The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
Notre-Dame de Paris
Notre-Dame de Paris known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France. The cathedral is considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture; the innovative use of the rib vault and flying buttress, the enormous and colorful rose windows, the naturalism and abundance of its sculptural decoration all set it apart from earlier Romanesque architecture. The cathedral was begun in 1160 and completed by 1260, though it was modified in the following centuries. In the 1790s, Notre-Dame suffered desecration during the French Revolution when much of its religious imagery was damaged or destroyed. Soon after the publication of Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame in 1831, popular interest in the building revived. A major restoration project supervised by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc began in 1845 and continued for twenty-five years. Beginning in 1963, the facade of the Cathedral was cleaned of centuries of soot and grime, returning it to its original color.
Another campaign of cleaning and restoration was carried out from 1991-2000. As the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Paris, Notre-Dame contains the cathedra of the Archbishop of Paris. 12 million people visit Notre-Dame yearly. The Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris was built on a site which in Roman Lutetia is believed to have been occupied by a pagan temple, thence by a Romanesque church, the Basilica of Saint Étienne, built between the 4th century and 7th century; the basilica was situated about 40 meters west of the cathedral and was wider and lower and half its size. King Louis VII of France wanted to build monuments to show that Paris was the political and cultural capital of France. In this context, Maurice de Sully, elevated Bishop in 1160, had the old basilica torn down to its foundations, began to build a larger and taller cathedral; the cornerstone was laid in 1163 in the presence of Pope Alexander III. The design followed the traditional plan, with the ambulatory and choir, where the altar was located, to the east, the entrance, facing the setting sun, to the west.
By long tradition, the choir, where the altar was located, was constructed first, so that the church could be consecrated and used long before it was completed. The original plan was for a long nave, four levels high, with no transept; the flying buttress was not yet in use, so the walls were thick and reinforced by solid stone abutments placed against them on the outside, by chapels placed between the abutments. The roof of the nave was constructed with a new technology, the rib vault, which had earlier been used in the Basilica of Saint Denis; the roof of the nave was supported by crossed ribs. The pointed arches were stronger than the earlier Romanesque arches, carried the weight of the roof outwards and downwards to rows of pillars, out to the abutments against the walls. Construction of the choir took from 1163 until around 1177; the High Altar was consecrated in 1182. Between 1182 and 1190 the first three traverses of the nave were built up to the level of tribunes. Beginning in 1190, the bases of the facade were put in place, the first traverses were completed.
The decision was made to add a transept at the choir, where the altar was located, in order to bring more light into the center of the church. The use of simpler four-part rather than six-part rib vaults meant that the roofs were stronger and could be higher. After Bishop Maurice de Sully's death in 1196, his successor, Eudes de Sully oversaw the completion of the transepts, continued work on the nave, nearing completion at the time of his own death in 1208. By this time, the western facade was largely built, though it was not completed until around the mid-1240s. Between 1225 and 1250 the upper gallery of the nave was constructed, along with the two towers on the west facade. Another significant change came in the mid 13th century, when the transepts were remodeled in the latest Rayonnant style. Shortly afterwards Pierre de Montreuil executed a similar scheme on the southern transept. Both these transept portals were richly embellished with sculpture. An important innovation in the 13th century was the introduction of the flying buttress.
Before the buttresses, all of the weight of the roof pressed outward and down to the walls, the abutments supporting them. With the flying buttress, the weight was carried by the ribs of the vault outside the structure to a series of counter-supports, which were topped with stone pinnacles which gave them greater weight; the buttresses meant that the walls could be higher and thinner, could have much larger windows. The date of the first buttresses is not known with any precision; the first buttresses were replaced by stronger ones in the 14th century. 1160 Maurice de Sully orders the original cathedral demolished. 1163 Cornerstone laid for Notre-Dame de Paris. 1182 Apse and choir completed. 1196 Bishop Maurice de Sully dies. C.1
Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein by promoting the absorption of carbohydrates glucose from the blood into liver and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production and secretion by the liver is inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues, it is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations known as blood sugar levels; when the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood. Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells, secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.
Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin. The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the blood in response to the blood glucose concentration is the primary mechanism of glucose homeostasis. If beta cells are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction, insulin can no longer be synthesized or be secreted into the blood; this results in type 1 diabetes mellitus, characterized by abnormally high blood glucose concentrations, generalized body wasting. In type 2 diabetes mellitus the destruction of beta cells is less pronounced than in type 1 diabetes, is not due to an autoimmune process. Instead there is an accumulation of amyloid in the pancreatic islets, which disrupts their anatomy and physiology; the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive, peripheral tissue insulin resistance.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, unresponsive to the concentration of glucose in the blood. Insulin is still secreted into the blood in response to the blood glucose; as a result, the insulin levels when the blood sugar level is normal, are much higher than they are in healthy persons. The human insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, has a molecular mass of 5808 Da, it is a dimer of a B-chain, which are linked together by disulfide bonds. Insulin's structure varies between species of animals. Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in effectiveness from human insulin because of these variations. Porcine insulin is close to the human version, was used to treat type 1 diabetics before human insulin could be produced in large quantities by recombinant DNA technologies; the crystal structure of insulin in the solid state was determined by Dorothy Hodgkin. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.
Insulin may have originated more than a billion years ago. The molecular origins of insulin go at least as far back. Apart from animals, insulin-like proteins are known to exist in the Fungi and Protista kingdoms. Insulin is produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets in most vertebrates and by the Brockmann body in some teleost fish. Cone snails Conus geographus and Conus tulipa, venomous sea snails that hunt small fish, use modified forms of insulin in their venom cocktails; the insulin toxin, closer in structure to fishes' than to snails' native insulin, slows down the prey fishes by lowering their blood glucose levels. The preproinsulin precursor of insulin is encoded by the INS gene. A variety of mutant alleles with changes in the coding region have been identified. A read-through gene, INS-IGF2, overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. In the pancreatic β cells, glucose is the primary physiological stimulus for the regulation of insulin synthesis.
Insulin is regulated through the transcription factors PDX1, NeuroD1, MafA. PDX1 is in the nuclear periphery upon low blood glucose levels interacting with corepressors HDAC1 and 2, downregulating the insulin secretion. An increase in blood glucose levels causes phosphorylation of PDX1 and it translocates centrally and binds the A3 element within the insulin promoter. Upon translocation it interacts with coactivators HAT p300 and acetyltransferase set 7/9. PDX1 affects the histone modifications through deacetylation as well as methylation, it is said to suppress glucagon. NeuroD1 known as β2, regulates insulin exocytosis in pancreatic β cells by directly inducing the expression of genes involved in exocytosis, it is localized in the cytosol, but in response to high glucose it becomes glycosylated by OGT and/or phosphorylated by ERK, which causes translocation to the nucleus. In the nucleus β2 heterodimerizes with E47, binds to the E1 element of the insulin promoter and recruits co-activator p300 which acetylates β2.
It is able to interact with other transcription factors as well in activation of the insulin gene. MafA is degraded by proteasomes upon low blood glucose levels
Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy". Some consider Descartes' 1637 statement "I think" to have sparked the period. Others cite the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica. French historians traditionally date the Enlightenment from 1715 to 1789, from the beginning of the reign of Louis XV until the French Revolution. Most end it with the turn of the 19th century. Philosophers and scientists of the period circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffeehouses and in printed books and pamphlets; the ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church and paved the way for the political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment; the Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of knowledge and advanced ideals such as liberty, toleration, constitutional government and separation of church and state.
In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church. The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by the phrase Sapere aude; the Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and associated with the scientific revolution. Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes and Spinoza; the major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Hume, Montesquieu, Adam Smith, Voltaire. Some European rulers, including Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia, tried to apply Enlightenment thought on religious and political tolerance, which became known as enlightened absolutism. Benjamin Franklin visited Europe and contributed to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia.
