The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada. At a land area of 1,144,000 km2 and a 2016 census population of 41,786, it is the second-largest and the most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada, its estimated population as of 2018 is 44,445. Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission; the Northwest Territories, a portion of the old North-Western Territory, entered the Canadian Confederation on July 15, 1870, but the current borders were formed on April 1, 1999, when the territory was subdivided to create Nunavut to the east, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. While Nunavut is Arctic tundra, the Northwest Territories has a warmer climate and is both boreal forest, tundra, its most northern regions form part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; the Northwest Territories is bordered by Canada's two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, by the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the south.
The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the colonial era to indicate where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory. In Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, "beautiful land."There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut to a term from an Aboriginal language. One proposal was "Denendeh", among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory "Bob" – began as a prank, but for a while it was at or near the top in the public-opinion polls. In the end, a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name "Northwest Territories"; this name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canada's north-central and northeastern areas. Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south.
It meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has a land area of 1,183,085 km2. Geographical features include Great Bear Lake, the largest lake within Canada, Great Slave Lake, the deepest body of water in North America at 614 m, as well as the Mackenzie River and the canyons of the Nahanni National Park Reserve, a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island, parts of Victoria Island and Melville Island, its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north; the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with daytime highs of 14-17 Celsius, lows of 1-5 Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C and lows around −40 °C.
Extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, but they can reach the low teens during the day. In the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, lows can reach into the low negatives. In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C but they can reach the single digits during the day. Thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower; the Territory has a dry climate due to the mountains in the west. About half of the territory is above the tree line. There are not many trees in the north islands; the present-day territory came under government authority in July 1870, after the Hudson's Bay Company transferred Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to the British Crown, which subsequently transferred them to Canada, giving it the name the North-west Territories.
This immense region comprised all of today's Canada except that, encompassed within the early signers of Canadian Confederation, that is, British Columbia, early forms of present-day Ontario and Quebec, the Maritimes, the Labrador coast, the Arctic Islands, except the southern half of Baffin Island. The first residential school opened in 1867 in Fort Resolution, followed by several others in regions across the territory, thus contributing to the Northwest Territories reaching the highest percentage of students in residential schools of any area in Canada. After the 1870 transfer, some of the North-west Territories was whittled away; the province of Manitoba was created on July 15, 1870, at first a small square area around Winnipeg
Tsiigehtchic the Charter Community of Tsiigehtchic, is a Gwich'in community located at the confluence of the Mackenzie and the Arctic Red Rivers, in the Inuvik Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The community was known as Arctic Red River, until 1 April 1994. Population is 172 according to the 2016 Census, a decrease of 20.3% over the 2011 Census with 130 people identified as First Nations and 10 as Inuit. However, only 5 people said. In 2017 the Government of the Northwest Territories reported that the population was 179 with an average yearly growth rate of 0.1% from 2007. The Dempster Highway, NWT Highway 8, crosses the Mackenzie River at Tsiigehtchic. During winter, vehicle traffic is over the ice, during the rest of the year, traffic is carried by the ferry MV Louis Cardinal; the ferry stops at Tsiigehtchic, on the eastern bank of the Arctic Red River, on the southwestern and northeastern banks of the Mackenzie River, connecting the two legs of the Dempster Highway. The community is one of the few in the NWT not to be served by a permanent airport.
In early September 2007, near Tsiigehtchic, local resident Shane Van Loon discovered a carcass of a steppe bison, radiocarbon dated to c. 13,650 cal BP. This carcass appears to represent the first Pleistocene mummified soft tissue remains from the glaciated regions of northern Canada. Arctic Red River Water Aerodrome List of municipalities in the Northwest Territories Tsiigehtchic at the Gwich'in Social and Cultural Institute
Inuvik is a town in the Northwest Territories of Canada and is the administrative centre for the Inuvik Region. Inuvik was conceived in 1953 as a replacement administrative centre for the hamlet of Aklavik on the west of the Mackenzie Delta, as the latter was prone to flooding and had no room for expansion. Called "New Aklavik", it was renamed Inuvik in 1958; the school was built in 1959 and the hospital, government offices and staff residences in 1960, when people, including Inuvialuit, Gwich’in and Métis, began to live in the community. Naval Radio Station Inuvik CFS Inuvik, callsign CFV, was commissioned on 10 September 1963 after operations had been transferred from NRS Aklavik. Station CFV was part of the SUPRAD network of direction finding stations. CFS Inuvik closed on 1 April 1986 and the site was transferred to the Department of Transport for use as a telecommunications station. Nothing remains of CFS Inuvik today. Now, many people of all backgrounds still lament its closing; the Navy Operations base at the end of Navy Road was dismantled and removed.
