Galdr is one Old Norse word for "spell, incantation". It was mastered by both men; some scholars have assumed. The Old Norse word galdr is derived from a word for singing incantations, gala with an Indo-European -tro suffix. In Old High German the -stro suffix produced galster instead; the Old English forms were gealdor, galdor, ȝaldre "spell, witchcraft", the verb galan meant "sing, chant". It is related to giellan, the verb ancestral to Modern English yell; the German forms were Old High German galstar and MHG galster "song, enchantment", surviving in Modern German Galsterei and Galsterweib. Some incantations were composed in a special meter named galdralag; this meter was similar to the six-lined ljóðaháttr used for ritual, but adds a seventh line. Diverse runic inscriptions suggest informal impromptu methods. Another characteristic is a performed parallelism, see the stanza from Skirnismál, below. A practical galdr for women was one that made childbirth easier, but they were notably used for bringing madness onto another person, whence modern Swedish galen meaning "mad", derived from the verb gala.
Moreover, a master of the craft was said to be able to raise storms, make distant ships sink, make swords blunt, make armour soft and decide victory or defeat in battles. Examples of this can be found in Frithiof's Saga. In Grógaldr, Gróa chants nine galdrar to aid her son, in Buslubœn, the schemes of king Ring of Östergötland are averted, it is mentioned in several of the poems in the Poetic Edda, for instance in Hávamál, where Odin claims to know 18 galdrar. For instance, Odin mastered galdrar against fire, sword edges, arrows and storms, he could conjure up the dead and speak to them. There are other references in Skírnismál, where Skirnir uses galdrar to force Gerðr to marry Freyr as exemplified by the following stanza: A notable reference to the use of galdrar is the eddic poem Oddrúnargrátr, where Borgny could not give birth before Oddrún had chanted "biting galdrar": Grógaldr Icelandic magical staves Seiðr Schön, Ebbe.. Asa-Tors hammare, Gudar och jättar i tro och tradition. Fält & Hässler, Värnamo.
Steinsland, G. & Meulengracht Sørensen, P.: Människor och makter i vikingarnas värld. ISBN 91-7324-591-7
Mead of poetry
In Norse mythology, the Poetic Mead or Mead of Poetry known as Mead of Suttungr, is a mythical beverage that whoever "drinks becomes a skald or scholar" to recite any information and solve any question. This myth was reported by Snorri Sturluson; the drink is a vivid metaphor for poetic inspiration associated with Odin the god of'possession' via berserker rage or poetic inspiration. After the Æsir-Vanir War, the gods sealed the truce. To keep a symbol of this truce, they created from their spittle a man named Kvasir, he was so wise. He travelled around the world to give knowledge to mankind. One day, he visited the dwarves Galar, they killed him and poured his blood into two vats and a pot called Boðn, Són and Óðrerir. They mixed his blood with honey, thus creating a mead which made anybody who drank it a "poet or scholar"; the dwarves explained to the gods. Fjalar and Galar invited a giant and his wife, they took him to sea and capsized their boat and the giant drowned. The dwarves came back home and broke the news to Gilling's wife, which plunged her deep in grief.
Fjallar proposed showing her the place where her husband had drowned but Gallar got tired of her weeping, went before her and dropped a millstone on her head when she crossed the threshold. When Gilling's son, learned what had happened, he went to the dwarves and led them to a reef, covered with water at high tide; the dwarves offered him the mead in compensation for his father's death. Suttungr agreed; when he came back home, he stored the mead in a place called Hnitbjörg where his daughter, Gunnlöd, was in charge of guarding it. Odin offered to sharpen their scythes, his whetstone worked so well. Odin threw it up in the air and the slaves struggled for it to death, cutting each other's throats, he spent the night at Baugi's place. Baugi was Suttung's brother, he complained that business did not go well since his slaves had killed each other and he could not get anybody to stand in for them. Odin, who said his name was Bölverk, proposed to do their work in exchange for a draught of Suttung's mead.
