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Gyges of Lydia

Gyges was the founder of the Mermnad dynasty of Lydian kings. The dates of his reign are uncertain but have been tentatively estimated as c. 687 – c. 652 BC. He was a bodyguard of his predecessor Candaules, his action was approved by the Delphic Oracle and that decision prevented civil war in Lydia. Once established on the throne, Gyges devoted himself to consolidating his kingdom and making it a military power, he captured Colophon, Magnesia on the Maeander, also Sipylus, whose successor was to become the city named Magnesia in records. Smyrna was besieged, to the north, the Troad was brought under Lydian control. Gyges caused the fall of Phrygia. During his campaigns against the Cimmerians, he failed to engage the help of the Assyrians and turned instead to Ancient Egypt, sending his Carian troops to assist Psammetichus. Gyges fell in a battle against the Cimmerii under Dugdamme, was succeeded by his son Ardys of Lydia; the name of the Lydian king Γύγης is attested many times in Greek transmission.

In addition, the annals of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, refer several times to Gugu, king of Luddi, to be identified with Gyges, king of the Lydians. Many Bible scholars believe that Gyges of Lydia was the Biblical figure of Gog, ruler of Magog, mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel and the Book of Revelation; this name is of Carian origin, being cognate with Hittite ḫuḫḫa-, Luwian /huha-/ and Lycian xuga- ‘grandfather’. The Carian name quq is attested as Γυγος in Greek transmission; this etymology correlates with the intrusive Carian origin of the Mermnad dynasty in Lydia. Authors throughout ancient history have told differing stories of Gyges' rise to power, which vary in detail, but all involve Gyges seizing the throne after killing the king and marrying Candaules' widow; the main source for Gyges is Herodotus, whose account may be traced to the poet Archilochus of Paros. In this, Gyges was a bodyguard of Candaules, who believed his wife to be the most beautiful woman on Earth, he insisted upon Gyges seeing his wife disrobed and the betrayal so enraged her that she afterwards gave Gyges the choice of murdering her husband and making himself king, or of being put to death himself.

Herodotus goes on to record how Gyges plied the Oracle with numerous gifts, notably six mixing bowls minted of gold extracted from the Pactolus river weighing thirty talents. The Oracle confirmed Gyges as the rightful king of Lydia and gave moral support to the Lydians in their conflict with the Ionians; the priestess declared that the dynasty of Gyges would fall in the fifth generation. This prediction was fulfilled when Gyges' fourth descendant, lost the kingdom as a result of attacking the Achaemenid Empire of Cyrus the Great. In Plato's Republic, Gyges was a shepherd who discovered a magic ring of invisibility, by means of which he murdered the king and won the affection of the queen. Nicolaus of Damascus supplies his own version of the story, quite different from both Herodotus and Plato, it involves a multi-generational curse by an old King Ardys of Lydia, because his trusted advisor Dascylus was murdered by Ardys’ son named Sadyattes. This Sadyattes was jealous of Dascylus’ growing power.

The murderers were never discovered, so King Ardys issued a curse upon them. Dascylus’ wife, being pregnant, escapes to Phrygia, gives birth to a son named Dascylus; this Dascylus has a son Gyges who, as a young man arrives to Lydia and is recognized by the king for his outstanding abilities. He is appointed to the royal bodyguard. Gyges soon became a favourite of Candaules and was dispatched by him to fetch Tudo, the daughter of Arnossus of Mysia, whom the Lydian king wished to make his queen. On the way Gyges fell in love with Tudo. Forewarned that the king intended to punish him with death, Gyges assassinated Candaules in the night and seized the throne. According to Plutarch, Gyges seized power with the help of Arselis of Mylasa, the captain of the Lydian bodyguard, whom he had won over to his cause. Several monarchs of Asia Minor in the Archaic Period, at the height of the influence of the Oracle of Delphi, bolstered their claims to rule through oracles from the Pythia. Herodotus relates that Gyges ascended the throne following a Delphic oracle, which convinced the Lydians to accept him.

However, the Pythia had predicted that the revenge of the Heracleidae would fall upon his fifth descendant. For this oracle Gyges rewarded the oracle with precious ex-votos: six golden kraters were offered to the sanctuary of Apollo, they weighed thirty talents. At the time of Herodotus these kraters were displayed in the Treasury of Corinth, he dedicated other more precious ex-votos, made of gold and silver, which are not, mentioned in detail. Herodotus seems to have added the detail about the Delphic oracle, the prediction about the fifth descendant of Gyges who will be revenged by the Heracleidae as a way to account for the fall of King Croesus of Lydia, who belonged to the Mermnadae dynasty. Once established on the throne, Gyges devoted himself to consolidating his kingdom and making it a military power, although how far the Lydian kingdom extended under his reign is difficult to ascertain, he captured Colophon largely Lydianized in tastes and customs and Magnesia on the Maeander, the only other Aeolian colony in the Ionian southern Aegean coast of Anatolia, also Sipylus, whose successor was to become the city named Magnesia in records.

