Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is practiced as a sport and recreational activity. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, sometimes mountainous terrain to groomed courses that are designed for the sport. Modern cross-country skiing is similar to the original form of skiing, from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and Telemark skiing. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward or side-to-side in a skating motion, aided by arms pushing on ski poles against the snow, it is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Northern Europe, Canada and regions in the United States. Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports. Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon, ski-orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks.
The word ski comes from the Old Norse word skíð. Skiing started as a technique for traveling cross-country over snow on skis, starting five millennia ago with beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practised as early as 600 BCE in Daxing ` anling, in. Early historical evidence includes Procopius's description of Sami people as skrithiphinoi translated as "ski running samis". Birkely argues that the Sami people have practiced skiing for more than 6000 years, evidenced by the old Sami word čuoigat for skiing. Egil Skallagrimsson's 950 CE saga describes King Haakon the Good's practice of sending his tax collectors out on skis; the Gulating law stated that "No moose shall be disturbed by skiers on private land." Cross-country skiing evolved from a utilitarian means of transportation to being a worldwide recreational activity and sport, which branched out into other forms of skiing starting in the mid-1800s. Early skiers used one long pole or spear in addition to the skis; the first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741.
Traditional skis, used for snow travel in Norway and elsewhere into the 1800s comprised one short ski with a natural fur traction surface, the andor, one long for gliding, the langski—one being up to 100 cm longer than the other—allowing skiers to propel themselves with a scooter motion. This combination has a long history among the Sami people. Skis up to 280 cm have been produced in Finland, the longest recorded ski in Norway is 373 cm. Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century; these troops were able to cover distances comparable to that of light cavalry. The garrison in Trondheim used skis at least from 1675, the Danish-Norwegian army included specialized skiing battalions from 1747—details of military ski exercises from 1767 are on record. Skis were used in military exercises in 1747. In 1799 French traveller Jacques de la Tocnaye recorded his visit to Norway in his travel diary: Norwegian immigrants used skis in the US midwest from around 1836.
Norwegian immigrant "Snowshoe Thompson" transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856. In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis. Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires - Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890. In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition. In 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during a snow storm. Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at a target while skiing at "top speed", downhill racing among trees, downhill racing on large slopes without falling, "long racing" on "flat ground". An early record of a public ski competition occurred in Tromsø, 1843. In Norwegian, langrenn refers to "competitive skiing where the goal is to complete a specific distance in groomed tracks in the shortest possible time".
In Norway, ski touring competitions are long-distance cross-country competitions open to the public, competition is within age intervals. A new technique, skate skiing, was experimented with early in the 20th Century, but was not adopted until the 1980s. Johan Grøttumsbråten used the skating technique at the 1931 World Championship in Oberhof, one of the earliest recorded use of skating in competitive cross-country skiing; this technique was used in ski orienteering in the 1960s on roads and other firm surfaces. It became widespread during the 1980s after the success of Bill Koch in 1982 Cross-country Skiing Championships drew more attention to the skating style. Norwegian skier Ove Aunli started using the technique in 1984, when he found it to be much faster than classic style. Finnish skier, Pauli Siitonen, developed a one-sided variant of the style in the 1970s, leaving one ski in the track while skating to the side with the other one during endurance events. While the noun ski originates from the Norwegian language, unlike the English skiing there is no corresponding verb in Norwegian.
Fridtjov Nansen, for instance, describes the crossing of Greenland as På ski over Grønland "On skis across Greenland", while the English edition of the report was titled, The first crossing of Greenland. Nansen referred to the activity o
The High Coast is a part of the coast of Sweden on the Gulf of Bothnia, in the municipalities of Kramfors, Härnösand and Örnsköldsvik, notable as an area for research on post-glacial rebound and eustacy, in which the land rises as the covering glaciers melt, a phenomenon first recognised and studied there. Since the last ice age, the land has risen 300 m, which accounts for the region's unusually tall cliffs; the High Coast is part of the Swedish/Finnish High Coast/Kvarken Archipelago World Heritage Site. UNESCO, when putting the area on the World Heritage List in 2000, remarked that "the High Coast site affords outstanding opportunities for the understanding of the important processes that formed the glaciated and land uplift areas of the Earth's surface"; the most popular places to visit in the High Coast of Sweden are Skule Mountain, Skuleskogen National Park and the islands Ulvön and Trysunda. The relief of the High Coast is that of a large scale joint valley terrain that dissects uplifted remnants of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain.
