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Gwydion fab Dôn is a magician and trickster of Welsh mythology, appearing most prominently in the Fourth Branch of the Mabinogi, which focuses on his relationship with his young nephew, Lleu Llaw Gyffes. He appears prominently in the Welsh Triads, the Book of Taliesin and the Stanzas of the Graves; the name Gwydion may be interpreted as "Born of Trees". Gilfaethwy, nephew to the Venedotian king, Math fab Mathonwy, becomes obsessed with his uncle's virgin foot-holder, Goewin, his brother Gwydion conspires to start a war between the south. To this end, Gwydion employs his magic powers to steal a number of otherworldly pigs from the Demetian king, who retaliates by marching on Gwynedd. During the war, while Math is distracted, the brothers return Gilfaethwy rapes Goewin. Pryderi and his men march north and fight a battle between Maenor Bennardd and Maenor Coed Alun, but are forced to retreat, he is pursued to Nant Call, where more of his men are slaughtered, to Dol Benmaen, where he suffers a third defeat.

To avoid further bloodshed, it is agreed that the outcome of the battle should be decided by single combat between Gwydion and Pryderi. The two contenders meet at a place called Y Velen Rhyd in Ardudwy, "because of strength and valour and magic and enchantment", Gwydion triumphs and Pryderi is killed; the men of Dyfed retreat back to their own land. When Math hears of the assault on Goewin, he turns his nephews into a series of mated pairs of animals: Gwydion becomes a stag for a year a sow and a wolf. Gilfaethwy becomes a hind deer, a boar and a she-wolf; each year they produce an offspring, sent to Math: Hyddwn and Bleiddwn. After three years, Math releases his nephews from their punishment and begins the search for a new foot-holder. Gwydion suggests his sister Arianrhod, magically tested for virginity by Math. During the test, she gives birth to a "sturdy boy with thick yellow hair" whom Math names Dylan and who takes on the nature of the seas until his death at his uncle Gofannon's hands.

Ashamed, Arianrhod runs to the door, but on her way out something small drops from her, which Gwydion wraps up and places in a chest at the foot of his bed. Some time he hears screams from within the chest, opens it to discover a baby boy; some scholars have suggested that in an earlier form of the Fourth Branch, Gwydion was the father of Arianrhod's sons. Some years Gwydion accompanies the boy to Caer Arianrhod, presents him to his mother; the furious Arianrhod, shamed by this reminder of her loss of virginity, places a tynged on the boy: that only she could give him a name. Gwydion however tricks his sister by disguising himself and the boy as cobblers and luring Arianrhod into going to them in person in order to have some shoes made for her; the boy throws a stone and strikes a wren "between the tendon and the bone of its leg", causing Arianrhod to make the remark "it is with a skillful hand that the fair-haired one has hit it ". At that Gwydion reveals himself, saying Lleu Llaw Gyffes. Furious at this trickery, Arianrhod places another tynged on Lleu: he shall receive arms from no one but Arianrhod herself.

Gwydion tricks his sister once again, she unwittingly arms Lleu herself, leading to her placing a third tynged on him: that he shall never have a human wife. So as to counteract Arianrhod's curse and Gwydion: Blodeuwedd has an affair with Gronw Pebr, the lord of Penllyn, the two conspire to murder Lleu. Blodeuwedd tricks Lleu into revealing how he may be killed, since he can not be killed during the day or night, nor indoors or outdoors, neither riding nor walking, not clothed and not naked, nor by any weapon lawfully made, he reveals to her that he can only be killed at dusk, wrapped in a net with one foot on a cauldron and one on a goat and with a spear forged for a year during the hours when everyone is at mass. With this information she arranges his death. Struck by the spear thrown by Gronw's hand, Lleu flies away. Gwydion finds him perched high on an oak tree. Through the singing of an englyn he lures him down from the oak tree and switches him back to his human form. Gwydion and Math nurse Lleu back to health before reclaiming his lands from Blodeuwedd.

