Gwangju is the sixth-largest city in South Korea. It is a designated metropolitan city under the direct control of the central government's Home Minister; the city was the capital of South Jeolla Province until the provincial office moved to the southern village of Namak in Muan County in 2005 because Gwangju was promoted to a metropolitan city and was independent from South Jeolla province. Its name is composed of the words Gwang meaning "light" and Ju meaning "province." Gwangju was recorded as Muju, in which "Silla merged all of the land to establish the provinces of Gwangju, Jeonju and various counties, plus the southern boundary of Goguryeo and the ancient territories of Silla" in the Samguk Sagi. In the heart of the agricultural Jeolla region, the city is famous for its rich and diverse cuisine; the city was established in 57 BC. It was one of the administrative centres of Baekje during the Three Kingdoms Period. In 1929, during the period of Imperial Japanese rule, a confrontation between Korean and Japanese students in the city turned into a regional demonstration, which culminated in one of the major nationwide uprisings against Imperial Japanese cruelty during the colonial period.
Modern industry was established in Gwangju with the construction of a railway to Seoul. Some of the industries that took hold include rice mills and breweries. Construction of a designated industrial zone in 1967 encouraged growth in industry in the sectors linked to the automobile industry. In May 1980, peaceful demonstrations took place in Gwangju against Chun Doo-hwan, leader of the military coup d'état of December 12, 1979; the demonstrations were suppressed by military forces, including elite units of the Special Operations Command. The situation escalated after a violent crackdown, resulting in the Gwangju Uprising, where civilians raided armories and armed themselves. By the time the uprising was suppressed 9 days many hundreds of civilians and several police forces / soldiers were dead. After civilian rule was reinstated in 1987, a national cemetery was established, honouring the victims of the incident.. Now the South Korean constitution admits the Gwangju Uprising as a root of South Korean democracy.
In 1986, Gwangju separated from Jeollanam-do to become a Directly Governed City, became a Metropolitan City in 1995. Due to a variety of factors, including the ancient rivalry between Baekje and Silla, as well as the biased priority given to the Gyeongsang region by political leaders in the 2nd half of the 20th century, Gwangju has a long history of voting for left-leaning politicians and is the main stronghold for the liberal Democratic Party of Korea along with its predecessors, as well as the progressive Justice Party. Gwangju held many sports events such as 2002 FIFA World Cup, 2015 Summer Universiade, 2019 World Aquatics Championships. Gwangju is divided into 5 districts. According to the census of 2005, of the people of Gwangju 33% follow Christianity and 14% follow Buddhism. 53% of the population is not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions. The population model of Gwangju is. Honam University, Gwangju University, Gwangshin University, Gwangju Women's University, Nambu University, Chosun University, Honam Christian University are private universities.
Gwangju Health University is a private community college offering associate degrees in humanities and social sciences, healthcare sciences, a bachelor's degree in nursing. Gwangju has 593 schools, consisting of 234 kindergartens, 145 elementary schools, 84 middle schools, 65 high schools, 1 science high school, 7 junior colleges, 9 universities, 38 graduate schools, 11 others with a total of 406,669 students, or 28.5% of the total city population. The average number of students per household is 0.8. The city is served by the Gwangju Subway. An extension was completed in April 2008 with another due for completion in 2012. There are two KTX stations in the city: Gwangju Songjeong Station. Gwangju Songjeong station connects to local bus system. Now the Songjeong station is used. Gwangju has an extensive system of public buses. Bus stops and buses themselves contain stop information in English. Local buses, but not the subway or KTX, connect to the intercity Gwangju Bus Terminal known as U-Square. Gwangju is served by the Gwangju Airport.
