Church of Saint-Bruno des Chartreux
The Church of Saint-Bruno des Chartreux is a Roman Catholic church located in Lyon, France. Until the French Revolution, it was the church of Lyon Charterhouse, the cathedral is dedicated to Saint Bruno of Cologne, known as Saint Bruno of the Carthusians, and is the citys only Baroque church. The first monastic communities here were established by Carthusian monks from Grenoble and they initially came to help the clergy of Lyon when the city was pillaged by Forez Guy in the 12th century and obtained privileges such as an exemption from tolls on their journeys to Lyon. On a visit by King Henri III in August 1584, however and they were successful, and the king pledged 30,000 livres for its construction and chose its name, Chartreuse du Lys St Esprit. Contrary to what might be supposed, their extension of their property bore no relation to an expansion in their numbers, instead they related the expansion of their estate to their monastic rule, they were eliminating all their neighbours so as better to live their life of solitary contemplation.
It took six years after the gift for the first stone of the church to be laid. Finally and extensions occurred during the 19th century, mainly affecting the chapels, the choir now has only 5 windows, after several were blocked up during the second phase of works by the architect Ferdinand-Sigismond Delamonce in 1733-37. The Rococo stalls found here show reversed volutes and garlands of foliage as well as asymmetrical shells, typical of the 17th century Baroque style, the 1628 statues now located on the pilasters of the Munet arch were originally in the choir. They are by Sarazin and represent Saint Bruno of Cologne and Saint John the Baptist, the drapery of these figures is dynamically carved, and their thin faces and tense eyes add to their pathetic expressions. Today the church organ is located in the choir, but the church has only had one since 1890. It is now known as the best of the keyboards in Lyon. Before 1890 the austerity of the Carthusian Rule made for an austere liturgy unadorned by organ music, the offices were celebrated in the choir until 1737, when it was separated from the rest of the church for building works by a partition.
It thus unites the three persons of the Holy Trinity, the transition between the choir and the crossing is formed by the Munet arch, built by the architect Melchior Munet in the 18th century. It is supported by powerful deflecting pillars in the Baroque style, here there are two nested pilasters of the Doric Order, whose niches are now occupied by the Sarazin statues. The tabernacle was originally decorated with stones, but these disappeared during the Revolution. The 18th century baldachino is by Servandoni, one of the most beautiful examples in France, it aims to magnify the presence of Christ in the Eucharist and in effect to form a hyper-tabernacle around the Host. Its columns are of marble, whilst the capitals are wooden but stuccoed with powdered marble and powdered chalk to imitate marble. On top of the baldachino are a globe and a cross, both in copper gilded with gold leaf, and drapery made of cloth dipped in liquid plaster and painted gold before drying
Henry IV of France
Henry IV, known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne dAlbret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, and led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a direct descendant of Louis IX of France. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589 and he initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear Frances crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era.
Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants and he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, an unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henrys popularity greatly improved after his death, in light of repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The Good King Henry was remembered for his geniality and his concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri, Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn. His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion, on 9 June 1572, upon his mothers death, he became King of Navarre.
At Queen Joans death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II, the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre began in Paris, several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henrys wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and he was made to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and he named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years, Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Because Henry of Navarre was the senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice
Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls
In 1961, it was classified as monument historique. The amphitheatre was built at the foot of the La Croix-Rousse hill at what was the confluence of the Rhône and Saône. D S. P. FECERVNT Which can be completed as /e Ti Caesaris Avg amphitheatr / pod/io C Ivl C f Rvfvs sacerdos Romae et Avg / filii f et nepos ex civitate Santon d s p fecervnt, for the safety of Tiberius Caesar Augustus, C. Julius Rufus, citizen of the city of Santons, priest of Rome and of Augustus, his son and grandson built this amphitheatre and this dates the building to 19 A. D. The figures who financed its construction belonged to an old Gallic family in Saintes which had held Roman citizenship since the Gallic Wars and built the arch of Germanicus there. The curious formula filii f perhaps derives from a wish to affirm the antiquity and continuity of the lineage, as on the arch of Germanicus. Other stones bear the names of Gallic tribes confirming its identification as federal sanctuary, excavations have revealed a basement of three elliptical walls linked by cross-walls and a channel surrounding the oval central arena.
