won a great victory annihilating the enemy troops and pillaging about 10,000 armors and countless war supplies. In 410, Gwanggaeto attacked Eastern Buyeo to the northeast. In 400, another Korean kingdom in the southeast of the Korean peninsula, requested aid from Goguryeo in repelling an allied invasion by Baekje, Wa. Gwanggaeto annihilated the enemy coalition. T

Atheistic existentialism

Atheistic existentialism is a kind of existentialism which diverged from the Christian existential works of Søren Kierkegaard and developed within the context of an atheistic world view. The philosophies of Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche provided existentialism's theoretical foundation in the 19th century, although their differing views on religion proved essential to the development of alternate types of existentialism. Atheistic existentialism was formally recognized after the 1943 publication of Being and Nothingness by Jean-Paul Sartre and Sartre explicitly alluded to it in Existentialism is a Humanism in 1946. Atheistic existentialism is the exclusion of any transcendental, metaphysical, or religious beliefs from philosophical existentialist thought, it shares elements with religious existentialism and with metaphysical existentialism. Atheistic existentialism confronts death anxiety without appealing to a hope of somehow being saved by a god and without any appeal to alternate forms of supernatural salvation such as reincarnation.

For some thinkers, existential malaise is theoretical while others are quite affected by existential anguish. Jean-Paul Sartre is a well-known French philosopher, concerned with human authenticity and individuality, his novel Nausea is in some ways a manifesto of atheistic existentialism. It deals with a dejected researcher in an anonymous French town, where Roquentin becomes conscious of the fact that nature as well as every inanimate object is indifferent towards him and his tormented existence; the existential angst experienced by the protagonist allows him to understand that meaning exists only when he creates it for himself. Sartre once said "existence precedes essence". What he meant was "that, first of all, man exists, turns up, appears on the scene, only afterwards, defines himself. If man, as the existentialist conceives him, is indefinable, it is. Only afterward will he be something, he himself will have made what he will be. Thus, there is no human nature. Not only is man what he conceives himself to be, but he is only what he wills himself to be after this thrust toward existence".

Sartre wrote other works in the spirit of atheistic existentialism. Albert Camus writes of dualisms -- between happiness and sadness -- as well as death. In The Myth of Sisyphus, such dualism becomes paradoxical because humans value their existence while at the same time being aware of their mortality. Camus believes. On the other hand, Camus is not an existential atheist because the acceptance of "the Absurd" implies neither the existence of God nor the nonexistence of God. Considered one of the founding fathers of existentialism, German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was a critic of Christian theology. Arguing that morality itself is a human construct as opposed to the laws of nature, which are inherently morally neutral, Nietzsche divided morality into two types: slave morality and master morality, it is this first type, slave morality, which he associates with religion with Christianity. In his book, The Gay Science, Nietzsche utters his famous statement "God is dead", which refers to his belief that morality can no longer be reasonably dictated by religion.

It is for this reason. By contrast, others claim his assertion that nothing exists beyond this life requires us to rethink the tenets of morality, not to throw the concept of morality itself out the window. Indeed, they argue that while Nietzsche believed humanity was on track toward nihilism, he was not directly advocating it as the direction in which we should head. Enc. Britannica, art. "Atheistic Existentialism" About Atheistic Existentialism Atheistic existentialism The absurd in atheistic existentialism

Mykhaylo Koman

Mykhaylo Mykhaylovych Koman was a Ukrainian footballer and coach of Lemko-Ruthenian origin. He was an Honoured Master of Sports and Honoured Coach of the Soviet Union. Koman was born in the village of Ľubotín, First Czechoslovak Republic, where his family had its own little farm. In 1934, his family moved in what is today western Ukraine. From an early age Mykhailo spoke Slovak and learned Hungarian and the local dialect of Ukrainian. Mykhaylo's father became a railroad worker. Mykhaylo had brothers Myron and Andriy, five other siblings. Since age 9, Koman played for the local Ukrainian national school until 1942 and the city's engineering vocational school. In 1944-45 he played for the city team of a local mill administration. For transportation the city's team used a Studebaker bus. In 1946, Koman joined newly formed Soviet clubs Partizan Vinogradov and Rus Bushtina as well as participated at the All-Ukrainian Spartakiad representing the Zakarpattia region. In 1948 the Zakarpattia consolidated team was transformed into the new Soviet club Spartak Uzhgorod.