Baugi agreed. During summer, Bölverk did the work as, in winter, asked Baugi for his owing, they both went to Suttung's. Bölverk suggested Baugi use a trick, he asked him to dig into Hnitbjörg mountain. After Baugi tried to deceive him, a hole was dug and Bölverk slipped into it, having taken the form of a snake. Baugi tried in vain to hit him with the drill, he arrived with whom he spent three nights. Thus he could have three draughts of mead, but each emptied a container. He transformed into an eagle and flew away; when Suttungr discovered the theft, he took the shape of an pursued Odin. When the Æsir saw him, they displaced containers, but Suttung was so close to him. Anybody could drink this part, known as the "rhymester's share", but the mead of poetry Odin gave to the men gifted in poetry. The comic book The Magic Mead in the Danish comic book series Valhalla, created by Peter Madsen and others, is a retelling of the story of the mead of poetry. Peter Madsen won The SAS Prize for Best Nordic for this comic at the Raptus Festival in Bergen, Norway.
Soma Well of Mímir Salmon of Knowledge Culture hero Snorri Sturluson, Edda and edited by Anthony Faulkes, London: Everyman, 1995, ISBN 0-460-87616-3
W. G. Collingwood
William Gershom Collingwood was an English author, artist and professor of Fine Arts at University College, Reading. His father William, was a watercolour artist, had married Marie Eliabeth Imhoff of Arbon, Switzerland in 1851. Soon young William was sketching with his father in the Lakes, North Wales, Switzerland. In 1872, he went to University College, where he met John Ruskin. During the summer of 1873 Collingwood visited Ruskin at Coniston. Two years Collingwood was working at Brantwood with Ruskin and his associates. Ruskin admired his draughtsmanship, so Collingwood studied at the Slade School of Art between 1876 and 1878, he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1880. For many years Collingwood dedicated himself to helping Ruskin, staying at Brantwood as Ruskin's assistant and travelling with him to Switzerland. In 1883 he settled near to Ruskin in the Lake District. Collingwood edited a number of Ruskin's texts and published a biography of Ruskin in 1893. In 1896, Arthur Ransome met the Collingwoods and their children, Barbara and Robin.
Ransome learned to sail in Collingwood's boat and became a firm friend of the family proposing marriage to both Dora and Barbara. After a summer of teaching Collingwood's grandchildren to sail in Swallow II in 1928, Ransome wrote the first book in his Swallows and Amazons series of books, he used the names of some of Collingwood's grandchildren for the Swallows. By the 1890s Collingwood had become a skilled painter and joined the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, he wrote a large number of papers for its Transactions. Collingwood was interested in Norse lore and the Norsemen, he wrote a novel, Thorstein of the Mere, a major influence on Arthur Ransome. In 1897, Collingwood travelled to Iceland where he spent three months over the summer exploring with Jón Stefánsson the sites around the country in which the medieval Icelandic sagas are set, he produced hundreds of sketches and watercolours during this time, published, with Stefánsson, an illustrated account of their expedition in 1899 under the title A Pilgrimage to the Saga-steads of Iceland.
Collingwood served as its president. In 1902 he co-authored again with Jón Stefánsson the first translation it published, a translation of Kormáks saga entitled, The Life and Death of Kormac the Skald, his study of Norse and Anglican archaeology made him recognised as a leading authority. Following Ruskin's death Collingwood continued to help for a while with secretarial work at Brantwood, but in 1905 went to University College and served as professor of fine art from 1907 until 1911. Collingwood joined the Admiralty intelligence division at the outbreak of the First World War. In 1919, he returned to Coniston and continued his writing with a history of the Lake District and his most important work, Northumbrian Crosses of the pre-Norman Age, he was a great climber and swimmer, a tireless walker into advanced age. In 1927 he experienced the first of a series of strokes, his wife died in 1928, followed by Collingwood himself in 1932. He was buried in Coniston. Following the Armistice of 1918, the peace treaty of 1919, Collingwood's services were much in demand as a designer of War Memorials.