Inuvik achieved village status in 1967 and became a full town in 1979 with an elected mayor and council. In 1979, with the completion of the Dempster Highway, Inuvik became connected to Canada's highway system, the most northerly town to which one could drive in the summer months — although an ice road through the Mackenzie River delta connects the town to Tuktoyaktuk, on the coast of the Arctic Ocean, Aklavik, in the winter, an all-weather road connecting Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk opened in November 2017, replacing that portion of the ice road. Between 1971 and 1990, the town's economy was supported by the local Canadian Forces Station, CFS Inuvik, by petrochemical companies exploring the Mackenzie Valley and the Beaufort Sea for petroleum; this all collapsed in 1990 for a variety of reasons, including disappearing government military subsidies, local resistance to petroleum exploration, low international oil prices. Since the economy has been based on some minor tourism and subsidy provided by the Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, Health Canada and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
The population as of the 2016 Census was 3,243, a decrease of 6.4% from the 2011 Census and a decrease of 7.0% from the 2006 Census. The two previous census counts show wide fluctuations due to economic conditions: 2,894 in 2001 and 3,296 in 1996; as of the 2016 Census there were 2,080 people. 63.2% were Inuvialuit, 31.0% First Nations and 5.3%. The non-native population of Inuvik was 36.7%. The main language spoken in Inuvik is English, though schools teach and a handful of local people still speak Inuinnaqtun, Gwich’in. Local CBC Radio, CHAK, broadcasts an hour of programming a day in each of these languages. There are about 100 Muslims, most of whom came there for economic opportunities. A small mosque was established in 2010. In 2017 the Government of the Northwest Territories reported that the population was 3,192 with an average yearly growth rate of -1.2% from 2007. Inuvik is located on the East Channel of the Mackenzie Delta 100 km from the Arctic Ocean and 200 km north of the Arctic Circle.
The tree line lies north of Inuvik and it is surrounded by boreal forest. Due to its northern location, Inuvik experiences an average of 56 days of continuous sunlight every summer and 30 days of polar night every winter. Most roads in Inuvik are paved. There metal-grill sidewalks alongside the roads; the Dempster Highway provides access to Inuvik for the majority of the year. However, the highway relies on ferries and ice bridges to get across the rivers, it is thus closed during the time of freeze-up, for ice to form and allow ice bridges, thaw to allow the ferry to run. At these times, there is air access only; the main airport is Inuvik Airport. There is a general aviation airport, Inuvik/Shell Lake Water Aerodrome; when the Mackenzie River is ice-free, Northern Transportation Company Limited provides a commercial barge service from Hay River, on Great Slave Lake to the regional terminal in Inuvik. The annual sealift moves supplies as far east as Taloyoak and west to Utqiagvik, Alaska. A distinct feature of Inuvik is the use of "utilidors" – above-ground utility conduits carrying water and sewage – which are covered by corrugated steel.
They run throughout town connecting most buildings, as a result there are many small bridges and underpasses. The utilidors are necessary because of the permafrost underlying the town. Another feature is an inukhuk placed outside the Mackenzie Hotel, rebuilt in 2006. Inuvik has a subarctic climate. Summers are wetter and cool, with temperatures varying wildly throughout the months due to its peculiar location near the cold Arctic Ocean; the average hottest month of the year, has a mean high of 19.5 °C and mean low of 8.6 °C. Unlike many other North American continental climates, Inuvik warms up quickly during the months of May and June due to the increasing day length, that remaining snow cools down until May. June is a warmer month than August. Seasonal transitions are short, with mean daily temperatures rising or falling as fast as 0.5 °C per day. Winters are long and frigid
Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories. It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories. Whitehorse is Yukon's only city. Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory; the federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. Though bilingual, the Yukon government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent. Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by brief warm summers; the Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon River, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers.
The territory is named after the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America; the sites safeguard the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in 800 AD in what is now the U. S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries.
By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897; the increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U. S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of the Yukon River; the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Vuntut National Park in the north. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of severe climate; the capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population.
