Hỏa Lò Prison was a prison used by the French colonists in French Indochina for political prisoners, by North Vietnam for U. S. prisoners of war during the Vietnam War. During this period it was known to American POWs as the Hanoi Hilton; the prison was demolished during the 1990s. The name Hỏa Lò translated as "fiery furnace" or "Hell's hole" means "stove"; the name originated from the street name phố Hỏa Lò, due to the concentration of stores selling wood stoves and coal-fire stoves along the street in pre-colonial times. The prison was built in Hanoi by the French, in dates ranging from 1886–1889 to 1898 to 1901, when Vietnam was still part of French Indochina; the French called the prison Maison Centrale,'Central House', still the designation of prisons for dangerous or long sentence detainees in France. It was located near Hanoi's French Quarter, it was intended to hold Vietnamese prisoners political prisoners agitating for independence who were subject to torture and execution. A 1913 renovation expanded its capacity from 460 inmates to 600.
It was often overcrowded, holding some 730 prisoners on a given day in 1916, a figure which rose to 895 in 1922 and 1,430 in 1933. By 1954 it held more than 2000 people; the central urban location of the prison became part of its early character. During the 1910s through 1930s, street peddlers made an occupation of passing outside messages in through the jail's windows and tossing tobacco and opium over the walls. Within the prison itself and ideas passed. Many of the future leading figures in Communist North Vietnam spent time in Maison Centrale during the 1930s and 1940s. Following the defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and the 1954 Geneva Accords the French left Hanoi and the prison came under the authority of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Thereafter the prison served as an education center for revolutionary doctrine and activity, it was kept around after the French left to mark its historical significance to the North Vietnamese. During the Vietnam War, the first U. S. prisoner to be sent to Hỏa Lò was Lieutenant Junior Grade Everett Alvarez Jr., shot down on August 5, 1964.
From the beginning, U. S. POWs endured miserable conditions, including poor unsanitary conditions; the prison complex was sarcastically nicknamed the "Hanoi Hilton" by the American POWs, in reference to the well-known Hilton Hotel chain. There is some disagreement among the first group of POWs who coined the name but F8D pilot Bob Shumaker was the first to write it down, carving "Welcome to the Hanoi Hilton" on the handle of a pail to greet the arrival of Air Force Lieutenant Robert Peel. Beginning in early 1967, a new area of the prison was opened for incoming American POWs; these names were chosen because many pilots had trained at Nellis Air Force Base, located in proximity to Las Vegas. American pilots were already in bad shape by the time they were captured, injured either during their ejection or in landing on the ground; the Hanoi Hilton was one site used by the North Vietnamese Army to house and interrogate captured servicemen American pilots shot down during bombing raids. Although North Vietnam was a signatory of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949, which demanded "decent and humane treatment" of prisoners of war, severe torture methods were employed, such as rope bindings, irons and prolonged solitary confinement.
When prisoners of war began to be released from this and other North Vietnamese prisons during the Johnson administration, their testimonies revealed widespread and systematic abuse of prisoners of war. Regarding treatment at Hỏa Lò and other prisons, the North Vietnamese countered by stating that prisoners were treated well and in accordance with the Geneva Conventions. During 1969, they broadcast a series of coerced statements from American prisoners that purported to support this notion; the North Vietnamese maintained that their prisons were no worse than prisons for POWs and political prisoners in South Vietnam, such as the one on Côn Sơn Island. Mistreatment of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese prisoners and South Vietnamese dissidents in South Vietnam's prisons was indeed frequent, as was North Vietnamese abuse of South Vietnamese prisoners and their own dissidents. Beginning in late 1969, treatment of the prisoners at Hỏa Lò and other camps became less severe and more tolerable. Following the late 1970 attempted rescue operation at Sơn Tây prison camp, most of the POWs at the outlying camps were moved to Hỏa Lò, so that the North Vietnamese had fewer camps to protect.