Gwangju Asia Culture Center – The Asia Culture Center is a facility in downtown Gwangju designed to celebrate and explore Gwangju's artistic and democratic culture and history as well as provide space to host exhibits and events from international artists. It is built below street level, though its design incorporates large amounts of natural lighting. There are five facilities: ACC Exchange, ACC Theater, ACC Creation, ACC Archive & Research, ACC Children. Gwangju Biennale – This is a modern art festival, held every two years, it was first launched in 1995. The Gwangju Biennale Exhibition Hall is at the Science Center. Gwangju Culture & Art Center – The Center hosts events. Gwangju Culture & Art Center Official Website Gwangju Hyanggyo – Gwangju Hyanggyo is in the Gwangju Park in Sa-dong. There are traditional houses here estimated as built during the 1st year of the Joseon Dynasty in 1392; this school continues to hold memorial cer
Agriculture in London is a rather small enterprise, with only 8.6% of the Greater London area being used for commercial farming, nearly all of, close to Greater London's outer boundaries. There are a few city farms closer to the centre of about 30,000 allotments. There are 135.66 square kilometres of farmland in the Greater London area. Nearly all of the farmland in the London area is a basis for the growing culture. Farmland in London is predominantly present in five boroughs: Bromley, Hillingdon and Barnet. Many areas which now form part of Greater London were rural and agricultural outskirts and still bear names which indicate this past: Ealing Common, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Shepherd's Bush and Wormwood Scrubs, for example. In 1938, the Greater London area became the first region in Britain to use a green belt policy and introduced the Metropolitan Green Belt in order to combat urban sprawl. A 2005 agricultural census carried out by ADAS showed that 423 holdings were located in the London part of the metropolitan green belt, around 0.25% of the total number in Britain.
The total land managed was 13,608 hectares, half of, rented. Less than 10% of the land farmed was used for cultivation of organic materials, the total contribution that farming made to the economy, excluding diversification activities, was less than £8 m. However, London's agricultural industry was shown to be much more reliant on activities pertaining to diversification, with just under a third of farm income attributed to it, exceeding the national average; the report stated that whilst farming was not a significant part of London's economy, it did have a vital role to play. The report showed that farming was concentrated in northeast London, but only included figures on arable farming; the report commented that livestock farming had decreased in recent years due to a lack of infrastructure and problems associated with being located close to the urban fringe. The report concluded that the low levels of stock in relation to permanent pasture suggested equine usage, something related to diversification activities.
Horticultural activities were confined to the east of London, south of the River Thames. This survey, as well as one carried out by Farmer's Voice in 2004, showed that the majority of farmers felt that planning restrictions, which are more and stringently enforced in the green belt, were the greatest barrier to diversification; the next highest was a lack of capital, both polls showed that the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU was perceived to be smallest obstacle towards furthering diversification. The profitability of agriculture in the London green belt was shown to have increased: in 1999, only 4% of London farms reported an increased or maintained profit level, whereas 27% did in 2008. Forty-eight percent said they feared for their business's survival in 1999. In an effort to boost the efforts of urban farming in the Greater London area, a conference was called on 1 July 2008 entitled "Growing Food for London". Organized by the London Parks and Green Spaces Forum, as part of the London Festival of Architecture, solutions were sought to encourage so called "fringe farmers" by assessing their needs in urban areas.
The impetus for the conference was the rising cost of fuel, the requisite need for food supplies to be provided closer to urban areas to keep food costs low. Agriculture in the United Kingdom Economy of London
Allison Arieff is an American writer on design, is the editorial director for the urban planning and policy think tank, SPUR. She writes about architecture, design and technology for the Opinion section of The New York Times. Early in her career, she held editorial positions at Random House, Oxford University Press and Chronicle Books. In 2000, Arieff helped found the architecture and design magazine Dwell, in 2002, following the departure of founding editor Karrie Jacobs, she was promoted to editor-in-chief. During her tenure the magazine expanded its readership, received a number of awards, including a National Magazine Award for general excellence, she left the magazine in 2006. She has been an editor at Sunset, worked at Good magazine and was a senior content lead for the design and consulting firm IDEO from 2006-2008. Arieff holds a B. A. in history from University of California, Los Angeles, an M. A. in art history from University of California, Davis. She completed her PhD coursework in American studies at New York University.