In the face-off between Lleu and Gronw, Gronw asks if he may place a large stone between himself and Lleu's spear. Lleu allows him to do so throws his spear which pierces both the stone and Gronw, killing him. Gwydion corners turns her into an owl, the creature hated by all other birds; the tale ends with Lleu ascending to the throne of Gwynedd. A large tradition seems to have once surrounded the Battle of the Trees, a mythological conflict fought between the sons of Dôn and the forces of Annwn, the Welsh Otherworld. Amaethon, Gwydion's brother, steals a white roebuck and a whelp from Arawn, king of the otherworld, leading to a great battle. Gwydion fights alongside his brother and, assisted by Lleu, enchants the "elementary trees and sedges" to rise up as warriors against Arawn's forces; the alder leads the attack, while the aspen falls in battle, heaven and earth tremble before the oak, a "valiant door keeper against the enemy". The bluebells combine and cause a "consternation" but the hero is the holly, tinted with green.

A warrior fighting alongside Arawn can not be vanquished. Gwydion guesses the warrior's name, identifying him from the sprigs of alder on h

Jon Sakovich

Jonathan Dehe Sakovich is a former competition swimmer from Saipan who has represented Guam and the United States at international events. At the 1988 Olympics he represented Guam, where he set the Guam records in the 400-meter and 1,500-meter freestyle and 400-meter individual medley, all three of which still stand as of May 2009. Sakovich accepted an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Florida in Gainesville, where he swam for coach Randy Reese and coach Skip Foster's Florida Gators swimming and diving teams in National Collegiate Athletic Association competition from 1989 to 1992. During his NCAA career, he received seven All-American honors. Sakovich graduated from the University of Florida with a bachelor's degree in health and human performance in 1997. In his swimming career, he represented the United States in such international competitions as the 1995 Pan American Games; as of 2015, he is the head coach and aquatics director at the Bolles School in Jacksonville, Florida.

List of University of Florida alumni List of University of Florida Olympians Jonathan Sakovich – Olympic profile on

Interleukin 4

The interleukin 4 is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells to Th2 cells. Upon activation by IL-4, Th2 cells subsequently produce additional IL-4 in a positive feedback loop; the cell that produces IL-4, thus inducing Th2 differentiation, has not been identified, but recent studies suggest that basophils may be the effector cell. It is related and has functions similar to interleukin 13. Interleukin 4 has many biological roles, including the stimulation of activated B-cell and T-cell proliferation, the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, it is a key regulator in adaptive immunity. IL-4 induces B-cell class switching to IgE, up-regulates MHC class II production. IL-4 decreases the production of Th1 cells, macrophages, IFN-gamma, dendritic cell IL-12. Overproduction of IL-4 is associated with allergies. Tissue macrophages play an important role in wound repair; the presence of IL-4 in extravascular tissues promotes alternative activation of macrophages into M2 cells and inhibits classical activation of macrophages into M1 cells.

An increase in repair macrophages is coupled with secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β that result in a diminution of pathological inflammation. Release of arginase, polyaminases and TGF-β by the activated M2 cell is tied with wound repair and fibrosis; the receptor for interleukin-4 is known as the IL-4Rα. This receptor exists in 3 different complexes throughout the body. Type 1 receptors are composed of the IL-4Rα subunit with a common γ chain and bind IL-4. Type 2 receptors consist of an IL-4Rα subunit bound to a different subunit known as IL-13Rα1; these type 2 receptors have the ability to bind both IL-4 and IL-13, two cytokines with related biological functions. IL-4 has a globular fold, stabilised by 3 disulphide bonds. One half of the structure is dominated by a 4 alpha-helix bundle with a left-handed twist; the helices are anti-parallel, with 2 overhand connections, which fall into a 2-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet. This cytokine was co-discovered by Maureen Howard and William E. Paul as well as by Ellen Vitetta and her research group in 1982.

