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The Gymnopédies, published in Paris starting in 1888, are three piano compositions written by French composer and pianist Erik Satie. The work's unusual title comes from the French form of gymnopaedia, the ancient Greek word for an annual festival where young men danced naked — or simply unarmed; the source of the title has been a subject of debate. Satie and his friend Alexis Roland-Manuel maintained that he adopted it after reading Gustave Flaubert's novel Salammbô, while others see a poem by J. P. Contamine de Latour as the source of Satie's inspiration, since the first gymnopédie was published in the magazine La Musique des familles in the summer of 1888 together with an excerpt of Latour's poem Les Antiques, where the term appears. However, it remains uncertain. Satie may have picked up the term from a dictionary such as Dominique Mondo's Dictionnaire de Musique, where gymnopédie is defined as a "nude dance, accompanied by song, which youthful Spartan maidens danced on specific occasions", following a similar definition from Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Dictionnaire de Musique.

In 1888, the third Gymnopédie was published. The second Gymnopédie did not appear until 7 years and its impending publication was announced in several editions of the Chat Noir and Auberge du Clou magazines. Pierre Puvis de Chavannes' symbolist paintings may have been an inspiration for the atmosphere Satie wanted to evoke with his Gymnopédies; these short, atmospheric pieces are written in 34 time, with each sharing a common theme and structure. Lent et douloureux Lent et triste Lent et grave The melodies of the pieces use deliberate, but mild, dissonances against the harmony, producing a piquant, melancholy effect that matches the performance instructions, which are to play each piece "painfully", "sadly", or "gravely"; the first few bars of Gymnopédie No. 1 consist of an alternating progression of two major seventh chords, the first on the subdominant, G, the second on the tonic, D. By the end of 1896, Satie's popularity and financial situation were ebbing. Claude Debussy, whose popularity was rising at the time, helped draw public attention to the work of his friend.

Debussy expressed his belief. Thus, in February 1897, Debussy orchestrated the third and first only, reversing the numbering: Satie's first became Debussy's third, vice versa; the score was published in 1898. From the second half of the 20th century on, the Gymnopédies were erroneously described as part of Satie's body of furniture music because of John Cage's interpretation of them. Collectively, the Gymnopédies are regarded as an important precursor to modern ambient music; the first and second Gymnopédies were arranged by Dick Halligan for the group Blood, Sweat & Tears under the title "Variations on a Theme by Erik Satie" on the group's eponymous album, released in 1968. The recording received a Grammy Award the following year for Best Contemporary Instrumental Performance. In 1979, the English/Australian musical group Sky performed Gymnopedie No. 1 on their self-titled debut album. The track appeared on Sky's 1984 compilation album "Masterpieces, The Very Best of Sky". In 1980, Gary Numan produced a track called "Trois Gymnopedies", which appeared on the B-side of the single "We Are Glass".

In 1999 the chord sequence was used in the Sunship remix of the song "Flowers" by girl band Sweet Female Attitude. All three pieces were arranged with percussion by the UK electronic duo Isan in 2006, in their signature analogue sound. Gymnopédies have been heard in numerous movies and television shows. Examples include the French thriller Diva, the documentary Man on Wire, Wes Anderson's The Royal Tenenbaums, Woody Allen's Another Woman, all of which use Gymnopédie No. 1 in their soundtracks. In 2007 Wilhelm Kaiser-Lindemann arranged the first and the third Gymnopédie for The 12 Cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic. Jack DeJohnette included a tribute to Gymnopédies in his 2016 album Return. Gymnopédies: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Free sheet music of 3 Gymnopédies from Public Domain Sheet Music of the Gymnopédies at the Mutopia Project

Sir George Paul, 2nd Baronet

Sir George Onesiphorus Paul, 2nd Baronet was an English prison reformer and philanthropist. Born at Woodchester, Gloucestershire, he was the son of Sir Onesiphorus Paul, textile manufacturer, by his first wife, daughter of Francis Blackburne of St. Nicholas, Yorkshire, he matriculated at St. John's College, Oxford, on 8 December 1763, graduating M. A. 12 December 1766. He took the additional Christian name of George in February 1780, he spent several years travelling on the continent of Europe, living in 1767–8 at the courts of Brunswick and Vienna, visiting Hungary and Italy, returning through France. In 1780, the year of his return, he was High Sheriff of Gloucestershire; the state of Gloucestershire's county gaol and houses of correction began to attract Paul's attention. At the spring assizes held at Gloucester in 1783, as foreman of the grand jury, he addressed the jurors on the subject of the prevalence of gaol fever, suggested means of treating it, of preventing it in the future. At a meeting summoned by the High Sheriff on 6 October, at the grand jury's request, he carried a motion that "a new gaol and certain new houses of correction" should be built.

