A prefect in France is the State's representative in a department or region. Sub-prefects are responsible for the subdivisions of arrondissements; the office of a prefect is known as that of a sub-prefect as a subprefecture. Prefects are appointed by a decree of the President of the Republic in the Council of Ministers, following the proposal of the Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior, they can be replaced at any meeting of the Council. From 1982 to 1988 prefects were called commissaires de la République and the sub-prefects commissaires adjoints de la République; the main role of the prefects are defined in article 72 of the Constitution of France: In the local governments of the Republic, the representative of the State, representing each member of the Government, is in charge of national interests, of administrative checks, the respect of Law. The exact role and attributions are defined in decrees, most notably decrees of 1964, 1982, 2004, each replacing the preceding one; the prefect of the département containing the chef-lieu de région is the préfet de région, or the prefect of the région.
Prefects operate under the Minister of the Interior. Their main missions include. Representing the state to local governments. Prefects may issue administrative orders in areas falling within the competency of the national government, including general safety. For instance, they may prohibit the use of certain roads without special tyres in times of snow; the prohibition on smoking or leaving the motor running while filling the fuel tank of a motor vehicle is another example of a matter decided by a prefectoral administrative order. On official occasions, prefects wear uniforms. Prefects had extensive powers of supervision and control over departmental affairs; this was true during the First and Second Empires, when the most trivial local matter had to be referred to the prefect. Since 1982, local government has been progressively decentralized, the prefect's role has been limited to preventing local policies from conflicting with national policy. In New Caledonia and French Polynesia, the prefect's roles, with certain differences in status, are fulfilled by a high commissioner.
The French Southern and Antarctic Lands used to be run by a superior administrator, but since 2004 are run by a prefect. The prefect, however, is not in Réunion. Paris, both a city and a department, is an exception. While it has a prefect, prefect of the Île-de-France region, another prefect handles law enforcement in Paris and some surrounding areas, as well many other administrative duties: the Prefect of Police of Paris. In Paris, the law enforcement powers exercised in other French cities and towns by the mayor belong to the Prefect of Police. In 2012, a Prefecture of Police of the Bouches-du-Rhône was created, seated at Marseille, with similar powers; the authority of the state over the sea is exercised by the Maritime Prefect of the relevant region. In Québec, a prefect is an unelected administrator of a Municipalité régionale de comté. There is no equivalent of French arrondissements, instead, the word "arrondissement" always refers to a submunicipal division with an elected leader. Decree of March 14, 1964, regarding the powers of prefects Decree of May 10, 1982, regarding the powers of prefects Decree of April 29, 2004, regarding the powers of prefects Prefect Prefectures in France
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Palais Rohan, Strasbourg
The Palais Rohan in Strasbourg is the former residence of the prince-bishops and cardinals of the House of Rohan, an ancient French noble family from Brittany. It is a major architectural and cultural landmark in the city, it was built next to Strasbourg Cathedral in the 1730s, from designs by Robert de Cotte, is considered a masterpiece of French Baroque architecture. Since its completion in 1742, the palace has hosted a number of French monarchs such as Louis XV, Marie Antoinette and Joséphine, Charles X. Reflecting the history of Strasbourg and of France, the palace has been owned successively by the nobility, the municipality, the monarchy, the state, the university, the municipality again, its architectural conception and its iconography were intended to indicate the return of Roman Catholicism to the city, dominated by Protestantism for the previous two centuries. Thus the prelate's apartments face the cathedral, to the north, many of the statues and paintings reflect the Catholic dogma.
Since the end of the 19th century the palace has been home to three of Strasbourg's most important museums: the Archaeological Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts and the Museum of Fine Arts. The municipal art gallery, Galerie Robert Heitz, in a lateral wing of the palace, is used for temporary exhibitions; the Palais Rohan has been listed since 1920 as a Monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. In 1727 Armand Gaston Maximilien de Rohan, bishop of Strasbourg since 1704 and cardinal since 1712, commissioned the architect Robert de Cotte to design the palace. Seven years prior, in 1720, Cardinal de Rohan had charged de Cotte with renovation and embellishment works on his castle in Saverne, the predecessor of the current Rohan Castle. De Cotte had previously designed the Hôtel du grand Doyenné, the first hôtel particulier in Louis Quinze style built in Strasbourg; the Palais Rohan was built on the site of the former residence of the bishop, the "bishop's demesne", recorded since at least 1262.