The nucleotide sequence for human IL-4 was isolated four years confirming its similarity to a mouse protein called B-cell stimulatory factor-1. IL-4 has been found to mediate a crosstalk between the neural stem cells and neurons that undergo neurodegeneration, initiate a regeneration cascade through phosphorylation of its intracellular effector STAT6 in an experimental Alzheimer's disease model in adult zebrafish brain. IL-4 has been shown to drive mitogenesis, dedifferentiation, metastasis in rhabdomyosarcoma. IL-4, along with other Th2 cytokines, is involved in the airway inflammation observed in the lungs of patients with allergic asthma. IL-4 plays an important role in the development of certain immune disorders allergies and some autoimmune diseases. Allergic diseases are sets of disorders that are manifested by a disproportionate response of the immune system to the allergen and Th2 responses; these pathologies include, for atopic dermatitis, asthma, or systemic anaphylaxis. Interleukin 4 mediates important pro-inflammatory functions in asthma, including induction of isotype rearrangement of IgE, expression of VCAM-1 molecules, promoting eosinophilic transmigration through endothelium, mucus secretion and T helper type 2 leading to cytokine release.

Asthma is a complex genetic disorder, associated with IL-4 gene promoter polymorphism and proteins involved in IL-4 signaling. IL-4 has a significant effect on tumor progression. Increased IL-4 production was found in breast, lung, renal cells and other types of cancer. Many overexpression of IL-4R has been found in many types of cancer. Renal cells and glioblastoma modify 10,000-13,000 receptors per cell depending on tumor type. IL-4 can primitively motivate tumor cells and increase their apoptosis resistance by increasing tumor growth. Brain tissue tumors such as astrocytoma, glioblastoma and medulloblastoma overexpress receptors for various growth factors including epidermal growth factor receptor, FGFR-1, TfR angiotensin transferrin receptor), IL-13R. Most human meningiomas massively expresses IL-4 receptors, indicating its role in cancer progression, they express IL-4Rα and IL13Rα-1-1, but not the surface γc chain, suggesting that most human meningiomas express IL-4 type II. IL-4 may play a role in the infection and development of HIV disease.

Auxiliary T-lymphocytes are a key element of HIV-1 infection. Several signs of immune dysregulation such as polyclonal B-cell initialization, previous cell-mediated antigen-induced response and hypergammaglobulinaemia occur in most HIV-1 infected patients and are associated with cytokines synthesized by Th2 cells. Increased IL-4 production by Th2 cells has been demonstrated in people infected with HIV. STAT6 Interleukin-4 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings Interleukin-4 from Gentaur Recombinant Human Interleukin-4 from Cornell University Interleukin-4 from Allergy Glossary at Health On the Net Foundation Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P05112 at the PDBe-KB

Saudi Arabian passport

The Saudi Arabian passport is a passport document issued to citizens of Saudi Arabia for international travel. It is valid for 10 lunar years. An applicant is required to fill in an online form for the first time. In the case of passport renewal, an applicant is not required to fill in the form where the passport can be renewed with a few online steps through Absher online platform. An applicant must have a valid Government ID to be able to issue the passport; the passport photo must be taken whilst the applicant is in Saudi dress, unless they are underage and haven't got a Government ID card. The photo must be 4 x 6 in size; the applicant must fill the form in both English. In 2017, a new option of the passport issuance was introduced, the new option offers a validity of ten years. All procedures are carried out electronically through the platform Absher; this platform enables applicants to apply for a new passport or passport renewal without the requirement of attendance in person. The Saudi Arabian passport has the following wording on its cover: "المملكة العربية السعودية" "Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia" "عضو جامعة الدول العربية" "Member of the Arab League" "جواز سفر" "Passport" Image of a passport holder Passport type in English National code: SAU Passport number in Western Arabic numerals Passport holder's name in English Birth date both according to the Islamic calendar and as per the Gregorian calendar Gender: Male or Female Issue date in both Islamic calendar and Western calendar Expiration in both Islamic calendar and Western calendar, it is based on Islamic calendar.