His knowledge of and enthusiasm for Scandinavian crosses is displayed at Grasmere where the memorial on Broadgate Meadows is a pastiche of an Anglian cross. The short verse at its base was penned by his close friend Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley, chair of the memorial committee. Other examples of his Celtic type memorial crosses may be seen at Otley and the K Shoes factory in Kendal; that at Hawkshead was sculpted by Barbara. Other memorials designed by Collingwood may be seen at St Bees and Lastingham, his diary for 1919–20, held in the Abbot Hall Art Gallery, contains brief allusions to other possible memorials. Collingwood founded the Ruskin Museum in Coniston in 1901, it holds material related to Collingwood. However the archive of family papers, the Collingwood Collection, is now held at the Special Collections and Archives department of the Cardiff University Library; the largest part of Collingwood's paintings of Iceland are held in the National Museum in Reykjavik: other locations include Abbot Hall Art Gallery.
Collingwood's most lasting legacy was his influence on his son R. G. Collingwood, the famous philosopher and historian. James S. Dearden, ‘Collingwood, William Gershom ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Retrieved 6 February 2015. W. G. Collingwood, The Lake Counties, J. M. Dent, 1930. F. Warne & Co. 1932. W. G. Collingwood, The Life of John Ruskin. M. Townend, The Vikings and Victorian Lakeland: The Norse medievalism of W G Collingwood and his contemporaries, CWAAS Extra Series Vol XXXIV 2009. ISBN 978-1-873124-49-9. "W. G. Collingwood's Letters from Iceland", Edited by Mike and Kate Lea, RG Collingwood Society 2013, ISBN 978-0-954674-01-4. Works by W. G. Collingwood at Project Gutenberg Works by or about W. G. Collingwood at Internet Archive Works by W. G. Collingwood at LibriVox Three watercolours by W G Colli
Hospitality refers to the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the guest with goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes hospitality in the Encyclopédie as the virtue of a great soul that cares for the whole universe through the ties of humanity. Hospitality ethics is a discipline. Derives from the Latin hospes, meaning "host", "guest", or "stranger". Hospes is formed from hostis, which means "stranger" or "enemy". By metonymy the Latin word ` Hospital' means guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes/hostis is thus the root for the English words host, hospice and hotel. In ancient cultures hospitality involved welcoming the stranger and offering him food and safety. In Ancient Greece, hospitality was a right, with the host being expected to make sure the needs of his guests were met; the ancient Greek term xenia, or theoxenia when a god was involved, expressed this ritualized guest-friendship relation.
In Greek society a person's ability to abide by the laws of hospitality determined nobility and social standing. The Stoics regarded hospitality as a duty inspired by Zeus himself. In India and Nepal hospitality is based on the principle Atithi Devo Bhava, meaning "the guest is God"; this principle is shown in a number of stories where a guest is revealed to be a god who rewards the provider of hospitality. From this stems the Indian or Nepal practice of graciousness towards guests at home and in all social situations; the Tirukkuṛaḷ, an ancient Indian work on ethics and morality, explains the ethics of hospitality through its verses 81 through 90, dedicating a separate chapter on it. Judaism praises hospitality to strangers and guests based on the examples of Abraham and Lot in the Book of Genesis. In Hebrew, the practice is called hachnasat orchim, or "welcoming guests". Besides other expectations, hosts are expected to provide nourishment and entertainment for their guests, at the end of the visit, hosts customarily escort their guests out of their home, wishing them a safe journey.
Abraham set the pace as providing 3 things: Achila Shtiya Linah The initial letters of these Hebrew words spell Aishel.. In Christianity, hospitality is a virtue, a reminder of sympathy for strangers and a rule to welcome visitors; this is a virtue found in the Old Testament, for example, the custom of the foot washing of visitors or the kiss of peace. It was taught by Jesus in the New Testament. Indeed, Jesus said; some Western countries have developed a host culture based on the bible. John Paul II writes, "Welcoming our brothers and sisters with care and willingness must not be limited to extraordinary occasions but must become for all believers a habit of service in their daily lives". Individuals are treated as favored guests in the liberal Catholic tradition. Honored guests receive first parlance, religious clergy second parlance, important persons third parlance. Clergy and followers of Christ received parlance and some may have turned away from hospitality and serving, since active service requires detachment from material goods, family connections, physical comforts.