Thomas Jefferson followed European ideas and incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence. One of his peers, James Madison, incorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in 1787; the most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie. Published between 1751 and 1772 in thirty-five volumes, it was compiled by Diderot, d'Alembert and a team of 150 scientists and philosophers, it helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond. Other landmark publications were Voltaire's Dictionnaire Letters on the English; the ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by the intellectual movement known as Romanticism. René Descartes' rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking, his attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied in philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter.
His skepticism was refined by John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding and David Hume's writings in the 1740s. His dualism was challenged by Spinoza's uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus and Ethics; these laid down two distinct lines of Enlightenment thought: first, the moderate variety, following Descartes and Christian Wolff, which sought accommodation between reform and the traditional systems of power and faith, second, the radical enlightenment, inspired by the philosophy of Spinoza, advocating democracy, individual liberty, freedom of expression and eradication of religious authority. The moderate variety tended to be deistic, whereas the radical tendency separated the basis of morality from theology. Both lines of thought were opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment, which sought a return to faith. In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines and dogmas.
The philosophic movement was led by Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who argued for a society based upon reason as in ancient Greece rather than faith and Catholic doctrine, for a new civil order based on natural law, for science based on experiments and observation. The political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept, enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. While the Philosophes of the French Enlightenment were not revolutionaries and many were members of the nobility, their ideas played an important part in undermining the legitimacy of the Old Regime and shaping the French Revolution. Francis Hutcheson, a moral philosopher, described the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words, "the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers". Much of what is incorporated in the scientific method
Île de la Cité
The Île de la Cité is one of two remaining natural islands in the Seine within the city of Paris. It is the location where the medieval city was refounded; the western end has held a palace since Merovingian times, its eastern end since the same period has been consecrated to religion after the 10th-century construction of a cathedral preceding today's Notre-Dame. The land between the two was, until the 1850s residential and commercial, but has since been filled by the city's Prefecture de Police, Palais de Justice, Hôtel-Dieu hospital, Tribunal de commerce. Only the westernmost and northeastern extremities of the island remain residential today, the latter preserves some vestiges of its 16th-century canon's houses; as of 2013, the island's population was 981. The Mémorial des Martyrs de la Déportation, a memorial to the 200,000 people deported from Vichy France to the Nazi concentration camps during the Second World War, is located at the upriver end of the island. In 52 BC, at the time of Vercingetorix's struggle with Julius Caesar, the island may have been a fortified crossing point held by the Parisii, a small Gallic tribe.
At that time, the island was a low-lying area subject to flooding that offered a convenient place to cross the Seine and a refuge in times of invasion. After the conquest of the Celts, the Roman Labienus developed a settlement on the slopes above the Left Bank, where Roman Lutetia was established; the Emperor Julian, in Gaul from 355 to 361, described Lutetia as "a small island lying in the river. Clovis established a Merovingian palace on the island, which became the capital of Merovingian Neustria; the island remained an important political centre throughout the Middle Ages. Odo used the island as a defensive position to fend off Viking attacks at the Siege of Paris in 885-86, in the 10th century, a cathedral was built on the island. From early times wooden bridges linked the island to the riverbanks on either side, the Grand Pont spanning the wider reach to the Right Bank, the Petit Pont spanning the narrower crossing to the Left Bank; the first bridge rebuilt in stone was at the site of the present Pont Saint-Michel, but ice floes carried it away with the houses, built on it in 1408.
The Grand Pont or Pont Notre-Dame swept away at intervals by floodwaters, the Petit Pont, were rebuilt by Fra Giovanni Giocondo at the beginning of the 16th century. The six arches of the Pont Notre-Dame supported gabled houses, some of half-timbered construction, until all were demolished in 1786; the Île de la Cité remains the heart of Paris. All road distances in France are calculated from the 0 km point located in the Place du Parvis de Notre-Dame, the square facing Notre-Dame's pair of western towers; the Pont Neuf, the "new bridge", now the oldest bridge in Paris, was completed by Henry IV, who inaugurated it in 1607. The bronze equestrian statue of Henry IV was commissioned from Giambologna under the orders of Marie de Medici, Henry's widow and Regent of France, in 1614. After his death, Giambologna's assistant Pietro Tacca completed the statue, erected on its pedestal by Pietro Francavilla in 1618, it was destroyed in 1792 during the French Revolution, but was remade from surviving casts in 1818.