The area itself is near the heart of the ancient Argentoratum, first mentioned in 12 BC. Diverse archaeological excavations on Place du Château, the square facing the palace, have unearthed many remains of the Roman camp. Building work on the Palais Rohan took place from 1732 until 1742 under the supervision of the municipal architect Joseph Massol, who worked on the Hôtel de Hanau and the Hôtel de Klinglin during the early years of the project. Massol was assisted by the architects Laurent Étienne Le Chevalier; the sculptures, including statues as well as reliefs, were provided by Robert Le Lorrain, assisted by Johann August Nahl, Gaspard Pollet, Laurent Leprince, the paintings by Pierre Ignace Parrocel and Robert de Séry. The ébéniste Bernard Kocke and the ironworkers and locksmiths Jean-François Agon and his son Antoine Agon worked on the furnishings of the apartments, while the stucco was the work of the Italians Castelli and Morsegno. A budget of 344,000 French livres had been established for the construction – 200,000 livres lent from the Cathedral chapter and 144,000 raised as local taxes over a period of twelve years – but the final cost is estimated at one million French livres.
The palace is built in yellow sandstone from Wasselonne, with pink sandstone for the less visible parts. The House of Rohan owned the palace until the French Revolution, when it was confiscated, declared bien national, auctioned off on 8 August 1791. Bought by the municipality, it became the new town hall the same year. Much of the furniture and many of the works of art in the Palais were sold, in 1793 the eight life-sized mural portraits of prince-bishops decorating the Salle des évêques were destroyed, they were replaced in 1796 by allegories of civic virtues painted by Joseph Melling. Only the portrait of Armand Gaston, the builder of the palace, was restored to its original place with a 1982 replica of Hyacinthe Rigaud's lost painting. Melling replaced the overdoor portraits of kings of France, decorating the same room with paintings of vases; the Palais Rohan remained the hôtel de ville until 1805. That year, the municipality presented it to Napoleon. Like the palace, the hôtel had been state-owned since the Revolution.
The 1805 arrangement proved favourable for the municipality: the maintenance of the Hôtel de Hanau was less costly than that of the larger Palais Rohan. It pleased Napoleon; as for the palace, imperial ownership meant renewed splendour. The present to Napoleon was accepted by decree on 21 January 1806. In the years before the Franco-Prussian War and the return of Alsace to Germany, the Palais Rohan was the property of the French state, in turn an empire, a kingdom, a monarchy, a republic, again an empire; the year 1871 signified the end of French rule and the beginning of German rule over Alsace, which had until 1681 been linked to Germany through the Holy Roman Empire. Having lost the Franco-Prussian War, France had to cede the departments of Bas-Rhin, Haut-Rhin, Moselle to the newly created German Empire. Now under new administration and having lost its residential purpose, the Palais Rohan had to be assigned a new role. Between 1872 and 1884, until the opening of the Palais
Hôtel des Deux-Ponts
The Hôtel des Deux-Ponts known as the Hôtel Gayot and as the Hôtel du gouverneur militaire, is a historic building located on Place Broglie on the Grande Île in the city center of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin. It has been classified as a Monument historique since 1921; the Hôtel des Deux-Ponts is used as the official residence of the military governor of Strasbourg. The Hôtel was designed as a hôtel particulier for the brothers, royal moneylenders François-Marie Gayot and Félix-Anne Gayot and built in 1754-55 featuring a courtyard, two ornate façades, a grand portal and a French garden. In 1770, it was sold by François-Marie Gayot to count palatine Christian IV of Zweibrücken. Maximilian Joseph of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, the future King Maximilian I of Bavaria lived there from 1770 until 1790, his son and successor on the Bavarian throne, Ludwig I of Bavaria, was born in this palace on 25 August 1786. The hôtel became state-owned in the wake of the French Revolution in 1791 and has served as the official residence for military governors and chiefs of staff since, including during the periods when Strasbourg was a German town again.
It is not open for tourists apart on special days such as European Heritage Days. Media related to Hôtel des Deux-Ponts at Wikimedia Commons Hôtel du gouverneur militaire - place Broglie on archi-wiki.org Recht, Roland.
Place de la République (Strasbourg)
Place de la République is one of the main squares of the city of Strasbourg, France. It is surrounded on three sides by five buildings only, of which none is residential: the Palais du Rhin, the National and University Library, the Théâtre national de Strasbourg, the Préfecture of Grand Est and Bas-Rhin, the tax center Hôtel des impôts. All of these buildings are classified as monuments historiques; the fourth side of the square is devoid of buildings. Place de la République is a square surrounding a circular public garden crossed by a north-west and a south-east axis. In the centre of the square stands a War memorial statue by Léon-Ernest Drivier, inaugurated in 1936, it represents a mother holding two dead sons, alluding to the dual nature of Strasbourg's History between Germany and France. The memorial replaces an equestrian statue of Emperor Wilhelm I, commissioned in 1897, that stood on the square from 1911 until 1918. Place de la République was designed by architect Jean-Geoffroy Conrath as the conspicuous and grandiose entrance of the "Neustadt" opposite the ancient Grande Île city center on the other side of the Ill.