Smyrna was besieged and allian

Ragnvald Nestos

Ragnvald Anderson Nestos was the 13th Governor of the U. S. state of North Dakota, from 1921 through 1925. Ragnvold Anderson Nestos was a native of Norway, he was the son of Andres R. Nestos and Herborg Nestos. One of ten children, he was sixteen and spoke no English when he came to the United States to live with his aunt and uncle at Buxton, North Dakota, he entered the first grade at Buxton and attended school in between working odd jobs and working at lumber camps out of state. Four years in 1897, he passed the teachers' examinations and taught in a country school, he completed his studies at Mayville State University, a teachers' college, while homesteading in Pierce County. In 1904, he graduated from the University of North Dakota and moved to Minot, where he began practicing law with a partner, attorney C. A. Johnson. Nestos was a member of the Independent Voters Association, running on the Republican ticket, he was a member of North Dakota State House of Representatives, 1911–12. S. Senator from North Dakota, 1916.

He gained office when Governor Lynn Frazier was defeated in the first successful attempt to recall a state governor in U. S. history. Frazier's term was plagued with controversy and a grassroots movement was started to press for his recall; the recall election that removed Governor Frazier had removed two other members of the state's "Industrial Commission" from office. It was a time of bitter political discontent between the NPL and the IVA. Nestos worked hard to make the new state-owned businesses a success, he campaigned against illiteracy. During his administration, North Dakota came into national compliance for registering births and deaths, the state had a full-time health officer for the first time, he ran for, completed, a second term of office. Nestos never married, he received national recognition for his work on behalf of the Boy Scouts of America. He was a "Silver Buffalo Award" winner, he was active within the Norwegian Lutheran Church of America. Nestos died of a stroke on July 15, 1942.

He is buried in Rosehill Cemetery in North Dakota. List of U. S. state governors born outside the United States Gunderson, Carl M. Ringen Historie om guvernør Ragnvald Nestos med hans stamtavle: Førhenverende guvernør og senator av North Dakota, U. S. A.. Biography of Ragnvold A. Nestos from the Historical Society of North Dakota website Ragnvald Nestos at Find a Grave

Aminolevulinic acid synthase

Aminolevulinic acid synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of δ-aminolevulinic acid the first common precursor in the biosynthesis of all tetrapyrroles such as hemes and chlorophylls. The reaction is as follows: succinyl-CoA + glycineδ-aminolevulinic acid + CoA + CO2This enzyme is expressed in all non-plant eukaryotes and the α-class of proteobacteria. Other organisms produce ALA through a three enzyme pathway known as the Shemin pathway. ALA is synthesized through the condensation of glycine and succinyl-CoA. In humans, transcription of ALA synthase is controlled by the presence of Fe2+-binding elements, to prevent accumulation of porphyrin intermediates in the absence of iron. There are two forms of ALA synthase in the body. One form is expressed in red blood cell precursor cells, whereas the other is ubiquitously expressed throughout the body; the red blood cell form is coded by a gene on chromosome x, whereas the other form is coded by a gene on chromosome 3. The disease X-linked sideroblastic anemia is caused by mutations in the ALA synthase gene on chromosome X, whereas no diseases are known to be caused by mutations in the other gene.

Gain of function mutations in the erythroid specific ALA synthase gene have been shown to cause a unknown form of porphyria known as X-linked-dominant protoporphyria. PLP-dependent enzymes are prevalent because they are needed to transform amino acids into other resources. ALAS is a homodimer with sized sub units and the active sites consisting of amino acid side chains such as arginine and lysine exist at a subunity interface; the protein when extracted from R. spheroids weighs about 80,000 daltons. Enzymatic activity varies for different sources of the enzyme; the active sites of ALAS utilize three key amino acid side chains: Arg-85 and Thr-430 and Lys-313. Although these three amino acids have been identified to allow this reaction to proceed, they would be inactive without the addition of cofactor pyridoxal 5’-phosphate whose role in this synthesis is detailed in the image below. Before the reaction can begin, the PLP cofactor binds to the lysine side chain to form a Schiff base that promotes attack by glycine substrate.