The sculpture rose from the river on its own foundations, abutting the bridge. The Place Dauphine, laid out in 1609 while the Place des Vosges was still under construction and named for the Dauphin of France, the future Louis XIII, was among the earliest city-planning projects of Henry IV; the space a triangle because of its promontory location, was made over to Achille de Harlay for development. Twelve lots were sold, forty-five irregularly sized houses were constructed behind a standardised façade; the houses were built of brick with limestone quoins supported on arcaded stone ground floors and capped by steep slate roofs with dormers like the contemporaneous façades of Place des Vosges. There were two entrances to the Place Dauphine, one at the "downstream" point, through a kind of gateway centred on paired pavilions facing the equestrian statue of Henry IV on the far side of the Pont Neuf, the second in the centre of the eastern range. Badly damaged during the turmoil of the Paris Commune of 1871, the eastern range was swept away in 1872 to open the view to the monumental white marble Second Empire Palais de Justice, like a glazed colonnade centred on the Place Dauphine, the remains of which now form a kind of forecourt to it.
Few visitors penetrate the Place Dauphine, which lies behind them, where all the other buildings have been raised in height, given new façades, rebuilt or replaced with heightened pastiches of the originals. Three medieval buildings remain on the Île de la Cité: Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, built from 1163 on the site of a church dedicated to Saint Étienne, which in turn occupied a sacred pagan site of Roman times. During the French Revolution the cathedral was badly damaged restored by Viollet-le-Duc. Louis IX's Sainte-Chapelle, built as a reliquary to house the Crown of Thorns and a piece of the True Cross, enclosed within the mid-19th century Palais de Justice. Conciergerie prison, where Marie
Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism in a weakened or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. In stimulating the body's adaptive immunity, they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease; when a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. The effectiveness of vaccination has been studied and verified. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Smallpox was most the first disease people tried to prevent by inoculation and was the first disease for which a vaccine was produced; the smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 by English physician Edward Jenner and, although at least six people had used the same principles years earlier, he was the first to publish evidence that it was effective and to provide advice on its production. Louis Pasteur furthered the concept through his work in microbiology.
The immunization was called vaccination. Smallpox was a contagious and deadly disease, causing the deaths of 20–60% of infected adults and over 80% of infected children; when smallpox was eradicated in 1979, it had killed an estimated 300–500 million people in the 20th century. Vaccination and immunization have a similar meaning in everyday language; this is distinct from inoculation. Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy on scientific, political, medical safety, religious grounds. In the United States, people may receive compensation for those injuries under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Early success brought widespread acceptance, mass vaccination campaigns have reduced the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions. Vaccines are a way of artificially activating the immune system to protect against infectious disease; the activation occurs through priming the immune system with an immunogen. Stimulating immune responses with an infectious agent is known as immunization.
Vaccination includes various ways of administering immunogens. Most vaccines are administered before a patient has contracted a disease to help increase future protection. However, some vaccines are administered after the patient has contracted a disease. Vaccines given after exposure to smallpox are reported to offer some protection from disease or may reduce the severity of disease; the first rabies immunization was given by Louis Pasteur to a child after he was bitten by a rabid dog. Since its discovery, the rabies vaccine have been proven effective in preventing rabies in humans when administered several times over 14 days along with rabies immune globulin and wound care. Other examples include cancer and Alzheimer's disease vaccines; such immunizations aim to trigger an immune response more and with less harm than natural infection. Most vaccines are given by injection. Live attenuated polio, some typhoid, some cholera vaccines are given orally to produce immunity in the bowel. While vaccination provides a lasting effect, it takes several weeks to develop.