This created the "Camp Unity" communal living area at Hỏa Lò, which reduced the isolation of the POWs and improved their morale. Everett Alvarez Jr. Mexican American, the 2nd longest held U. S. POW, enduring over 8 years of captivity John L. Borling, USAF pilot, POW for 6 1⁄2 years, retired Major General Charles G. Boyd, USAF pilot, POW for 7 years, retired General. George Thomas Coker, US Navy pilot Robert R. Craner, USAF fighter pilot Bud Day, USAF pilot, Medal of Honor and Air Force Cross recipient, political activist, was cellmates with McCain Jeremiah Denton, US Navy pilot, Senator Leon F. "Lee" Ellis, USAF fighter pilot, motivatio
The church of Our Lady of Guadalupe a Monte Mario is a place of Catholic worship in Rome, in the suburbs Della Vittoria, in the square Our Lady of Guadalupe. It was built between 1928 and 1932 by the Daughters of Mary Immaculate of Guadalupe and dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe, patroness of Mexico; the church was sold to the diocese of Rome, who transformed it into the parish: it was established June 22, 1936 with the decree of the Cardinal Vicar Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani Dominici Gregis. The church is home to the cardinal's title of "Our Lady of Guadalupe a Monte Mario", founded by Pope Paul VI April 29, 1969. Timothy M. Dolan is the incumbent cardinal-protector since 2012. On the high altar of the church is placed the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, the work of a Mexican priest donated to Pope Leo XIII in 1880 and donated in 1929 by Pius XI to Mexican nuns. Pius XII in 1955 proclaimed Our Lady of Guadalupe "Queen of labor": at that time the image was placed a crown, made by the engraver Guido Veroi.
The presbytery, of exquisite workmanship, is an altar made of perforated white marble. Pope Paul VI established it as a titular church on 30 April 1969. Miguel Darío Miranda y Gómez, 30 April 1969 appointed-15 March 1986 died Franz Hengsbach, 28 June 1988 appointed-24 June 1991 died Adolfo Antonio Suárez Rivera, 26 November 1994 appointed-22 March 2008 died Timothy M. Dolan, 18 February 2012 appointed- present Pope Paul VI established it as titular church Nostra Signora di Guadalupe a Monte Mario
Marcus James Marvell is a former English cricketer. Marvell was a right-handed batsman, he was born in Shropshire. Marvell made his debut for Shropshire in the 1994 Minor Counties Championship against Herefordshire but sprung to prominence with a hat-trick against Wales in the same season. Marvell played Minor counties cricket for Shropshire from 1994 to 2003, which included 32 Minor Counties Championship appearances and 17 MCCA Knockout Trophy appearances with a top score of 141 not out against Oxfordshire in 2001 and best bowling figures of 6–15 against Berkshire in 1995. While playing for Shropshire, he made his List A debut for the Minor Counties cricket team against Leicestershire in the 1996 Benson & Hedges Cup, he played a further match in that competition against Durham and was a part of the side that defeated the touring West Indies team at Reading Cricket Club on 13 July 1995. Success at this level earned him trials with Middlesex where he impressed against Sussex 2nd XI at Southgate Cricket Club on 26–28 June 1995 scoring an unbeaten century in the first innings and taking 5–34 in the second.
His displays for Middlesex led to further trials for Derbyshire and Gloucestershire, but to no full-time contract. His first List A match for Shropshire came in 2002 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy against Gloucestershire, he made 2 further limited-overs appearances for the county, against Buckinghamshire in the second round of the 2003 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy, played in 2002, Northumberland in the 1st round of the 2004 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy, played in 2003. In his career total of five List A matches, he scored 71 runs at an average of 17.25, with a high score of 26. With the ball, he took 2 wickets at a bowling average of 29.50, with best figures of 1/21. In 2004, Marvell joined Suffolk, making two Minor Counties Championship appearances and 3 MCCA Knockout Trophy appearances, he retired from Minor Counties cricket at the end of that season. Marvell had the distinction of captaining Shropshire at rugby between 2000–2001. Marcus Marvell at ESPNcricinfo Marcus Marvell at CricketArchive