The arena was slightly sloped, with the south part supported by a now-vanished vault. The arenas dimensions are 67. 6m by 42m, analogous to those at the arenas at Nîmes and Arles and this phase of the amphitheatre housed games which accompanied the imperial cult, with its low capacity being enough for delegations from the 60 Gallic tribes. The amphitheatre was expanded at the start of the 2nd century, julius Celse, procurator of Gallia Lugdunensis from 130 to 136. Two galleries were added around the old amphitheatre, raising its width from 25 metres to 105 metres, in so doing it made it a building open to the whole population of Lugdunum and its environs. A 16th century plan of Lyon indicates the survival to that date of some arches, from 1956 serious excavations were begun, followed by 1966/67, 1971/72 and 1976/78 campaigns, leading to the exposed remains on show today. The modest remains which had survived were integrated into the Jardin des Plantes and opened to visitors
Rue du Sergent Blandan
The Rue du Sergent Blandan is one of the oldest streets of Lyon. It connects Saint Vincent and the slopes of the Croix-Rousse quarters, the street belongs to the zone classified World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It is named in honour of Sergent Blandan, who participated in the conquest of Algeria, the street is narrow and winding and ends with a short climb and a paved ground. For example, the doorstep at No.8 shows a fight between a lion and a bull. The No.12 and 22 have respectively ancient inscriptions that say en toy te fie and non domo dominus, sed domino domus, there was probably a Roman bridge, and a street name sign indicates that it is the ancient route of the Rhine. The current form of the dates back at least to the end of the seventeenth century. Until 1887, it was called rue Saint-Marcel, while the part near the Saône was called rue Musique des Anges, the name Saint-Marcel was chosen after a former anchorite and a former gate of the city. At the time, the street provided access to two major climbs to leave Lyon to the north, the de la Grande Côte.
There were two monasteries located in the street, the Benedictines of the Desert since 1296, and the Grands Augustins between 1319 and 1509, but these monasteries have moved. The street was named with its current name after the deliberation of the municipal council on 26 April 1887. In 1804, the first Jacquard loom was installed in the street, circa 1981, Radio Canut was housed at No.24. On 8 February 2005, the city of Lyon installed a plaque as tribute to Jewish children of the school who were deported and killed during the Second World War. Among the famous inhabitants of the street, there are the painters Jacques Collet and Jean Montet, the father of artist Paul Chenavard was dyer in the rue Saint-Marcel
Sanctuary of the Three Gauls
The Sanctuary of the Three Gauls was the focal structure within an administrative and religious complex established by Rome in the very late 1st century BC at Lugdunum. Its institution served to federalise and Romanise Gallia Comata as an Imperial province under Augustus, the distinctively Gallo-Roman development of the Imperial sanctuary and its surrounding complex are well attested by literary, epigraphic and archaeological evidence. The Imperial cult sanctuary at Lugdunum was the earliest and most important institution of its kind in the Western Roman empire and it was founded by Drusus in rapid response to a rebellion provoked by the census of Gallia Comata in 12 BC. As stepson to Augustus, Drusus represented the Imperial family and as provincial governor, the inaugural day of the sanctuary – August 1 of either 10 BC or 12 BC – was important to both Romans and Gauls. August – formerly Sextilis in the Roman calendar – had been renamed in honour of Augustus, in the Gallo-celtic calendar, the same day was sacred to the sun-god Lugh, who may have been venerated on the Fourvière hill at Lugdunum, though no temple has been found.