Lysine acts as a general base during this mechanism. In the detailed reaction mechanism, the hydronium atoms that are added in come from a variety of residues that offer hydrogen bonds to facilitate ALA synthesis. ALA synthase removes the carboxyl group from glycine and the CoA from the succinyl-CoA by means of its prosthetic group pyridoxal phosphate, forming δ-aminolevulinic acid, so called because the amino group is on the fourth carbon atom in the molecule; this reaction mechanism is unique relative to other enzymes that use the PLP cofactor because Glycine is deprotonated by a conserved active site lysine, leading to condensation with succinyl-CoA and loss of CoA. Protonation of the carbonyl group of the intermediate by an active site histidine leads to loss of the carboxyl group; the last intermediate is reprotonated to produce ALA. Dissociation of ALA from the enzyme is the rate limiting step of the enzymatic reaction and was shown to be depended upon a slow conformational change of the enzyme.

The function of pyridoxal phosphate is to facilitate the removal of hydrogen, by utilizing the electrophilic pyridinium ring as an electron sink. The location of this enzyme in biological systems is indicative of the feedback. ALA Synthase has been found in bacteria, yeast and mammalian liver and blood cells and bone marrow; the location of this enzyme in animal cells is within the mitochondria. Since the enzyme appears to be located near its source of succinyl-CoA and the end of the heme pathway indicates that the starting and end points of heme biosynthesis serves as feedback for ALA synthase. ALA synthase is inhibited by hemin and glucose. ALAS1 and ALAS2 catalyze the first step in the process of heme synthesis, it is the first irreversible step and is rate limiting. This means that the beginning of the formation of hemes is intentional and subject to a variety of areas of feedback. For example, the two substrates and glycine, are produced by and utilized in other essential biological processes such as glycolysis and the TCA cycle.

The image below illustrates the heme synthesis pathway and the role ALAS plays. Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase Deficiency results in a lack of ability to create heme since its job is to catalyze the first step in the process; these deficiencies are a result of genetic mutation that can result in a variety of diseases. One such disease is x-linked sideroblastic anemia which results in the appearance of red blood cells in the bone marrow; this disease is linked with mutations in the genes that encode for ALAS2. NIH Abu-Farha M, Niles J, Willmore W. "Erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase protein is stabilized by low oxygen and proteasomal inhibition". Biochem Cell Biol. 83: 620–30. Doi:10.1139/o05-045. PMID 16234850. Shemin, D. "The Utilization of Glycine for the Synthesis of a Porphyrin". J. Biol. Chem. 159: 567–8. SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIAS -ALAS-2 defect disease

Have a Nice Day, Volume 20

Known as Super Hits of the'70s: Have a Nice Day, Volume 20 or Super Hits of the'70s, Volume 20. Mac Davis: "Baby, Don't Get Hooked on Me" – 3:07 David Geddes: "The Last Game Of The Season" – 3:37 Seals & Crofts: "Get Closer" – 3:58 Cliff Richard: "Devil Woman" – 3:38 Boomer Castleman: "Judy Mae" – 3:37 Rick Dees and His Cast Of Idiots: "Disco Duck" – 3:17 Hot: "Angel in Your Arms" – 2:57 Smokie: "Living Next Door to Alice" – 3:32 Peter McCann: "Do You Wanna Make Love" – 3:33 Engelbert Humperdinck: "After the Lovin" – 3:59 Dean Friedman: "Ariel" – 4:22 Sanford-Townsend Band: "Smoke From a Distant Fire" – 3:32

Abed's Uncontrollable Christmas

"Abed's Uncontrollable Christmas" is the 11th episode of the second season of the American comedy television series Community, the 36th episode overall. The episode aired on NBC on December 9, 2010 as a stop motion Christmas-themed episode. At lunch on the final day of classes, Abed believes that the upcoming Christmas is the most important Christmas due to his perception of the entire group as being stop-motion animated. While the group is worried about Abed's mental health, he decides to commit to the format, singing along to a Christmas version of the show's theme song until he is tasered by campus security in the parking lot while jumping on top of cars. In a meeting with Professor Duncan alongside Britta and Jeff, Abed rejects Duncan's proposal for extensive therapy sessions to discover the cause of his delusion in favor of searching for the meaning of Christmas. While Britta and Jeff worry about Abed being expelled from school, Duncan is more interested having his work on Abed's case published.

After working on a snowman outside, revealed to be Señor Chang, Abed is tricked into a group therapy session in the library study room with Duncan, Britta, Shirley and Pierce. He agrees to allow Duncan to use "Christmas-nosis" to transport him to the Planet Abed with the entire group. Upon arriving on the Christmas-themed planet, Abed sets out with the group to find the meaning of Christmas at the North Pole, but Duncan insists that they first visit the Cave of Frozen Memories. Along the way, Duncan ejects Shirley from the fantasy with a remote-controlled Christmas pterodactyl after she insists that she knows the meaning of Christmas, while Jeff is eaten alive by a swarm of humbugs attracted to his sarcasm. Arriving at the Cave of Frozen Memories, Duncan asks Abed to access his repressed memories, but in the process of demonstrating the technique, Duncan reveals that his father was absent from his childhood Christmases and leaves the fantasy distressed. Abed initiates a self-destruct sequence and leaves the cave with Pierce and Annie, but asks Britta to stay behind in the crumbling cave because she tricked him into therapy.