Hospitality is a meeting of minds, it is an openness to the familiar and meet to discuss and question the mystery of self, social events, nature and to God. Any guest should never made to feel or see that they are causing undue extra labor by their intrusion or presence, it is always polite to ask about religious convictions. John Paul II said: "Only those who have opened their hearts to Christ can offer a hospitality, never formal or superficial but identified by "gentleness" and "reverence"." In reference to Biblical scripture as a sign of politeness to always come to the defense and aid to those who give a account of hope and those interested. Christ expanded the meaning of brother and neighbor to include the stranger, that he or she be treated like a follower with and for hospitality and mutual help, if the believer in Christ or whom may be a messenger of god either needed help, circumstances made it difficult to interpret and being uncertain of whether a individual is a believer in Christ and god.
One of the main principles of Pashtunwali is Melmastia. This is the display of hospitality and profound respect to all visitors without any hope of remuneration or favour. Pashtuns will go to great lengths to show their hospitality. Islam recommends one another to say peace be upon you Assalamu Alaikum to one another as Muhammad had said, Muslims are obliged to treat their guest with kindness and peace prisoners, As Muhammad had said in authentic sources and verses from the Quran Abu Aziz ibn Umair reported: I was among the prisoners of war on the day of the battle of Badr. Muhammad had said, "I enjoin you to treat the captives well." After I accepted Islam, I was among the Ansar and when the time of lunch or dinner arrived, I would feed dates to the prisoners for I had been fed bread due to the command of Muhammad. Invite to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching, he felt dampness, although the surface was dry. He said: "O owner of the food
In prosody, alliterative verse is a form of verse that uses alliteration as the principal ornamental device to help indicate the underlying metrical structure, as opposed to other devices such as rhyme. The most studied traditions of alliterative verse are those found in the oldest literature of the Germanic languages, where scholars use the term'alliterative poetry' rather broadly to indicate a tradition which not only shares alliteration as its primary ornament but certain metrical characteristics; the Old English epic Beowulf, as well as most other Old English poetry, the Old High German Muspilli, the Old Saxon Heliand, the Old Norse Poetic Edda, many Middle English poems such as Piers Plowman, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the Alliterative Morte Arthur all use alliterative verse. Alliterative verse can be found in many other languages as well; the Finnish Kalevala and the Estonian Kalevipoeg both use alliterative forms derived from folk tradition. Traditional Turkic verse, for example that of the Uyghur, is alliterative.
The poetic forms found in the various Germanic languages are not identical, but there is sufficient similarity to make it clear that they are related traditions, stemming from a common Germanic source. Knowledge about that common tradition, however, is based entirely on inference from poetry. One statement we have about the nature of alliterative verse from a practicing alliterative poet is that of Snorri Sturluson in the Prose Edda, he describes metrical patterns and poetic devices used by skaldic poets around the year 1200. Snorri's description has served as the starting point for scholars to reconstruct alliterative meters beyond those of Old Norse. There have been many different metrical theories proposed, all of them attended with controversy. Looked at broadly, certain basic features are common from the earliest to the latest poetry. Alliterative verse has been found in some of the earliest monuments of Germanic literature; the Golden horns of Gallehus, discovered in Denmark and dating to the 4th century, bear this Runic inscription in Proto-Norse: x / x x x / x x / x / x x ek hlewagastiʀ holtijaʀ || horna tawidō This inscription contains four stressed syllables, the first three of which alliterate on <h> /x/ and the last of which does not alliterate the same pattern found in much verse.