The High Coast of Sweden is excellent for hiking and is seen as one of the best hiking regions in Sweden. Both outdoor magazines and daily newspapers rank the High Coast Trail as the top of Sweden's hiking trails; the Höga Kustenleden is a 128 kilometer long trail along the High Coast. For dayhikes Skule Mountain and Skule National park are perfect. If you are looking to hike with likeminded people the High Coast Hike is an annual event suitable for both experienced and new hikers; the term High Coast was coined in connection with a report on the area in 1974 Before the area was termed the Ångermanland Coast. Lars Bergström Höga kusten: natur, människor och tradition längs kusten från Sundsvall till Örnsköldsvik - ett av Sveriges vackraste och mest särpräglade landskap ISBN 91-0-040427-6 Stockholm: Bonniers 1975 80pp Media related to High Coast at Wikimedia Commons High Coast Sweden - Visitor Guide High Coast Hike - Annual Hiking Event Skuleskogen Nationalpark website Skule Mountain - Visitor Guide Ulvön Island - Visitor Guide Höga Kusten World Heritage website Höga Kusten tourism website Höga Kusten Bridge UNESCO World Heritage profile
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Anders Jonas Ångström
Anders Jonas Ångström was a Swedish physicist and one of the founders of the science of spectroscopy. Anders Jonas Ångström was born in Medelpad to Johan Ångström, schooled in Härnösand, he moved to Uppsala in 1833 and was educated at Uppsala University, where in 1839 he became docent in physics. In 1842 he went to the Stockholm Observatory to gain experience in practical astronomical work, the following year he was appointed keeper of the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory. Intrigued by terrestrial magnetism he recorded observations of fluctuations in magnetic intensity in various parts of Sweden, was charged by the Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed until shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data obtained by HSwMS Eugenie on her voyage around the world in 1851 to 1853. In 1858, he succeeded Adolph Ferdinand Svanberg in the chair of physics at Uppsala, his most important work was concerned with heat spectroscopy. In his optical researches, Optiska Undersökningar, presented to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1853, he not only pointed out that the electric spark yields two superposed spectra, one from the metal of the electrode and the other from the gas in which it passes, but deduced from Leonhard Euler's theory of resonance that an incandescent gas emits luminous rays of the same refrangibility as those it can absorb.
This statement, as Sir Edward Sabine remarked when awarding him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1872, contains a fundamental principle of spectrum analysis, though overlooked for a number of years it entitles him to rank as one of the founders of spectroscopy. From 1861 onward, he paid special attention to the solar spectrum, his combination of the spectroscope with photography for the study of the Solar System resulted in proving that the Sun's atmosphere contains hydrogen, among other elements, in 1868 he published his great map of the normal solar spectrum in Recherches sur le spectre solaire, including detailed measurements of more than 1000 spectral lines, which long remained authoritative in questions of wavelength, although his measurements were inexact by one part in 7000 or 8000, owing to the metre he used as a standard being too short. He was the first, in 1867, to examine the spectrum of the aurora borealis, detected and measured the characteristic bright line in its yellow-green region.
He was elected a member of a number of learned societies, including the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1850, the Royal Society in 1870 and the Institut de France in 1873. He died in Uppsala on 21 June 1874, his son, was a physicist. The Ångström unit in which the wavelengths of light and interatomic spacings in condensed matter are sometimes measured are named after him; the unit is used in crystallography as well as spectroscopy. The crater Ångström on the Moon is named in his honour. One of the main building complexes of Uppsala University, the Ångström Laboratory, is named in his honour; this building houses various departments including the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Mathematics, Department of Engineering Sciences, Institute of Space Physics, the Department of Chemistry. Johann Balmer Gustav Kirchhoff Theodore Lyman Friedrich Paschen Janne Rydberg Spectrum analysis Maier, C. L.. "Ångström, Anders Jonas". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Pp. 166–167. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. Media related to Anders Jonas Ångström at Wikimedia Commons
Kvarken is the narrow region in the Gulf of Bothnia separating the Bothnian Bay from the Bothnian Sea. The distance from Swedish mainland to Finnish mainland is around 80 km while the distance between the outmost islands is only 25 km; the water depth in the Kvarken region is only around 25 metres. The region has an unusual rate of land rising at about 10 mm a year. On the Finnish side of Kvarken, there is a large archipelago, the Kvarken Archipelago, which includes the large islands Replot, Björkö and a large number of smaller islands. Most of it is belongs to the municipality of Korsholm. Most of the small islands are inhabited; the archipelago is smaller on the Swedish side of the region, the islands have much steeper shores. The Kvarken region was important because mail was delivered across Kvarken when the sea was frozen from the Swedish to the Finnish coast; this mail route was used during the period of Swedish rule. In the group of islands in the “middle” of the Kvarken region, in Swedish called Valsörarna – Finnish Valassaaret, is a 36-metre-high lighthouse designed by Henry Lepaute who worked for Gustave Eiffel's engineering bureau.