British Columbia Northwest Territories Alaska, United States While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C three times, 1947, 1954, 1968; the most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C. Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July and September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C three times; the first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C. 14 years this record was beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C in May 1983. The old record was broken 21 years in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C. The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2, it had a population de
Fort Yukon, Alaska
Fort Yukon is a city in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. The population, predominately Gwich'in Alaska Natives, was 583 at the 2010 census, down from 595 in 2000. Fort Yukon is the hometown of Alaska Congressman Don Young. Served by Fort Yukon Airport, it is known for having the record highest temperature in Alaska; this area north of the Arctic Circle was occupied for thousands of years by cultures of indigenous people and in historic times by the Gwich’in people. What became the village of Fort Yukon developed from a trading post, Fort Yukon, established by Alexander Hunter Murray of the Hudson's Bay Company, on 25 June 1847. Murray drew numerous sketches of fur trade posts and of people and wrote the Journal of the Yukon, 1847–48, which gave valuable insight into the culture of the Gwich’in at the time. While the post was in Russian America, the Hudson's Bay Company continued to trade there until the American traders expelled it in 1869, following the Alaska Purchase when the Alaska Commercial Company took over the post.
During the Klondike Gold Rush, in the winter of 1897–1898, Fort Yukon received two hundred prospectors from Dawson City, short of supply. A post office was established on July 1898 with John Hawksly as its first postmaster; the settlement suffered over the following decades as a result of several infectious disease epidemics and a 1949 flood. During the 1950s, the United States Air Force established a radar station at Fort Yukon. Since the late 20th century, due in part to its extreme northerly location and its proximity to Fairbanks, it has become a minor tourist destination. On February 7, 1984 a Terrier Malemute-type sounding rocket, with a maximum altitude of 310 miles, was launched from Fort Yukon. Fort Yukon is located at 66°34′2″N 145°15′23″W. Fort Yukon is located on the north bank of the Yukon River at its junction with the Porcupine River, about 145 miles northeast of Fairbanks. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city in Northeastern Alaska has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.0 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water.
It is located 8 miles north of the Arctic Circle, at the confluence of the Yukon and Porcupine Rivers and in the middle of the Yukon Flats. The highest temperature recorded in Alaska occurred in Fort Yukon on June 27, 1915, when it reached 100 °F or 37.8 °C. Until 1971, Fort Yukon held the all-time lowest temperature record at −78 °F or −61.1 °C, it still holds the record for the lowest mean monthly temperature when the notoriously cold month of December 1917 had an average daily temperature of −48.3 °F or −44.6 °C and the minimum averaged −58 °F or −50 °C. The climate regime is a strong continental subarctic climate with severe winters, being less influenced by chinook winds than areas to the west – the winter season absolute maximum being 17 °F or 9.4 °C colder than in Fairbanks. Summer temperatures are exceptionally high for such a northerly area, being far warmer than the tree line threshold. In the Summer Fort Yukon has midnight sun and in December there is no sun at all. Fort Yukon first appeared on the 1880 U.
S. Census as an unincorporated village of 109 residents. Of those, 107 were members of the Tinneh Tribe and 2 were Whites, it did not appear on the 1890 census, but has returned in every successive census since 1900. It formally incorporated in 1959, the year Alaska became a state; as of the census of 2000, there were 595 people, 225 households, 137 families residing in the city. The population density was 85.0 people per square mile. There were 317 housing units at an average density of 45.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.05% Native American, 10.76% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 0.17% Asian, 0.17% from other races, 2.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.34% of the population. There were 225 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.8% were married couples living together, 23.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.37. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.4% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 6.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,375, the median income for a family was $32,083. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $27,813 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,360. About 18.0% of families and 18.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.3% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over. Yukon Flats School District operates the Fort Yukon School. Clarence Alexander Jonathon Solomon Velma Wallis Don Young Hudson Stuck Media related to Fort Yukon, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
Aklavik is a hamlet located in the Inuvik Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. Until 1961, with a population over 1,500, the community served as the regional administrative centre for the territorial government. Building conditions at the time considered to be unsuitable resulted in the development of Inuvik 63 km to the east, meant to replace Aklavik. However, many residents persevered and kept Aklavik as a community, with a 2016 population of nearly 600; the mayor of Aklavik is Andrew Charlie. Aklavik began in the early 1900s with the Hudson's Bay Company opening a trading post in 1912 and the Roman Catholic Church establishing a mission in 1926. Located on the Peel Channel, in a good trapping area, the community became a transportation hub in the Mackenzie. Aklavik became part of the Northwest Territories and Yukon Radio System in October 1925; the NWT&Y system, a true pioneer system, was critical in providing communications in Canada's north. And was operated by the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals.