All alliterative poetry was composed and transmitted orally, much went unrecorded. The degree to which writing may have altered this oral art form remains much in dispute. There is a broad consensus among scholars that the written verse retains many of the features of the spoken language; the core metrical features of traditional Germanic alliterative verse are as follows. Half-lines are known as'verses','hemistichs', or'distichs'; the rhythm of the b-verse is more regular than that of the a-verse, helping listeners to perceive where the end of the line falls. A heavy pause, or'cæsura', separates the verses; each verse has two stressed syllables, referred to as'lifts' or'beats'. The first lift in the a-verse alliterates with the first lift in the b-verse; the second lift in the b-verse does not alliterate with the first lifts. Some of these fundamental rules varied in certain traditions over time. Unlike in post-medieval English accentual verse, in which a syllable is either stressed or unstressed, Germanic poets were sensitive to degrees of stress.
These can be thought of at three levels: most stressed: root syllables of nouns, participles, infinitives less stressed: root syllables most finite verbs and adverbs less stressed: most pronouns, weakly stressed adverbs, conjunctions, parts of the verb to be, word-endingsIf a half-line contains one or more stress-words, their root syllables will be the lifts. If it contains no stress-words, the root syllables of any particles will be the lift. A proclitic can be the lift, either because there are no more stressed syllables or because it is given extra stress for some particular reason. If a lift was occupied by word with a short root vowel followed by only one consonant followed by an unstressed vowel these two syllables were in most circumstances counted as only one syllable; this is called resolution. The patterns of unstressed syllables vary in the alliterative traditions of different Germanic languages; the rules for these patterns remain imperfectly understood and subject to debate. Alliteration fits with the prosodic patterns of early Germanic languages.
Alliteration involves matching the left edges of stressed syllables. Early Germanic languages share a left-prominent prosodic pattern. In other words, stress falls on the root syllable of a word, the initial syllable; this means that the first sound of a word was salient to listeners. Traditional Germanic verse had two particular rules about alliteration: All vowels alliterate with each other; the consonant clusters st-, sp- and sc- are treated as separate sounds. The precise r
Yggdrasil is an immense mythical tree that plays a central role in Norse cosmology, where it connects the Nine Worlds. Yggdrasil is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, Yggdrasil is an immense ash tree, center to the cosmos and considered holy; the gods go to Yggdrasil daily to assemble at traditional governing assemblies. The branches of Yggdrasil extend far into the heavens, the tree is supported by three roots that extend far away into other locations. Creatures live within Yggdrasil, including the dragon Níðhöggr, an unnamed eagle, the stags Dáinn, Dvalinn and Duraþrór. Conflicting scholarly theories have been proposed about the etymology of the name Yggdrasill, the possibility that the tree is of another species than ash, its connection to the many sacred trees and groves in Germanic paganism and mythology, the fate of Yggdrasil during the events of Ragnarök.
The accepted meaning of Old Norse Yggdrasill is "Odin's horse", meaning "gallows". This interpretation comes about because Ygg is one of Odin's many names; the Poetic Edda poem Hávamál describes how Odin sacrificed himself by hanging from a tree, making this tree Odin's gallows. This tree may have been Yggdrasil. Gallows can be called "the horse of the hanged" and therefore Odin's gallows may have developed into the expression "Odin's horse", which became the name of the tree. Scholarly opinions regarding the precise meaning of the name Yggdrasill vary on the issue of whether Yggdrasill is the name of the tree itself or if only the full term askr Yggdrasil refers to the tree. According to this interpretation, askr Yggdrasils would mean the world tree upon which "the horse of the highest god is bound". Both of these etymologies unattested * Yggsdrasill. A third interpretation, presented by F. Detter, is that the name Yggdrasill refers to the word yggr, yet not in reference to the Odinic name, so Yggdrasill would mean "tree of terror, gallows".