The structural similarity between the lighthouse and the Eiffel tower is quite obvious. The lighthouse is now automated. Several attempts to cross the strait swimming have been made but cold water and currents have been insurmountable obstacle; the first successful attempt was carried out by Lennart Flygare, Pavio Grzelewski and Tore Klingberg, who on the 24:th of July 2018 swam from Valassaaret on the Finnish side to Holmögadd in Sweden. It took them 12 hours 2 minutes to cross the strait. In 2006, parts of the Kvarken Archipelago were added as an extension to the World Heritage Site of the High Coast in Sweden, because it is “continuously rising from the sea in a process of rapid glacio-isostatic uplift, whereby the land weighed down under the weight of a glacier, lifts at rates that are among the highest in the world; as a consequence of the advancing shoreline, islands appear and unite, peninsulas expand, lakes evolve from bays and develop into marshes and peat fens. This property is a ‘type area’ for research on isostasy.
Most Finnish parts of the High Coast/Kvarken Archipelago World Heritage Site are situated in the Korsholm municipality. There have been proposals for a bridge across the strait, at a cost of about 1.5 to 2 billion euros. There are islands in the strait, the sum of the lengths of the three bridge parts would be about 40 km; the Swedish minister of finance has said it is an interesting idea, but the idea is still decades from being brought to fruition. There is a debate in the coastal cities on both sides, like Vaasa; the official view from the Swedish and Finnish governments is. The natural values in the area makes a bridge dubious. Kvarken World Heritage Site UNESCO World Heritage profile "The black islands rising from the sea", BBC Travel, 14 April 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017
Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute
The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute is a Government agency in Sweden and operates under the Ministry of the Environment. SMHI has expertise within the areas of meteorology and oceanography, has extensive service and business operations within these areas. In 1873, Statens Meteorologiska Centralanstalt was founded, an autonomous part of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, but the first meteorological observations began on July 1, 1874, it was not until 1880. The latter will be broadcast on Stockholm radio from 19 February 1924. In 1908, the Hydrographic Office was created, its task is to scientifically map Sweden's freshwater and collaborate with the weather service in taking certain weather observations such as precipitation and snow cover. In 1919, the two services became the Statens Meteorologisk-Hydrografiska Anstalt. In 1945, the service was renamed Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut. Prior to 1975 it was located in Stockholm but after a decision taken in the Riksdag in 1971 it was relocated to Norrköping in 1975.
SMHI has offices in Malmö, Sundsvall and Upplands Väsby, on top of its headquarter. To the Swedish public SMHI is known for the weather forecasts in the public-service radio provided by Sveriges Radio. Many of the other major media companies in Sweden buy weather forecasts from SMHI. SMHI has about 650 employees; the research staff includes some 100 scientists at the Research Unit, where the Rossby Centre is part of. The research division is divided into six units: Meteorological prediction and analysis Air quality Oceanography Hydrology Rossby Centre Atmospheric Remote SensingThe regional and global climate modelling is at the Rossby Centre, established at SMHI in 1997. Environmental research spans all six research units. There is a project for providing contributions to the HIRLAM project; the main goal of the research division is to support the Institute and the society with research and development. The scientists participate in many international research projects; the air quality research unit of SMHI has 10 scientists, all of whom have expertise in air quality, atmospheric pollution transport, atmospheric pollution dispersion modelling.
Some of the atmospheric pollution dispersion models developed by the air quality research unit are: the DISPERSION21 model the MATCH model SMHI website The Model Documententation System of the European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change Airviro web page Airviro page on Westlakes website
Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna
Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna is a collection of engravings collected by Erik Dahlbergh during the middle of the 17th century. Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna can be described as a grand vision of Sweden during its period as a great power. Dahlberg's direct source of inspiration was the topographical publications issued by the Swiss publisher Matthäus Merian. In 1661 Dahlberg was granted a royal privilege enabling him to realize his plans, which kept him occupied for a good decade, a work that would not be printed until after his death. In its final state Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna comprised three volumes containing 353 plates. Media related to Suecia antiqua et hodierna at Wikimedia Commons Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna at the Royal Library of Sweden Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna at the World Digital Library