Koman did not stay at Uzhhorod team for too long and the same year was transferred to Dynamo Kyiv where he played until his retirement in 1959. During his years in Uzhhorod and Kyiv, he met with such football players as János Fabián and György Laver; the transfer took place after the 1948 Cup final of the Ukrainian SSR when Spartak lost to Dynamo Kyiv 1:2. Eight players of the Uzhhorod team were transferred the next day to Kyiv. Beside Koman to Dynamo transfer Ernő Juszt, Dezső Tóth and others. Koman spent most of his playing career with FC Dynamo Kyiv, led the team in scoring in 1953 with seven goals. In 1954 Koman scored the winning goal in the 1954 Soviet Cup Final earning Dynamo its first national trophy, the Soviet Cup, he retired in 1959. Doctors diagnosed him with blockade of cardiac muscle and suggested he retire to preserve own health. During his 10 years with Dynamo Kyiv he played 172 matches, scoring 62 goals. After retirement, Koman stayed within the Dynamo's football academy as a coach for five decades.

He became an Honoured Coach of the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, he headed FC Dynamo-3 Kyiv in 1993 until it was dissolved in 2008. In 1956 Koman played couple of games for the Ukraine at the Spartakiad of the Peoples of the USSR. Mykhaylo Koman was married twice, he had Eva Mykhaylivna Koman, who lives in Hungary. He had a son, Mykhaylo Mykhaylovich Koman, from his second marriage, he died 21 February 2015, age 86. He was buried in Baikove Cemetery in Kyiv. Statistics in www.klisf.info/numeric Biography in Russian

Gospel Music Network

The Gospel Music Network was a commercial Christian cable television station which launched in 1986 by Bill and Linda Airy. At the time, the Airy's owned a full-service advertising agency in New Mexico. One of the agency's clients was Pepsi-Cola Bottling Group. In 1986, Pepsi-Cola was interested in reaching an African-American audience for its Mountain Dew product. Research indicated. With no gospel music programming available nationwide on any existing network, the Airy's decided to launch a channel and Gospel Music Network was born. A guiding tenet was that GMN would never ask for donations on-air but would rely on advertising sponsorships and license fees from distributors. Funded directly by the Airy's, GMN's format was similar to that of MTV featuring music videos; the network did not limit itself to particular styles of music, playing everything from southern and black gospel to the full spectrum of Contemporary Christian music. According to CCM Magazine it was the first network of its type.

Networks with similar programming include Z Music Television and the Gospel Music Channel. After one year the channel had a viewership potential of two million people. In 1988, GMN was in negotiations for carriage with Tele-Communications, Inc. a large cable MSO based in Englewood, CO. During those negotiations, TCI broached the issue of broadening GMN's line up to include programming from a wide variety of faith traditions – Protestant, Catholic and Jewish. TCI was interested in having one faith-based channel that would eschew on-air fundraising and that would serve the entire faith community as opposed to a channel for each individual denomination. In 1989, the Airy's sold their advertising agency, moved their family to Denver, Bill Airy began working for TCI as president of VISN Group, Inc. a new TCI subsidiary formed to merge GMN with the television programming efforts of the National Interfaith Cable Coalition, a coalition of various leaders from the mainline faith community loosely affiliated with the National Council of Churches.

TCI agreed to underwrite the development of the new network which combined GMN with the programming available from NICC. VISN became the Faith & Values Channel in the mid 1990s and was acquired by the Hallmark Channel. By the time Z Music Television was founded in 1991 there was no dedicated outlet for Christian music videos

Milwaukee River

The Milwaukee River is a river in the state of Wisconsin. It is about 104 miles long. Once a locus of industry, the river is now the center of a housing boom. New condos now crowd the downtown and harbor districts of Milwaukee attracting young professionals to the area; the river is ribboned with parks as it winds through various neighborhoods. Kayaks and fishing boats share the river with party boats. An extensive Riverwalk featuring art displays, boat launches and restaurants lines its banks in downtown Milwaukee; the river begins in Fond du Lac County and flows south past Grafton to downtown Milwaukee, where it empties into Lake Michigan. Cedar Creek, the Menomonee River and the Kinnickinnic River are the three main tributaries; the Milwaukee River watershed drains 882 square miles in southeastern Wisconsin, including parts of Dodge, Fond du Lac, Ozaukee, Sheboygan and Waukesha counties. The Milwaukee River watershed is part of the Lake Michigan subbasin; the Milwaukee River area was populated by Native Americans in the time before European settlement.

Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet navigated from Lake Michigan through the Milwaukee River on their way to the Fox River and the Mississippi. The river had been known as the "Maynawalky," while the present-day Menomonee River was known as the "Milwalky."In the early 19th century, three towns were formed across the banks of the Milwaukee and Kinnickinnic rivers: Juneautown by Solomon Juneau, Walker's Point by George H. Walker and Kilbourntown by Byron Kilbourn; the quarrel over the formation of a bridge across the Milwaukee River was a key point in the merging of the three towns into the city of Milwaukee in 1846. The Milwaukee River has numerous movable bridges spanning it, allowing for pedestrian and vehicular traffic; these bridges include several different types, including bascule and hydraulically-powered table bridges. There are many fixed bridges, as well as several pedestrian-only and railroad trestles; the following is a partial list of bridges that cross the river, from north to south: Brown Deer Road Bridge Range Line Road Bridge Good Hope Road Bridge Green Tree Road Bridge Bender Road Bridge Silver Spring Drive Bridge Hampton Avenue Bridge I-43 Bridge Port Washington Road Bridge Capitol Drive Bridge Locust Street Bridge North Avenue Bridge |North Avenue Bridge North-Humboldt Pedestrian Bridge Humboldt Street Bridge Holton Street Viaduct Pleasant Street Bridge Cherry Street Bridge McKinley Avenue Bridge aka Knapp Street Bridge Juneau Avenue Bridge Highland Avenue Pedestrian Bridge State Street Bridge |State Street Bridge Kilbourn Avenue Bridge Wells Street Bridge |Wells Street Bridge Wisconsin Avenue Bridge Michigan Street Bridge Clybourn Street Bridge I-794 Bridge Saint Paul Avenue Bridge Water Street Bridge Broadway Bridge aka Milwaukee Street Bridge Hoan BridgeThere are several Union Pacific railroad bridges crossing the Milwaukee River, including: north of Bender Road south of Silver Spring Drive Railroad Swing Bridge #1556 There are several parks on the banks of the Milwaukee River.

These include Gordon, Lincoln, Pere Marquette, Pleasant Valley, Riverside Parks in Milwaukee, Kletzsch Park in Glendale, as well as Hubbard Park and Estabrook Park in Shorewood. There are several dams along the river; the dam in Estabrook Park, Milwaukee County was removed in 2018. List of Wisconsin rivers Milwaukee Riverwalk Milwaukee River Advocates Milwaukee River Basin – Wisconsin DNR Milwaukee Green Map: Watersheds Milwaukee River Preservation Association Milwaukee Riverkeeper River Revitalization Foundation Milwaukee River Basin Partnership Milwaukee Estuary Area of Concern History of Port of Milwaukee Milwaukee River Greenway Coalition

Kurds in Turkmenistan

The Kurds in Turkmenistan form a part of the significant Kurdish population in the post-Soviet space, encompass people born in or residing in Turkmenistan who are of Kurdish origin. In the 17th century, Abbas I of Persia and Nader Shah settled Kurdish tribes from Khuzestan alongside the Iranian-Turkmen border. More Kurds arrived to Turkmenistan in the 19th century to find unclaimed land and to escape starvation. After the dissolution of Kurdistan Uyezd, many Kurds were deported to Turkmenistan. Stalin deported many Kurds from Caucasus to Turkmenistan in 1937 and again in 1944. Since the 1980s, The Kurds of Turkmenistan have been subject to government sponsored assimilation programmes. Under Soviet Turkmenistan the Kurds had their own newspapers and schools, but since the independence of Turkmenistan, the Turkmen President Saparmurat Niyazov had closed all non-Turkmen schools; the majority of the Turkmen Kurds are followers of Sunni Islam, with a small minority of Shia Islam followers. Despite that the History of current Kurds in Turkmenistan started in 17th Century.

The relations and first Contacts between Kurds and Turkmens started with the arrival of the Seljuks in the Middle East. Kurds of Khorasan