Paul obtained a special Act of Parliament, himself designed a county gaol at Gloucester, with a penitentiary annexed. The building was opened in 1791, it had a chapel, a dispensary, two infirmaries, a foul-ward in the upper storey. At the same time five new bridewells were erected in various parts of Gloucester. Another interest was in the Stroud society for providing free medical advice and medicine, of which Paul became president in 1783, he was active in putting down "slingeing", i.e. the embezzlement of, fraudulent dealing in, cloth material. On 14 August 1788 George III, Queen Charlotte, their three eldest daughters, when on their way to Cheltenham, breakfasted at Hill House with Paul, visited Obadiah Paul's cloth manufactory at Woodchester Mill. Paul was one of the party who accompanied Sir Walter Scott to the Hebrides in 1810, he died on 16 December 1820. On his death the baronetcy expired, but was revived on 3 September 1821 in the person of his cousin, John Dean Paul, the father of Sir John Dean Paul the banker.

Paul wrote: Thoughts on the Alarming Progress of the Gaol Fever, 1784. Considerations on the Defects of Prisons, 1784, 2nd edit. with a postscript. Address to the Magistrates of Gloucestershire at the Michaelmas Quarter Sessions, 1789, considered the appointment of officers and the adoption of regulations for the government of the new prisons. Paul in the preface wrote he that the proposed regulations had been "hastily drawn up" for John Howard. Proceedings in the Construction and Regulation of the Prisons and Houses of Correction of the County of Gloucester, 1810. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Paul, George Onesiphorus". Dictionary of National Biography. 44. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Mathilde Sternat

Mathilde Sternat is a French cellist and arranger. Sternat studied the cello and chamber music, notably with Étienne Péclard, at the Conservatoire de Paris and won her prize in 1995. Since she has been playing chamber music in small ensembles and in different chamber orchestras and as soloist of several symphony orchestras; as a member of the Travelling Quartet — Anne Gravoin and David Braccini, Vincent Pasquier and Mathilde Sternat — she makes arrangements of the repertoire of the art music of the 19th and early 20th centuries and arrangements of compositions of Jazz pop music, film scores and French songs. In addition to her engagements for chamber music, Sternat composes and arranges music for theatre performances and performs in concert and recording studio with French musicians, but internationally known musicians, such as Malia, Patrick Bruel, Laurent Voulzy, Michel Sardou, Nolwenn Leroy and Sofia Mestari. Luigi Boccherini, Quintets with flute - with Jean-Pierre Rampal, Régis Pasquier, Bruno Pasquier and Roland Pidoux OCLC 906156351 Eleftheria Arvanitaki, Diffusion Jacques Loussier Trio, Concertos pour piano 20 & 23 Nolwenn Leroy, Histoires Naturelles Mathilde Sternat Discography Web site of the Travelling Quartet

Beverage can printing

Beverage can printing refers to the art and practice of applying an image to a metal beverage can, to advertise its contents. The first beer sold in a can was in 1935, when a brewery in the United States inquired American Can Company about the possibility of packaging their beer in cans. In 1931, American Can Company began to experiment with the possibility of canned beer as they anticipated that the Prohibition period would soon end; the major obstacle in producing beer cans was that no current cans could withstand the excess pressure, required in packaging beer. Two years American Can company designed a coating that would prevent the beer from reacting with the tinplate cans. Now that they developed a successful beer can, American Can Company had to pitch their innovation to breweries. While large breweries were skeptical of the unproven packaging method, the Gottfried Krueger Brewery took American Can Company's offer of free canning equipment in the event that canned beer was unsuccessful.

The test results were successful, on January 24, 1935 in Richmond, the first canned beer hit the public market as "Krueger’s Finest Beer." By the end of 1935, no less than 37 US breweries were producing canned beer. Felinfoel Brewery Company, located at Llanelli, became the first brewery outside the United States to sell canned beer, it was a success; the package for this beer was called a "conetop". The interest in canned beer grew so fast that by 1937, 23 breweries were producing 40 brands of canned beer. World War II temporarily stopped this innovation until 1952. By this point, most breweries were using flat top cans instead. From the 1950s to the 1960s, all beer can were composed from three pieces of metal. Two-piece cans hit the market in 1974. Throughout the years, innovative ideas and development changed the beer can into what it is today. According to Ball Corporation, beer cans weighed 83 grams in 1951, was reduced to 38 grams by 1974, to what it is now today at only 21 grams. Coors examined many can coating curing methods and decided to implement an ultraviolet system, which they started to do in 1975.