Place of issue, issuing authority, issue date in both Islamic calendar and Western calendar All information is saved in the Ministry of Interior's systems. Arabic: "باسم ملك المملكة العربية السعودية أطلب من موظفي المملكة المدنيين والعسكريين وممثليها في الخارج ومن كل سلطة أخرى تعمل باسمها ومن السلطات المختصة في الدول الصديقة أن يسمحوا لحامل هذا الجواز بحرية المرور وأن يقدموا له المساعدة والرعاية English: "IN THE NAME OF THE KING, OF THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA, I REQUEST AND REQUIRE ALL THOSE WHOM IT MAY CONCERN, TO ALLOW THE BEARER TO PASS FREELY WITHOUT LET OR HINDRANCE AND TO AFFORD THE BEARER SUCH ASSISTANCE AND PROTECTION AS MAY BE NECESSARY" As of August 2018, Saudi citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 75 countries and territories, ranking the Saudi passport 67th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index. Saudi citizens do not need a visa to reside permanently. In June 2017, Saudi Arabia suspended diplomatic relations with Qatar, one of the GCC countries, as a result, Saudi citizens are prohibited from traveling to the neighboring country.

Thailand, permitted only for businessmen with an authorisation by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, due to the Blue Diamond Affair Israel Saudis can return with an Israeli stamp on their passport and Israel stopped using stamps on passports. Iran, following rupture of Saudi-Iranian relations in January 2016 Countries that are in state of war such as Syria and Afghanistan Qatar, from 5 June 2017 Visa requirements for Saudi citizens Saudi Arabian National ID Card

Andreas Essenius

Andreas Essenius was a Dutch Reformed theologian and academic. He became professor of theology at the University of Utrecht, he was born Andreas van Essen in Zaltbommel where he studied Greek. He went on to the Latin school in Utrecht and to the University of Utrecht where he was a student of Bernardus Schotanus and Gisbertus Voetius. In 1640 he received his doctorate, was appointed as a minister in the little town of Neerlangbroek. On 19 February 1645 he became doctor of theology and started to write his first work, against Socinianism. In 1651 he was appointed as minister in Utrecht and on 8 February 1653 he accepted appointment as professor of theology, with an oration De tractatione verbi Divini. In the academic year 1673-4 Essenius was rector magnificus of the University of Utrecht, he was one of the Utrecht Circle. A Dutch second Reformation grouping around Anna Maria van Schurman, in the period when she was a close follower of Voetius, it included the physician Johan Godschalk, Justus van den Bogaart, Theodore à Brakel, Cornelius Gentman, Johannes Hoornbeeck, Jodocus van Lodenstein, Johannes Teellinck, Abraham van de Velde.

Wilhelmus à Brakel and Philipp van Limborch were amongst the students of Essenius. Essenius died in Utrecht, still in post as professor, in 1677. On 3 January 1640 he married Lucia Spruyt in the Jacobikerk in Utrecht, they had seven children. Works by Andreas Essenius at Post-Reformation Digital Library Profile at Universiteit Utrecht

A-List (film)

A-List is a 2006 American comedy film directed by Shira-Lee Shalit and starring Sally Kirkland, Damon Shalit, JoAnna Garcia, Peter Dobson, Sam Pancake, John Colton, Chris Moir, Daphne Zuniga. Darren goes to Hollywood to tackle his dream of becoming an A-list movie star. However, once he gets there his dreams are crushed once he realizes the life of an actor is not all of the glitz and glamour he had hoped; when Darren is mistaken for Dante, an A-list, tinsel town actor. With gigs coming in left and right and the paparazzi on his tail, Darren gets his wish, for better or for worse. A-List on IMDb