As a sun-god, Lugh could be identified with Roman Sol, Apollo, a foundation in 12 BC would have coincided with Augustus assumption of office as pontifex maximus. The ara was dedicated to Dea Roma and Augustus and its first high priest was Caius Julius Vercondaridubnus, a Gaul of the Aeduan elite. His name indicates his Roman citizenship and Gallic origins - his election to Imperial priesthood may confirm a preference based on his personal standing, Drusus invited 60 aristocratic delegates to the opening ceremony as representatives of the Three Gauls. These are presumed to be the first members of the official concilium Galliarum, the office of sacerdos required Roman citizenship but the early concilium combined citizen and non-citizens. The sacredos would have been a person of great consequence within the concilium Galliarum and his influence would have extended well beyond his term of office, which was - unlike the lifetime priesthoods of Rome itself - limited to a single year. In effect, the priesthood provided an important step in the cursus honorum.
The concilia at Lugdunum were displays of loyalty and Romanisation and this calendrical gathering was accommodated by the building of a small amphitheatre, which was much expanded. Lugdunum was the site of a major Imperial mint, whose coinage provides a source of evidence for the form. The security requirement of the mint has been presumed to account for the presence of Lugdunums single military cohort, following his defeat of Clodius Albinus and his allies at Lugdunum, Septimius Severus re-founded and reformed its Imperial cult centre as an instrument of suppression and autocracy. The image of dea Roma was removed from the ara and confined to the temple, along with the images of the living, fishwick interprets the reformed rites of Septimius as those offered a Roman paterfamilias by his slaves. This development took place shortly after 198/9 AD and its duration and subsequent developments are unknown. The sanctuary was located on the hillside of la Croix-Rousse, the first and main altar can be reconstructed from texts and currency depictions.
Again, the temple that was dedicated to Caesar Augustus by all the Galatae in common is situated in front of city at the junction of the rivers
The Place Sathonay is a square located in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon, France, at the bottom of hill of La Croix-Rousse, in La Martinière quarter. It was named after Nicolas-Marie-Jean-Claude Fay de Sathonay, mayor of Lyon from 1805 to 1812, the square is currently the third largest square in Lyon and belongs to the zone classified as World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Before the deliberation of the council on 22 August 1817. According to the 1268 Tractatus de bellis, inhabitants of Lyon built fortifications in the Déserte to defend themselves from the ecclesiastical authority. In 1745, their possessions were composed of an area bounded by the Rue du Sergent Blandan, the Montée des Carmélites, the Rue du Bon Pasteur. From 1791, the property of religious congregations of the hill of La Croix-Rousse were sold, the first property auction was that of the Carthusians in September 1791. The gardens of the part were given free to the city by decrees of the representative of the people Poulin-Grandpré.
In 1802, this steepest part of the land to the north, was turned into a garden of plants, the southern part of the place was given to the city on 19 January 1818. The rest of the buildings now to the Department as a national property and was ceded to the Lyon city. Finally, the buildings were destroyed in 1813, excepted the building currently houses the City Hall of the arrondissement. In 1817, the municipal architect Louis Flachéron proposed to enlarge the square and it had an area of 4,000 m², and the stairs at the north of the square next to the city hall provided an access to the former garden of plants. Knight and Baron Antoine Fay, architect Louis Flacheron and lawyer Jean Pine des Granges lived on this square, circa 1830, an ancient Roman house with a bathroom and three mosaics was discovered at the corner of the rue Poivre. In 1830, houses with commercial or mixed use in 1820s-1830s buildings are composed of one or two rooms, but there were some commercial premises with seven-eight rooms.
The square was mainly inhabited by small traders and silk agents and professional life was often merged as 69. 2% of homes had both uses. Those who had a flat exclusively for housing on the place were mainly rentiers who generally lived at second, there was, at that time, none loom on the square. In 1831, the buildings at Nos.5 and 6 of the square were respectively the second and they were composed of 46 and 31 apartments with a total of 105 and 86 rooms. To the north, the square is opened by a called the montée de lAmphithéâtre. The side streets were built around 1820-1821, at the east and west, there are four buildings of four floors