Coors is the only manufacturer to use the UV curing method in the United States. In 1986, they made further innovations to their UV coating lines to increase flexibility and efficiency. Beer cans have been printed with colored photographic images since 1956, "first was famous Scottish and English landmarks and with pinup girls", called the Lager Lovelies; these cans were popular all over the world. Extensive testing has been done with four color printing on the beers, but every attempt proved unsuccessful. Metal Box Company, a United Kingdom company, developed a method called "Reprotherm" for two-piece cans. In this process, the image to be printed is transferred to the can through a printed medium. A company called Nacano developed a six color printing method for two-piece cans, "but the first cans to be produced by this process have looked faded and washed out". Over 60 countries around the world are producing canned beer in every shape and size. In this book, we will explore a newer printing technology for beer cans that utilizes Ultraviolet curable ink and coating.

Prior to the UV curing and coating system, Coors used a conventional production method. The production line is similar, but a four-color offset printer is used and a blanket lays the image onto the can as it spins on a mandrel; the cans are pulled into a gas convention oven by pin chains to cure the inks and varnishes, which take "12 seconds at 400 °F". Afterwards, an internal coating is applied to the cans and it is sent to another gas oven to be cured; some of the problems using this thermal process of coating and curing includes: Speed of printing limited by length and speed of pin chain conveyors, high energy costs for gas ovens, the can coatings becoming non-functional, when they are overheated in the oven due to slow speed or stoppages. The use of lubricants on the pin chains is kept to a minimum to prevent it from getting into the can; because of this, pin chains "wear excessively and break frequently". Before it can be repaired, 20 minutes need to be spent to wait for the oven to cool down enough.

UV inks and varnishes contain a "photoinitiator and cure in about 500 milliseconds" when exposure to UV lamps. This method eliminates all three of the problems mentioned above that are found in a conventional process; the time it takes to cure the can is so quick. Since gas ovens are not used, there are no possibility of the cans being damaged due to overheating. A vacuum system is put in place of the pin chains; this reduces the possibility of damaging the interior of the can. The application of the UV curing process produced the following results: Faster production rates, High-quality appearance, Less damage to can interior, Less downtime, Less energy use, No emission, Less floor space needed, Lower capital costs, Less cleanup. While the conventional pin chain and gas oven can operate at up to 1400 cans per minute, the UV curing and vacuum system have the potential to run at much higher speeds, that will only increase as technology to increase printer and other equipment speed is developed and implemented.

The UV varnish coats the beer cans with a strong, abrasion-resistant layer, protecting it in the manufacturing and transportation process. Since there are no longer any pins sticking inside the cans, there is no chance of the interior being scratched or damaged, which can have a negative effect while applying the interior coating. A standard test that measured the interior coating of the UV curing system has "shown a tenfold improvement"; the UV ov

Avon Cinema

The Avon Cinema is an independent movie theater near Brown University on the East Side of Providence. The Avon's Art Deco styling dates from its opening in February 1938; the theater screens independent, art house, foreign films. The theatre has been owned by the same family since 1938, it has one screen. 260 Thayer Street began as the Toy Theater in 1915. The theater soon closed and served as an amateur theatre or gymnasium with parking garage for a few years; the Dulgarian family purchased the theatre in 1938, advertising it as devoted to "the showing of unusual pictures." The new cinema debuted on February 1938 with the French film Beethoven's Great Love. Tickets cost 50 cents for evening shows, 40 cents for matinees, 25 cents before 2pm. According to Cinema Treasures, the movie Marty premiered here, among others, they had what was described as a "first-run'class' policy" continuing through the 1960s. In the 1970s the Avon was known as the Avon Repertory Cinema. In 1983, they returned to showing "first run foreign and domestic films of distinction."During the Blizzard of 1978, the Avon retained power despite a widespread outage.

The owners kept the heat on, allowed patrons to stay the night. In 2018, the cinema celebrated 80 years of continuous operation in the hands of a single family; the owners say they try to "keep the experience as close to how our grandparents saw movies as possible." In 1937, Louis Gordon Theatres Inc. leased the property from the Dulgarian Brothers with the intention of turning it back into a theater. Since any renovations have been minor and the property remains in the hands of the Dulgarians. A heavy maroon curtain to cover the screen was added in the 1970s, in the 1980s a false ceiling was removed from the lobby to uncover the original arched ceiling; the theatre held a grand re-opening party in 1988 to celebrate the renovation. A digital projector was installed in 2014, as distributors moved away from distributing films on 35mm reels. Avon Cinema American Theatre Architecture Archive