F. R. Schröder has proposed a fourth etymology according to which yggdrasill means "yew pillar", deriving yggia from *igwja, drasill from *dher-. In the Poetic Edda, the tree is mentioned in the three poems Hávamál and Grímnismál. In the second stanza of the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá, the völva reciting the poem to the god Odin says that she remembers far back to "early times", being raised by jötnar, recalls nine worlds and "nine wood-ogresses", when Yggdrasil was a seed. In stanza 19, the völva says: In stanza 20, the völva says that from the lake under the tree come three "maidens deep in knowledge" named Urðr, Verðandi, Skuld; the maidens "incised the slip of wood," "laid down laws" and "chose lives" for the children of mankind and the destinies of men. In stanza 27, the völva details that she is aware that "Heimdallr's hearing is couched beneath the bright-nurtured holy tree." In stanza 45, Yggdrasil receives a final mention in the poem. The völva describes, as a part of the onset of Ragnarök, that Heimdallr blows Gjallarhorn, that Odin speaks with Mímir's head, then: In stanza 138 of the poem Hávamál, Odin describes how he once sacrificed himself to himself by hanging on a tree.
The stanza reads: In the stanza that follows, Odin describes how he had no food nor drink there, that he peered downward, that "I took up the runes, screaming I took them I fell back from there." While Yggdrasil is not mentioned by name in the poem and other trees exist in Norse mythology, the tree is near universally accepted as Yggdrasil, if the tree is Yggdrasil the name Yggdrasil directly relates to this story. In the poem Grímnismál, Odin provides the young Agnar with cosmological lore. Yggdrasil is first mentioned in the poem in stanza 29, where Odin says that, because the "bridge of the Æsir burns" and the "sacred waters boil," Thor must wade through the rivers Körmt and Örmt and two rivers named Kerlaugar to go "sit as judge at the ash of Yggdrasill." In the stanza that follows, a list of names of horses are given that the Æsir ride to "sit as judges" at Yggdrasil. In stanza 31, Odin says, he details that beneath the first lives Hel, under the second live frost jötnar, beneath the third lives mankind.
Stanza 32 details that a squirrel named Ratatoskr must run across Yggdrasil and bring "the eagle's word" from above to Níðhöggr below. Stanza 33 describes that four harts named Dáinn, Dvalinn and Duraþrór consume "the highest boughs" of Yggdrasil. In stanza 34, Odin says that more serpents lie beneath Yggdrasil "than any fool can imagine" and lists them as Góinn and Móinn, which he describes as sons of Grafvitnir, Grábakr, Grafvölluðr, Ófnir, Sváfnir, who Odin adds that he thinks will forever gnaw on the tree's branches. In stanza 35, Odin says that Yggdrasil "suffers agony more than men know", as a hart bites it from above, it decays on its sides, Níðhöggr bites it from beneath. In stanza 44
Codex Regius or GKS 2365 4º is an Icelandic codex in which many Old Norse poems are preserved. Thought to have been written during the 1270s, it is made up of 45 vellum leaves; the work contained a further eight leaves, which are now missing. It is the sole source for most of the poems. In scholarly texts, this manuscript is abbreviated as for Codex Regius, or as for Konungsbók; the codex was discovered in 1643, when it came into the possession of Brynjólfur Sveinsson Bishop of Skálholt, who in 1662 sent it as a gift to King Frederick III of Denmark. It was kept in the Royal Library in Copenhagen until April 21, 1971, when it was brought back to Reykjavík and is now kept in the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies. Since air travel was not to be trusted at the time with such precious cargo, it was transported by ship, accompanied by a military escort. One of the principal manuscripts of Snorri's Edda goes by the name of the Codex Regius, it is made up of 55 vellum pages dating from the early 14th century.
It was part of the same gift from Bishop Brynjólfur to Frederick III. It was returned to Iceland in 1985, where it is now in the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies. Codex Regius is the subject of a thriller by the Icelandic writer Arnaldur Indridason. Werner Herzog reads aloud one poem in his 2016 film Into the Inferno. Finnur Jónsson's Facisimile Edition of 1891. Stafrænt handritasafn CyberSamurai Encyclopedia of Norse Mythology: Lieder-Edda CyberSamurai Encyclopedia of Norse Mythology: Lieder-Edda