This differs from passive immunity has immediate effect. A vaccine failure is. Primary vaccine failure occurs when an organism's immune system does not produce antibodies when first vaccinated. Vaccines can fail to produce an immune response; the term "vaccine failure" does not imply that the vaccine is defective. Most vaccine failures are from individual variations in immune response; the term inoculation is used interchangeably with vaccination. However, some argue. Dr Byron Plant explains: "Vaccination is the more used term, which consists of a'safe' injection of a sample taken from a cow suffering from cowpox... Inoculation, a practice as old as the disease itself, is the injection of the variola virus taken from a pustule or scab of a smallpox sufferer into the superficial layers of the skin on the upper arm of the subject. Inoculation was done'arm to arm' or less effectively'scab to arm'..." Inoculation oftentimes caused the patient to become infected with smallpox, in some cases the infection turned into a severe case.
Vaccinations began in the 18th century with the work of the smallpox vaccine. Just like any medication or procedure, no vaccine can be 100% safe or effective for everyone because each person's body can react differently. While minor side effects, such as soreness or low grade fever, are common, serious side effects are rare and occur in about 1 out of every 100,000 vaccinations and involve allergic reactions that can cause hives or difficulty breathing. However, vaccines are the safest they have been in history and each vaccine undergoes rigorous clinical trials to ensure their safety and efficacy before FDA approval. Prior to human testing, vaccines are run through computer algorithms to model how they will interact with the immune system and are tested on cells in a culture. During the next round of testing, researchers study vaccines in animal, including mice, guinea pigs, monkeys. Vaccines that pass each of these stages of testing are approved by the FDA to start a three-phase series of hu
A health system sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations. There is a wide variety of health systems around the world, with as many histories and organizational structures as there are nations. Implicitly, nations must design and develop health systems in accordance with their needs and resources, although common elements in all health systems are primary healthcare and public health measures. In some countries, health system planning is distributed among market participants. In others, there is a concerted effort among governments, trade unions, religious organizations, or other co-ordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve. However, health care planning has been described as evolutionary rather than revolutionary; the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system, is promoting a goal of universal health care: to ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.
According to WHO, healthcare systems' goals are good health for the citizens, responsiveness to the expectations of the population, fair means of funding operations. Progress towards them depends on how systems carry out four vital functions: provision of health care services, resource generation and stewardship. Other dimensions for the evaluation of health systems include quality, efficiency and equity, they have been described in the United States as "the five C's": Cost, Consistency and Chronic Illness. Continuity of health care is a major goal. Health system has been defined with a reductionist perspective, for example reducing it to healthcare system. In many publications, for example, both expressions are used interchangeably; some authors have developed arguments to expand the concept of health systems, indicating additional dimensions that should be considered: Health systems should not be expressed in terms of their components only, but of their interrelationships. The World Health Organization defines health systems as follows: A health system consists of all organizations and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health.
This includes efforts to influence determinants of health as well as more direct health-improving activities. A health system is therefore more than the pyramid of publicly owned facilities that deliver personal health services, it includes, for example, a mother caring for a sick child at home. It includes inter-sectoral action by health staff, for example, encouraging the ministry of education to promote female education, a well known determinant of better health. Healthcare providers are individuals providing healthcare services. Individuals including health professionals and allied health professions can be self-employed or working as an employee in a hospital, clinic, or other health care institution, whether government operated, private for-profit, or private not-for-profit, they may work outside of direct patient care such as in a government health department or other agency, medical laboratory, or health training institution. Examples of health workers are doctors, midwives, paramedics, medical laboratory technologists, psychologists, chiropractors, community health workers, traditional medicine practitioners, others.
There are five primary methods of funding health systems: general taxation to the state, county or municipality national health insurance voluntary or private health insurance out-of-pocket payments donations to charitiesMost countries' systems feature a mix of all five models. One study based on data from the OECD concluded that all types of health care finance "are compatible with" an efficient health system; the study found no relationship between financing and cost control. The term health insurance is used to describe a form of insurance that pays for medical expenses, it is sometimes used more broadly to include insurance covering disability or long-term nursing or custodial care needs. It may be provided from private insurance companies, it may be purchased by individual consumers. In each case premiums or taxes protect the insured from unexpected health care expenses. By estimating the overall cost of health care expenses, a routine finance structure can be developed, ensuring that money is available to pay for the health care benefits specified in the insurance agreement.
The benefit is administered by a government agency, a non-profit health fund or a