The layout and construction of the square began in 1880. It was called Kaiserplatz. Ginkgo biloba trees, which were presented by Emperor Meiji of Japan to his German counterpart, were planted in the central garden in the 1880s; the area was occupied by a section of the city walls, which were demolished after the Franco-Prussian War. An ancient Jewish cemetery was located on grounds near to the river; the former Imperial Palace is surrounded by its own garden, separated from the square by a monumental wrought iron fence. The Palace, a solemn Neorenaissance building crowned with a heavy dome, was built from 1884 until 1887 by Hermann Eggert, it is used as the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine since 1920 and houses the Direction régionale des affaires culturelles of Grand Est. It is classified as a monument historique since 1993; the building now housing the Théâtre national de Strasbourg was built as the seat of the Parliament of Alsace-Lorraine. It was designed by August Hartel and Skjold Neckelmann in a radically different Neorenaissance style than Hermann Eggert's, built in 1888–1889.
It is classified as a monument historique since 1992. The Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire was built from 1889 until 1895 in the Neorenaissance style, again by Hartel and Neckelmann, it is classified as a monument historique since 2004. This Baroque Revival building was built from 1899 until 1902 by Ludwig Levy, the architect of the Great Synagogue of Strasbourg, it was used as the seat of several ministries: agriculture and finances. It is classified as a monument historique since 1996; the Préfecture de la région Grand-Est et du département du Bas-Rhin was built from 1907 until 1911, based on designs by Ludwig Levy. The façade was decorated with statues of lions by Alfred Marzolff; the building housed ministries of Alsace-Lorraine. It is a more austere example of Baroque Revival architecture than its older counterpart, it is classified as a monument historique since 1996. A work of art called Spirale Aby Warburg, le monument aux vivants by Luxemburgish artist Bert Theis was installed on the square in 2002.
It is used as a bench. Place de la République and the Grande Île city center are connected by the stone arch bridge Pont du Théâtre; that bridge was reinforced with concrete and modified in 1999–2000 in order to allow for the passage of the tramway. As of 2017, Place de la République is served by the Strasbourg tramway lines B, C, E and F, by the CTS buses 15a and 72. Place de la République on archi-wiki.org
An hôtel particulier is a townhouse of a grand sort, comparable to the British townhouse. Whereas an ordinary maison was built as part of a row, sharing party walls with the houses on either side and directly fronting on a street, an hôtel particulier was free-standing, by the 18th century it would always be located entre cour et jardin: between the cour d'honneur and the garden behind. There are hôtels particuliers in many large cities in France; the word hôtel represents the Old French hostel, particulier means "personal" or "private". The English word hotel developed a more specific meaning as a commercial building accommodating travellers, modern French uses hôtel for hotels in this sense. For example, the Hôtel de Crillon on the Place de la Concorde was built as an hôtel particulier and is today a public hotel. In French, an hôtel de ville or mairie is a town hall. Other official bodies might give their name to the structure in which they maintained a seat: aside from Paris, several other French cities have an Hôtel de Cluny, maintained by the abbey of Cluny.
The Hôtel de Sens was built as the Paris residence of the archbishop of Sens. Hôtel-Dieu is the old name given to the principal hospital in French towns, such as the Hôtel-Dieu de Beaune; the Hôtel des Invalides retains its early sense of a hospital for war wounded. In Aix-en-Provence: In Blois: In Paris: In Rennes: In Toulouse: In Vesoul: Château Mansion Single-family detached home Monographs have been published on some outstanding Parisian hôtels particuliers; the classic photographic survey, now a rare book found only in large art libraries, is the series Les Vieux Hotels de Paris by J. Vacquer, published in the teens and twenties of the 20th century, which takes Paris quarter by quarter and which illustrates many hôtels particuliers that were demolished during the 20th century. Blanc, Olivier, Hôtels particuliers de Paris Caylux, Odile et al. Les Hôtels particuliers d'Arles Coquery, Natacha, L’hôtel aristocratique. Le marché du luxe à Paris au XVIIIe siècle, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1998 Courtin, Nicolas, L'Art d'habiter à Paris au XVIIe siècle: L'ameublement des hôtels particuliers, Faton, 2011 Cros, Philippe,Hôtels particuliers de France Gady, Les Hôtels particuliers de Paris, du Moyen-Âge à la Belle époque, Parigramme, 2007 Naudin, Jean-Baptiste et al.