Arriving on a train to the North Pole, Pierce leaves the fantasy after having eaten all of the cookies in the study room. Abed talks about how his mother comes to visit on December 9 every year and watches Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer with him. However, he is confused when Troy reminds him that the date is December 9. Duncan arrives on the train and tells Abed that he knows the reason for his delusion, but Abed climbs to the top of the train and races to the front of the car, with Annie and Troy stopping Duncan from chasing after him. Pierce returns to Abed's fantasy; the two arrive at Santa's workshop at the North Pole, where Abed finds a package that he believes to contain the meaning of Christmas, but contains a DVD set of the first season of Lost, which he says symbolizes lack of payoff. Duncan returns and shows Abed a Christmas card from his mother that he found in his dorm room, in which his mother tells him that she won't be visiting him for Christmas this year in order to spend the holiday with her new family.

Upon hearing this, Abed is frozen in a block of ice. However, the entire group returns and shoots their Christmas guns at Duncan while singing a song before ejecting him from the fantasy with the Christmas pterodactyl, which subsequently explodes. An unfrozen Abed says that he realizes, "The meaning of Christmas is the idea that Christmas has meaning, and it can mean whatever we want." The group leaves the fantasy and returns to the study room, where they agree to keep the stop-motion fantasy going through the holiday. They watch Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer together in Abed's dorm room, a reflection of the real-life characters is seen in the television. During the final scene and Troy sit in the study room still in stop-motion. While Abed is worried since it wasn't he who made them stop-motion this time, Troy assures him that he wanted it this time; the two decide to switch heads with one another. The episode was written by series creator Dan Harmon and Dino Stamatopoulos, who portrays Star-Burns in the series and is the creator of the stop-motion animated series Moral Orel and Mary Shelley's Frankenhole.

The episode was directed by Duke Johnson. It was made in the style of Rankin/Bass' stop motion Christmas specials, such as Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and Santa Claus Is Comin' to Town. Dan Harmon stated in an interview with TV Guide that "There's a reason for it to be stop-motion animated, but it's not a dream, it still exists within the reality of the show."The production of the episode was overseen by owners of 23D Films, James Fino and Joe Russo. The animation process was completed in four months, less than half the time it takes to produce an episode of The Simpsons. Fino said animators of the films Coraline and The Nightmare Before Christmas contributed to the animation. On August 1, 2010, creator Dan Harmon informed Dino Stamatopoulos and Joe Russo that NBC had approved the idea of an animated episode. Two weeks Harmon and Stamatopoulos finished the script, the art department began production on the sets and puppets. Animation began on October 18, though a week they discovered Pierce was in a wheelchair and had to add a stop-motion wheelchair.

One day prior to airing, the completed shots were handed in by 23D Films. Russo said about the project, "We wondered, but we knew we'd regret it down the road if we weren't part of this, producing a special episode of a cool show." The episode loosely follows the plot of The Pola

J.V. Martin K.III Kitten

The J. V. Martin K. III Kitten known as the J. V. Martin K. III Scout, was marketed as an "altitude fighter" for the U. S. Army, it is considered the first aircraft in the United States with retractable landing gear. James V. Martin was a consultant to the U. S. Air service, an associate to General Billy Mitchell, he held patents on aerospace technologies including the retractable landing gear and once held the World's speed record of 70 mph in an airplane. The Kitten design was too late for the war effort, it could not go into production before the end of World War I; the aircraft featured manual retractable landing gear. The wheels used flexible spokes for shock absorption; when viewed from the side, the wing supports formed. The fuselage was all wood with fabric covering; the aircraft featured air tanks, electrical power for flightsuit heating. In 1918, the aircraft was delivered to McCook Field. Martin appealed to congress in 1920 to no avail. In 60 test flights at Dayton, the high altitude aircraft could only reach 295 ft of altitude.

The prototype K. III Kitten was donated to the National Air and Space Museum in 1924; the J. V. Martin K. IV floats. 3 were built and sold to the U. S. Navy. Data from EAAGeneral characteristics Capacity: 1 Length: 13 ft 3 in Wingspan: 20 ft 2 in Height: 7 ft 4 in Wing area: 105 sq ft Empty weight: 350 lb Fuel capacity: 9 US gallons Powerplant: 1 × ABC Gnat 2 cylnder, 45 hp Performance Maximum speed: 117 kn