In Aklavik, besides providing services to the general population, NWT&Y provided communication for any aircraft that overflew the site with or without radio. An aircraft without radio, passing over one of these stations and not destined to land would fly low over the station so that it could be identified and the date and time of its passing would be recorded; the call sign for the NWT&Y station in Aklavik was VEF. In 1931, Albert Johnson known as the "Mad Trapper of Rat River" moved into the area. A complaint was made to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police post in Aklavik and the two members attempted, unsuccessfully, to talk with him concerning trapline tampering. A second attempt was made a few days after a search warrant had been obtained, Johnson shot one of the RCMP; this ended with the death of Johnson. This incident is famous for introducing the airplane and communications radio as tools to help track a person. Museums dedicated to Albert Johnson can be found in Fort Smith. In December 1946, radio station "CHAK" went on the air at Aklavik.
The AK in the call sign was the last letters of the location. Built and operated by WO2 R. A. McLeod of the RC Sigs, the station was a voluntary operation serving the Mackenzie River delta, it had 30 watts of power upgraded to 100 watts, operated on 1490 kHz. It received its license in 1947. In 1949, the Royal Canadian Navy established a signals intelligence station in Aklavik, it remained operational until March 1961 when it closed down and operations were moved to a brand new station in Inuvik. By the 1950s the community had grown to over 1,600 people. However, the Peel Channel was subject to flooding, the river banks were being washed away. Due to the flooding, the Federal Government built a new community at what is now Inuvik, with the intention of closing Aklavik. In the 1960s, the principal of Aklavik's school, A. J. Kerr, started a committee to help save the community; the efforts were successful and the community survived. The local school is named for him; the community has a school with 150 students from Kindergarten to Grade 12 and Aurora College provides adult education at the Community Learning Centre.
There are two general stores, the Aklavik General Store and the Northern Store operated by The North West Company. The community has a two-person RCMP detachment, a health centre with four nurses, a Canada Post outlet, the Aklavik Lodge and the Aklavik Inn for visitor accommodation and two taxi companies. Like most northern communities, Aklavik has a community hall, a gymnasium, attached to the school and, uncommonly, a swimming pool; the community is served only by air, via the Aklavik/Freddie Carmichael Airport, by winter ice road directly from Inuvik across the streams of the Mackenzie Delta. When the river is open June to September, the Aklavik Water Aerodrome is available for float planes. Aklavik is one of the few places in the NWT to be included within two different land claims areas, being part of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and the Gwich'in Settlement Region; the Inuvialuit, whose claim, the Inuvialuit Final Agreement was settled in 1984, are represented by the Aklavik Community Corporation which in turn forms part of the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation.
The Gwich'in of Aklavik are covered under the Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement, signed in 1992, are represented by the Ehdiitat Gwich'in Council. The Ehdiitat Gwich'in Council in turn forms part of the Gwich'in Tribal Council; the Inuvialuit of Aklavik, an Inuit people, are Uummarmiut and are descendants of the Nunamiut, Inupiat people who migrated from Alaska in the early 20th century. Although at first antagonistic they intermarried with the local Siglit, whose numbers had dwindled due to disease, they speak Uummarmiutun, identical to Inupiaq language but is grouped with Inuvialuktun. The Gwich'in, a First Nations people are an Arctic-dwelling Dene peoples who inhabit Alaska and the NWT, they speak the Gwichʼin language, part of the Athabaskan language family. Both Inuvialuktun and Gwichʼin are official languages of the NWT, in 2009 19.2% of the Aboriginal population spoke at least one Native language. At the 2016 census, Aklavik had a population of 590, down 6.8% from 2011. Like most other NWT communities the majority of the population, 93.2%, is Indigenous.
However, unlike other communities Aklavik has a large number of both First Nations, 33.9%, Inuit, 53.4%, along with a small number of Métis, 4.2%, non-Aboriginal, 8.5%. In