FC Sachsen Leipzig

FC Sachsen Leipzig was a German football club from the Leutzsch district of Leipzig, Saxony. The club continued the traditions of BSG Chemie Leipzig; the club dissolved in 2011. Although several successor sides were established, only one survived, the BSG Chemie Leipzig; the name Sachsen Leipzig was revived in 2014 by amateur football club LFV Sachsen Leipzig. The prewar identity of the club is rooted in the establishment of Britannia Leipzig in 1899 and its successor TuRa Leipzig. During the East German era the traditions of the club were continued in the teams BSG Chemie Leipzig and SC Lokomotive Leipzig before the emergence of FC Sachsen Leipzig following the German reunification; the reunification of East and West Germany saw significant change in football in the eastern half of the country. At the end of May 1990, the club was renamed FC Grün-Weiß Leipzig and merged with SV Chemie Böhlen to create FC Sachsen Leipzig on 1 August 1990, took up play in the third tier Oberliga Nordost; the club took part in qualification play for the 2.

Bundesliga at the end of 1990-91, but failed in their attempt to advance. Sachsen captured the Oberliga title in 1992-93 season, but was denied the opportunity to again take part in the promotion round because of financial difficulties. After another season in the Oberliga, the club continued in the newly created third tier Regionalliga Nordost, where it remained through 2001 before again collapsing into bankruptcy. In 2006, Red Bull GmbH tried to purchase FC Sachsen Leipzig and make it part of its sports portfolio, with the long term ambition of an advance to the Bundesliga. Despite the fact that the club was plagued by constant financial difficulties, the prospect of financial stability and sporting success, fans throughout the country opposed what was viewed an overtly commercial approach. After months of protests which deteriorated into violence, the company abandoned the plan, opting instead to purchase the playing right of SSV Markranstädt as its entrée to German football, leading to the establishment of RB Leipzig in 2009.

Sachsen continued to struggle and, in March 2009, the club had to declare bankruptcy for the second time, before folding on 30 June 2011. After the dissolution of FC Sachsen Leipzig in 2011, two new sides soon appeared, both claiming to be the rightful heirs; the first was BSG Chemie Leipzig. The club had been founded by supporters of FC Sachsen Leipzig back in 1997; the team began play in the lowest tier city competition and made its debut in the 2008-09 3. Kreisklasse Leipzig; the new BSG Chemie Leipzig won successive promotions over the following seasons. The second side was SG Leipzig Leutzsch founded on 21 May 2011. SG Leipzig Leutzsch took over the place of the second team of FC Sachsen Leipzig in the Sachsenliga, as well as the youth department of FC Sachsen Leipzig, was made the main tentant of the Alfred-Kunze-Sportpark. In 2013, SG Leipzig Leutzsch adopted the name SG Sachsen Leipzig. Financial difficulties for Sachsen continued. After SG Sachsen Leipzig encountered liquidity difficulties at the end of 2013, the club filed for bankruptcy on 5 May 2014.

The insolvency proceedings were opened on 30 June 2014. The team had to descend to the Landesklasse Sachsen Nord and BSG Chemie Leipzig was made the sole tenant of the Alfred-Kunze-Sportpark. SG Sachsen Leipzig was however unable to prove the number of junior teams required; the Saxony Football Association and the Leipzig Football Association therefore denied the club a playing right in any of their leagues. SG Sachsen Leipzig cancelled its sporting operations and dissolved. However, the name Sachsen Leipzig was soon taken up again by a new club, the LFV Sachsen Leipzig, founded in October 2014. LFV Sachsen Leipzig made its debut in the 2015-16 3. Kreisklasse Leipzig; the team was formed out of the second team of TuS Leutzsch and coached by former FC Sachsen Leipzig-coach Michael Breitkopf. Among the players was former SG Sachsen Leipzig-forward Nico Breitkopf; the team proved successful, with LFV Sachsen Leipzig winning promotion to the 2. Kreisklasse Leipzig on its first attempt; the success was repeated in the next season, with LFV Sachsen Leipzig winning promotion to the 1.

Kreisklasse Leipzig on 14 May 2017. LFV Sachsen Leipzig plays its home matches at the Willi-Kühn-Sportpark in Leipzig, as sub-tenants of DSV Leipzig Nordwest; the stadium has a capacity of 4,000 spectators, of which 350 are roofed. SG Sachsen Leipzig LFV Sachsen Leipzig Past players who are the subjects of Wikipedia articles can be found here. Regionalliga Nordost Runners up: 1994-95 NOFV-Oberliga Winners: 1992-93, 2002–03 Saxony Cup Winners: 1992-93, 1993–94, 1994–95, 2004-05 Runners-up: 2007-08 The Abseits Guide to German Soccer Information about the 1963-64 championship team