Hôtels particuliers de Paris: Visite privée. Papillault, Remi Les hôtels particuliers du XVIe siècle à Toulouse Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Faubourg Saint-Germain Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Faubourg Saint-Honoré Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Ministère de la Marine Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Quartier Saint-Paul Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library. Les Vieux Hotels de Paris, Le Temple et le Marais Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Digital Library
Louise Weiss was a French author, journalist and European politician. Louise Weiss came from a cosmopolitan family of Alsace, her father, Paul Louis Weiss, a mining engineer, was a distinguished Alsatian Protestant from La Petite-Pierre. The ancestors of her Jewish mother, Jeanne Javal, originated from the small Alsatian town of Seppois-le-Bas, she grew up in Paris with five siblings, was trained as a teacher against the will of her family, was a teacher at a secondary school for arts and awarded a degree from Oxford University. From 1914 to 1918, she founded a hospital in the Côtes-du-Nord. From 1918 to 1934, she was the publisher of L'Europe nouvelle. From 1935 to the beginning of World War II, she committed herself to women's suffrage. In 1936, she stood for French parliamentary elections. During the War, she was active in the French Resistance, she claimed. She was chief editor of the secret magazine, "Nouvelle République" from 1942 until 1944. In 1945, she founded the Institute for Polemology together with Gaston Bouthoul in London.
She travelled around the Middle East, China, Africa, Madagascar, India, etc. made documentary films and wrote accounts of her travels. In 1975, she unsuccessfully tried twice to be admitted to the Académie Française. In 1979, she became a Member of the European Parliament for the Gaullist Party. During World War I, she published her first press reports under a pseudonym. In Paris, she came in contact with her first great loves, representatives of countries striving for independence, such as Eduard Beneš, Tomáš Masaryk and Milan Štefánik. Between 1919 and 1939, she travelled to Czechoslovakia. In 1918, she founded the weekly newspaper, Europe nouvelle, which she published until 1934. Thomas Mann, Gustav Stresemann, Rudolf Breitscheid and Aristide Briand were among her co-authors on the paper. Louise Weiss described those who paved the way for the closening of the German-French relationship between the World Wars as "peace pilgrims", they called their important co-worker "my good Louise". Europe dreamed of unification and in 1930, she founded the "Ecole de la Paix", a private institute for international relations.
With the takeover by the National Socialists in Germany, the possibility of a unification was over. In 1979, Louise Weiss stood as a candidate of the Gaullist Party in the first European election in 1979. On 17 July 1979 she was elected as a French Member of the European Parliament, sitting with the European People's Party. At the time of the first election, aged 86, she was the oldest member in Parliament and thus the EP's first'oldest member', she remained MEP and oldest member until her death on 26 May 1983, aged 90. The main parliament building in Strasbourg bears her name. In 1934, she founded the association, La femme nouvelle with Cécile Brunsvicg, she strove for a stronger role of women in public life, she participated in campaigns for the right of women to vote in France, organised suffragette commands and had herself chained to a street light in Paris with other women. In 1935, she unsuccessfully sued against the "inability of women to vote" before the French Conseil d'État. La République Tchécoslovaque, 1919 Milan Stefanik, Prague 1920 Souvenirs d'une enfance républicaine, Paris, 1937 Ce que femme veut, Paris, 1946 Mémoires d'une Européenne, Paris 1968-1976 Délivrance, Paris 1936 La Marseillaise, Vol.
I and II Paris, 1945. A street in the 12e arrondissement in Paris is named for her. A primary school built by Fritz Beblo in Strasbourg-Neudorf now bears her name. Honorary member of the Upper University Council in Strasbourg. Winner of the Robert Schuman Prize Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor Each year, the Louise Weiss Foundation awards a prize to the author or the institution which has contributed the most to the advancement of the science of peace, the improvement of human relations and efforts of benefit to Europe. Florence Hervé: Frauengeschichten - Frauengesichter, Vol. 4, trafo verlag 2003, 150 pp. illustrated, ISBN 3-89626-423-0 French biography The Louise Weiss Museum in Rohan Castle, Saverne Louise Weiss in the German National Library catalogue Louise Weiss on IMDb L'Association des Journalistes Européens has organized the Louise Weiss prize for European journalism every year since 2005. Vicki Caron, Biography of Louise Weiss, Jewish Women Encyclopedia